List of mayors of New York City
The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of New York City's government, as stipulated by New York City's charter. The current mayor, the 109th in the sequence of regular mayors, is Bill de Blasio, a Democrat.
During the Dutch colonial period from 1624 to 1664, New Amsterdam was governed by the Director of New Netherland. The office of Mayor of New York was established in 1665 and were appointed by colonial governors until 1777. The year prior, New York was run by Richard Nicolls, the British military governor of the Province of New York. Thomas Willett was the first person to be specifically appointed mayor.
Before 1898, the city included little beyond the island of Manhattan. The 1898 consolidation created the city as it is today with five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.
The longest-serving mayors have been Fiorello H. La Guardia (1934–1945), Robert F. Wagner, Jr. (1954–1965), Ed Koch (1978–1989), and Michael Bloomberg (2002–2013) each of whom was in office for twelve years (three successive 4-year terms). The shortest terms in office since 1834 have been those of acting mayors: Thomas Coman (five weeks from Monday, November 30, 1868, to Monday, January 4, 1869) and Samuel B. H. Vance (one month from November 30 to December 31, 1874), in addition to the purely nominal single day that William T. Collins served in 1925.
Every mayor so far has been white, with the solitary exception of David Dinkins (1990-1993), the city's first and only African American mayor. New York has not had a Hispanic or Latino mayor, with the possible exception of John Purroy Mitchel (1914-1917), who was of Spanish descent and whose grandfather was born in Venezuela. New York's mayors have been religiously diverse; the city has had Protestant, Jewish, and Catholic mayors. No woman has ever served as mayor of New York City.
Before 1680, mayors served one-year terms. As of 1680, they served two-year terms. Exceptions are noted thus (*). A dagger (†) indicates mayoralties cut short by death in office. [When the same man served more than one continuous term, his name is lightly shaded purely for clarity, but the tints have no other significance.]
|No.||Name||Starting year of Office||Ending year of Office|
|1||Thomas Willett (1st term)||1665||1666|
|2||Thomas Delavall (1st term)||1666||1667|
|3||Thomas Willett (2nd term)||1667||1668|
|4||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (1st term)||1668||1671|
|5||Thomas Delavall (2nd term)||1671||1672|
|7||John Lawrence (1st term)||1673||1675|
|9||Nicholas De Mayer||1676||1677|
|10||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1677||1678|
|11||Thomas Delavall (3rd term)||1678||1679|
|14||Cornelius Van Steenwyk (2nd term)||1682||1684|
|15||Gabriel Minvielle (*)||1684||1685|
|16||Nicholas Bayard (*)||1685||1686|
|17||Stephanus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1686||1688|
|18||Peter Delanoy 1||1689||1691|
|19||John Lawrence (2nd term *)||1691||1691|
|20||Abraham de Peyster||1691||1694|
|23||Johannes de Peyster||1698||1699|
|25||Isaac De Reimer||1700||1701|
|30||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (1st term)||1710||1711|
|33||Jacobus Van Cortlandt (2nd term)||1719||1720|
|36||Robert Lurting †||1726||1735|
|38||John Cruger †||1739||1744|
|40||Edward Holland †||1747||1757|
|41||John Cruger, Jr.||1757||1766|
- Peter Delanoy was the first and only directly-elected mayor of New York until 1834. Appointed mayors resumed in the wake of Leisler's Rebellion.
† died in office
After 1820, the mayor was appointed by the city's Common Council. Under the Charter of 1834, mayors were elected annually. After 1849, they served two-year terms.
|#||Mayor||Term start||Term end||Terms|
|44||James Duane||January 1, 1784||1789||5||None|
|47||DeWitt Clinton (1st term)||1803||1807||4||Democratic-Republican|
|49||DeWitt Clinton (2nd term)||1808||1810||2||Democratic-Republican|
|50||Jacob Radcliff (1st term)||1810||1811||1||Federalist|
|51||DeWitt Clinton (3rd term)||1811||1815||4||Democratic-Republican|
|53||Jacob Radcliff (2nd term)||1815 February 13||1818||3||Federalist|
|54||Cadwallader D. Colden||1818||1821||3||Federalist|
|56||William Paulding Jr. (1st term)||1825||1826||1||Democratic-Republican|
|57||Philip Hone||1826||1827||1||National Republican|
|58||William Paulding Jr. (2nd term)||1827||1829||2||Democratic-Republican|
|63||Isaac L. Varian||1839||1841||2||Democratic|
|64||Robert H. Morris||1841||1844||3||Democratic|
|65||James Harper||1844||1845||1||American Republican|
|66||William F. Havemeyer (1st term)||1845||1846||1||Democratic|
|67||Andrew H. Mickle||1846||1847||1||Democratic|
|68||William V. Brady||1847||1848||1||Whig|
|69||William F. Havemeyer (2nd term)||1848||1849||1||Democratic|
|70||Caleb S. Woodhull||1849||1851||1||Whig|
|72||Jacob A. Westervelt||1853||1855||1||Democratic|
|73||Fernando Wood (1st term)||1855||1858||2||Democratic|
|74||Daniel F. Tiemann||1858||1860||1||American|
|75||Fernando Wood (2nd term)||1860||1862||1||Democratic|
|77||Charles G. Gunther||1864||1866||1||Democratic|
|78||John T. Hoffman1||1866||1868 November 30||less than 1||Democratic|
|Acting||Thomas Coman 1||1868 November 30||1869 January 4||5 weeks||Democratic|
|79||Abraham Oakey Hall||1869 January 4||1872 December 31||1||Democratic|
|80||William F. Havemeyer 2(3rd term) †||1873 January 1||1874 November 30||less than 1||Republican|
|Acting||Samuel B. H. Vance 2||1874 November 30||1874 December 31||1 month||Republican|
|81||William H. Wickham||1875 January 1||1876 December 31||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|82||Smith Ely Jr.||1877||1878||1||Democratic|
|83||Edward Cooper||1879||1880||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|84||William R. Grace (1st term)||1881||1882||1||Democratic (Reform)|
|86||William R. Grace (2nd term)||1885||1886||2||None|
|88||Hugh J. Grant||1889||1892||2||Democratic|
|89||Thomas F. Gilroy||1893||1894||1||Democratic|
|90||William L. Strong 3||1895 January 1||1897 December 31||1
- John T. Hoffman resigned after his election as Governor of New York state but before the end of his mayoral term. Thomas Coman, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Hoffman's term as acting mayor until his elected successor, A. Oakey Hall, took office.
