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List of meat substitutes

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A vegetarian patty prepared from crushed soybean, avocado, tomato and beetroot.

This is a list of meat substitutes. A meat substitute, also called a meat analogue, approximates certain aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) or chemical characteristics of a specific meat. Substitutes are often based on soybeans (such as tofu and tempeh), gluten, or peas.[1] Whole legumes are often used as a protein source in vegetarian dishes, but are not listed here.



Paneer cheese produced in India



Cubes of young green jackfruit pulp sold as a meat substitute
  • Breadfruit – used similarly as jackfruit in savory dishes
  • Coconut burger – made from sapal, the coconut pulp by-products of traditional coconut milk extraction in Filipino cuisine
  • Eggplant – semitropical/tropical plant with a highly textured flesh[5]
  • Grapefruit – during the course of the Special Period economic crisis Cubans prepared steaks made out of breaded and fried grapefruit rind known as "bistec de toronja".[6]
  • Jackfruit – a fruit whose flesh has a similar texture to pulled pork when cooked



Tempeh burger
  • Tempeh – a traditional Indonesian soy product in a cake form, made from fermented soybeans

Companies and brands[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Strom, Stephanie (3 April 2014). "Fake Meats, Finally, Taste Like Chicken". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  2. ^ Godwin, Nigel (27 February 2009). "St David's Day recipes: Glamorgan sausages". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  3. ^ "Meat Fans, You Have To Try These 3 Paneer-Based Versions Of Your Favourite Dishes". NDTV Food. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  4. ^ Nowak, Rhonda (2 February 2020). "How to grow edible mushrooms". Mail Tribune. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  5. ^ "On-farm trials of eggplant". AGRIS: International Information System for the Agricultural Science and Technology. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  6. ^ "Cuba: A Little Hunger and Lot of Poor Eating". Havana Times. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  7. ^ Riaz MN (2006). Soy applications in food. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 155–84. ISBN 0-8493-2981-7.
  8. ^ Clark JD, Valentas KJ, Levine L (1991). Food processing operations and scale-up. New York: CRC Press. pp. 134–7. ISBN 0-8247-8279-8.
  9. ^ Sastraatmadja, D. D.; et al. (2002). "Production of High-Quality Oncom, a Traditional Indonesian Fermented Food, by the Inoculation with Selected Mold Strains in the Form of Pure Culture and Solid Inoculum". J. Grad. SCH. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 70: 111–127. hdl:2115/13163.
  10. ^ Luna, Nancy (November 12, 2007). "Kellogg buys Irvine-maker of Gardenburger frozen foods". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2012.

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