List of materials properties

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A material's property (or material property) is an intensive property of some material, i.e. a physical property that does not depend on the amount of the material. These quantitative properties may be used as a metric by which the benefits of one material versus another can be compared, thereby aiding in materials selection.

A property may be a constant or may be a function of one or more independent variables, such as temperature. Materials properties often vary to some degree according to the direction in the material in which they are measured, a condition referred to as anisotropy. Materials properties that relate to different physical phenomena often behave linearly (or approximately so) in a given operating range[further explanation needed]. Modeling them as linear can significantly simplify the differential constitutive equations that the property describes.

Some materials are used in relevant equations to predict the attributes of a system a priori.

The properties are measured by standardized test methods. Many such methods have been documented by their respective user communities and published through the Internet; see ASTM International.

Acoustical properties[edit]

Atomic properties[edit]

Chemical properties[edit]

Electrical properties[edit]

Environmental properties[edit]

Magnetic properties[edit]

Manufacturing properties[edit]

Mechanical properties[edit]

  • Brittleness: Ability of a material to break or shatter without significant deformation when under stress; opposite of plasticity,examples:glass,concrete,cast iron,ceramics etc.
  • Bulk modulus: Ratio of pressure to volumetric compression (GPa) or ratio of the infinitesimal pressure increase to the resulting relative decrease of the volume. brass has highest bulk modulus of 116 GPa.
  • Coefficient of restitution:the ratio of the final to initial relative velocity between two objects after they collide. Range : 0-1, 1 for perfectly elastic collision.
  • Compressive strength: Maximum stress a material can withstand before compressive failure (MPa)
  • Creep: The slow and gradual deformation of an object with respect to time
  • Ductility: Ability of a material to deform under tensile load (% elongation)
  • Durability: Ability to withstand wear, pressure, or damage; hard-wearing.
  • Elasticity: Ability of a body to resist a distorting influence or stress and to return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed
  • Fatigue limit: Maximum stress a material can withstand under repeated loading (MPa)
  • Flexibility: Ability of an object to bend or deform in response to an applied force; pliability; complementary to stiffness
  • Flexural modulus
  • Flexural strength : The stresses in a material just before it yields.
  • Fracture toughness: Ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture (J/m^2)
  • Hardness: Ability to withstand surface indentation and scratching (e.g. Brinnell hardness number)
  • Plasticity: Ability of a material to undergo irreversible or permanent deformations without breaking or rupturing; opposite of brittleness
  • Poisson's ratio: Ratio of lateral strain to axial strain (no units)
  • Resilience: Ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically (MPa); combination of strength and elasticity
  • Shear modulus: Ratio of shear stress to shear strain (MPa)
  • Shear strength: Maximum shear stress a material can withstand
  • Size
  • Slip: A tendency of a material's particles to undergo plastic deformation due to a dislocation motion within the material. Common in Crystals.
  • Specific modulus: Modulus per unit volume (MPa/m^3)
  • Specific strength: Strength per unit density (Nm/kg)
  • Specific weight: Weight per unit volume (N/m^3)
  • Stiffness: Ability of an object to resist deformation in response to an applied force; rigidity; complementary to flexibility
  • Surface roughness:the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form.
  • Tensile strength: Maximum tensile stress of a material can withstand before failure (MPa)
  • Toughness: Ability of a material to absorb energy (or withstand shock) and plastically deform without fracturing (or rupturing); a material's resistance to fracture when stressed; combination of strength and plasticity
  • Viscosity: A fluid's resistance to gradual deformation by tensile or shear stress; thickness
  • Yield strength: The stress at which a material starts to yield plastically (MPa)
  • Young's modulus: Ratio of linear stress to linear strain (MPa)
  • Strength of materials (relation of various strengths)

Optical properties[edit]

Radiological properties[edit]

Thermal properties[edit]

See also[edit]