- William F. Havemeyer died during his last term of office. Samuel B. H. Vance, President of the Board of Aldermen, completed Havemeyer's term as acting mayor until his elected successor, William H. Wickham, took office.
- William L. Strong served an additional year in office because New York City mayoral elections were changed to be held in odd-numbered years due to the impending consolidation of New York City.
† died in office
The 1898–1901 term was for four years. The City Charter was changed to make the mayor's term a two-year one beginning in 1902, but after two such terms was changed back to resume four-year terms in 1906. George B. McClellan, Jr. thus served one two-year term from 1904 to 1905, during which he was elected to a four-year term from 1906 to 1909. See New York City mayoral elections#Terms and term limits (since 1834).
The party of the mayor reflects party registration, as opposed to the party lines run under during the general election.
|#||Portrait||Name||Term in office||Length of Service||Party affiliation||Previous office|
|91||Robert A. Van Wyck
(1849–1918; aged 69)
|January 1, 1898
December 31, 1901
|4 years||Democratic||Chief Justice of the City Court of New York|
|92||Seth Low 1
(1850–1916; aged 66)
|January 1, 1902
December 31, 1903
|2 years||Republican||11th President of Columbia University
|93||George B. McClellan Jr.
(1865–1940; aged 75)
|January 1, 1904
December 31, 1909
|6 years||Democratic||U.S. Representative for New York
|94||William Jay Gaynor 2 †
(1849–1913; aged 64)
|January 1, 1910
September 10, 1913
|3 years, 253 days||Democratic||Judge to the New York Supreme Court
|Acting2||Ardolph L. Kline||September 10, 1913
December 31, 1913
|113 days||Republican||President of the Board of Aldermen|
|95||John P. Mitchel
(1879–1918; aged 38)
|January 1, 1914
December 31, 1917
|4 years||Republican||U.S. Customs Collector of the Port of New York;
President of the Board of Aldermen
|96||John F. Hylan
(1868–1936; aged 67)
|January 1, 1918
December 30, 1925
|8 years||Democratic||County Judge in Brooklyn|
|Acting||William T. Collins||December 31, 1925||1 day||Democratic||President of the Board of Aldermen|
|97||Jimmy Walker 3
(1881–1946; aged 65)
|January 1, 1926
September 1, 1932
|6 years, 244 days
(6 years, 8 months)
|Democratic||New York State Senator
|Acting3||Joseph V. McKee||September 1, 1932
December 31, 1932
|Democratic||President of the City Council|
|98||John P. O'Brien
(1873–1951; aged 78)
|January 1, 1933
December 31, 1933
|1 year||Democratic||Surrogate of New York County|
|99||Fiorello H. La Guardia
(1882–1947; aged 64)
|January 1, 1934
December 31, 1945
|12 years||Republican||U.S. Representative for New York
|100||William O'Dwyer 4
(1890–1964; aged 74)
|January 1, 1946
August 31, 1950
|4 years, 243 days
(4 years, 8 months)
|Democratic||Brooklyn District Attorney
|Acting5||Vincent R. Impellitteri5
(1900–1987; aged 86)
|August 31, 1950
November 14, 1950
(as acting mayor)
|President of the City Council
|101||November 14, 1950
December 31, 1953
|3 years, 48 days||Experience Party
(as elected mayor)
|102||Robert F. Wagner Jr.
(1910–1991; aged 80)
|January 1, 1954
December 31, 1965
|12 years||Democratic||17th Borough President of Manhattan
(1921–2000; aged 79)
|January 1, 1966
December 31, 1973
|8 years||Republican||U.S. Representative for New York
(1906–2001; aged 94)
|January 1, 1974
December 31, 1977
|4 years||Democratic||38th New York City Comptroller
(1924–2013; aged 88)
|January 1, 1978
December 31, 1989
|12 years||Democratic||U.S. Representative for New York
(born in 1927; aged 89)
|January 1, 1990
December 31, 1993
|4 years||Democratic||23rd Borough President of Manhattan
(born in 1944; aged 72)
|January 1, 1994
December 31, 2001
|8 years||Republican||United States Attorney for
the Southern District of New York
(born in 1942; aged 74)
|January 1, 2002
December 31, 2013
|12 years||Republican6||CEO of Bloomberg L.P.
|109||Bill de Blasio
(born in 1961; aged 55)
|January 1, 2014
|4 years||Democratic||3rd New York City Public Advocate
- Seth Low previously served as Mayor of the City of Brooklyn from 1882 to 1885.
- William Jay Gaynor died September 10, 1913. Ardolph L. Kline, the unelected President of the Board of Aldermen, succeeded as acting mayor upon William Gaynor's death, but then sought re-election as an alderman (successfully) rather than election as mayor. Kline has thus been the only mayor since 1834 never to win a city-wide election (having been appointed Vice President of the Board of Aldermen by his colleagues and then succeeding to the presidency mid-term, rather than winning it by popular election at large).
- James J. "Jimmy" Walker resigned September 1, 1932 and went to Europe, amid allegations of corruption in his administration. Joseph V. McKee, as President of the Board of Aldermen, became acting mayor in Walker's place, but was then defeated in a special election by John P. O'Brien.
- William O'Dwyer resigned August 31, 1950, during a police corruption scandal, after which he was appointed Ambassador to Mexico by President Harry S. Truman.
- Vincent R. Impellitteri, President of the New York City Council, became acting mayor when O'Dwyer resigned on August 31, 1950, and was then elected to the office in a special election held on November 7, 1950. He was inaugurated on November 14.
- Michael R. Bloomberg was a Democrat before running for mayor.
† died in office
- Election results for Mayor of New York
- History of New York City
- Mayors of the City of Brooklyn (1834–98)
- Lincoln, Charles Z. (1906). The Constitutional History of New York: From the Beginning of the Colonial Period to the Year 1905, Showing the Origin, Development, and Judicial Construction of the Constitution - Volume 2. Rochester, N.Y.: The Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company. p. 6. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- John Mollenkopf, "The Rise of Immigrant Influence in New York City Politics" in New York and Amsterdam: Immigration and the New Urban Landscape (eds. Nancy Foner et al.: New York University Press, 2014), p. 210).
- Sam Roberts, Candidate Hoping to Be First Hispanic Mayor May Be 100 Years Too Late, New York Times (May 7, 2013).
- Sam Roberts, Today's Loneliest Political Minority? It's Probably the White Protestant, New York Times (May 10, 2005): "New York's early mayors were mostly Protestant, but in the last 100 years the city has elected few Protestant mayors."
- Frederick Binder & David Reimers, All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City (Columbia University Press, 1995), p. 243: "In 1963 Abe Beame became the first Jew to be elected mayor of New York City. In 1977 Ed Koch became the second Jewish mayor when he won election to the first of three terms."
- Glenn Collins, Persecuted to Powerful: Exhibiting a History of New York’s Catholics, New York Times (May 15, 2008): "William R. Grace, who was elected in 1880 as the first Catholic mayor of New York City..."
- Doris Weatherford, Women in American Politics: History and Milestones, Vol. 1 (CQ Press, 2012), p. 262.
- "The Green Book: Mayors of the City of New York" on the official NYC website. When a former mayor serves again after a break in office, a new number is assigned to his resumed service. However, the six acting mayoralties are unnumbered.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-195-11634-8 pp.99–100
- John Caldwell; Oswaldo Rodriguez Roque; Dale T. Johnson (March 1, 1994). American Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 256.
- "Local Intelligence — Board of Aldermen — Resignation of the Mayor". New York Times. November 17, 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Municipal Affairs — Organization of the Common Council — The Mayor's Message — The City Budget for 1869 — Comparison of Taxation in 1868 and 1869". New York Times. January 5, 1869. p. 2. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Robert A. Van Wyck". New York Times. Magazine Section. November 7, 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "How Hylan Reached The Mayor's Chair — Came Here from the Farm and First Worked as a Tracklayer — To School After Marriage — Long Active in Civic Affairs in Brooklyn — Mayoralty Said to Have Been His Ambition". New York Times. November 7, 1917. p. 5. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "O'Brien Will Stay on Bench Till Jan. 1 — Mayor-Elect Says, However, He Will Devote Spare Time to Study of City's Problems — Renews Economy Pledge — Silent on Protest Vote — McKee Among Thousands Who Send Congratulatory Messages". New York Times. November 10, 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "List of Candidates Who Will Be on Ballots in Municipal Election Nov. 7". New York Times. November 5, 1933. p. N2. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Media related to Mayors of New York City at Wikimedia Commons