List of meat substitutes
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This is a list of meat substitutes. A meat substitute, also called a meat analogue, approximates certain aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) or chemical characteristics of a specific meat. Substitutes are often based on soybeans (such as tofu and tempeh), gluten, or peas. Whole legumes are often used as a protein source in vegetarian dishes, but are not listed here.
- Glamorgan sausage – a traditional Welsh vegetarian sausage named after the historic county of Glamorgan in Wales.
- Paneer – for example in such dishes as Paneer tikka
- Edible mushrooms
- Mycoprotein – a form of single-cell protein, also known as fungal protein, it is able to provide greater satiety than traditional protein sources such as chicken, while also being rich in protein and low in caloric content
- Fistulina hepatica – a common mushroom known as beefsteak fungus
- Laetiporus – a mushroom which is also named chicken of the woods
- Lyophyllum decastes – a mushroom known as fried chicken mushroom
- Breadfruit – used similarly as jackfruit in savory dishes
- Coconut burger – made from sapal, the coconut pulp by-products of traditional coconut milk extraction in Filipino cuisine
- Eggplant – semitropical/tropical plant with a highly textured flesh
- Grapefruit - during the course of the Special Period economic crisis Cubans prepared steaks made out of breaded and fried grapefruit rind known as "bistec de toronja".
- Jackfruit – a fruit whose flesh has a similar texture to pulled pork when cooked
- Burmese tofu – which is made from water, chickpea flour and turmeric.
- Falafel – a traditional Middle Eastern bean fritter, believed to have been created by ancient Copts as a meat substitute during Lent
- Ganmodoki – a traditional Japanese tofu based dish similar to veggie burgers
- Härkis – a brand of processed ground fava beans
- Koya-dofu (kōya-dōfu, 高野豆腐 in Japanese) – freeze-dried tofu that has a taste and texture similar to meat when prepared, common in Buddhist vegetarian cuisine
- Oncom – one of the traditional staple foods of West Java (Sundanese) cuisine of Indonesia, there are two types: red oncom and black oncom. Oncom is closely related to tempeh; both are foods fermented using mold.
- Soy protein – a protein that is isolated from soybeans, it is made from soybean meal that has been dehulled and defatted
- Soy pulp – used for veggie burgers and croquettes
- Tempeh – a traditional Indonesian soy product made from fermented soybeans
- Textured vegetable protein – a defatted soy flour product that is a by-product of extracting soybean oil. It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender. It is quick to cook, with a protein content that is comparable to certain meats.
- Tofu – not traditionally seen as a meat substitute in Asia, but widely used for that purpose in the Western hemisphere
- Tofurkey – faux turkey, a meat substitute in the form of a loaf or casserole of vegetarian protein, usually made from tofu (soybean protein) or seitan (wheat protein) with a stuffing made from grains or bread, flavored with a broth and seasoned with herbs and spices
- Vegetarian bacon – sometimes made from tempeh, which is fermented from tofu.
- Vegetarian hot dog
- Vegetarian sausage
- Veggie burger
- Cultured meat
- Leaf protein concentrate
- Meat extenders – sometimes soy-based but not always
- Mock duck
- Nut roast
- Cauliflower - Coated in flour and baked or fried to imitate chicken wings or steak
- Wheat gluten – also known as miàn jīn in Chinese (traditional: 麵筋, simplified: 面筋, literally "dough tendon"; also spelled mien chin or mien ching), or in Japan fu (麩(ja), lit. "gluten") or seitan (グルテンミート, romanized "gurutenmīto," from the English "gluten meat"), or, rarely, (セイタン, "seitan")
Companies and brands
- Amy's Kitchen
- Beanfeast (Batchelors)
- Beyond Meat
- Boca Burger
- Fry Group Foods
- Herb & Son’s
- Goshen Alimentos
- Impossible Foods
- Linda McCartney Foods
- Meatless Farm
- Morningstar Farms
- Nature's Fynd
- Solar Foods Ltd.
- Tofurky (Turtle Island Foods)
- Cheese analogue
- List of bacon substitutes
- List of fermented soy products
- List of vegetarian and vegan companies
- Vegetarian food
- "Fake Meats, Finally, Taste Like Chicken". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- Godwin, Nigel (27 February 2009). "St David's Day recipes: Glamorgan sausages". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Meat Fans, You Have To Try These 3 Paneer-Based Versions Of Your Favourite Dishes". NDTV Food. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Nowak, Rhonda (2 February 2020). "How to grow edible mushrooms". Mail Tribune. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "On-farm trials of eggplant". AGRIS: International Information System for the Agricultural Science and Technology. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Cuba: A Little Hunger and Lot of Poor Eating". Havana Times. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
- Sastraatmadja, D. D.; et al. (2002). "Production of High-Quality Oncom, a Traditional Indonesian Fermented Food, by the Inoculation with Selected Mold Strains in the Form of Pure Culture and Solid Inoculum". J. Grad. SCH. Agr. Hokkaido Univ. 70: 111–127. hdl:2115/13163.
- Riaz MN (2006). Soy applications in food. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 155–84. ISBN 0-8493-2981-7.
- Clark JD, Valentas KJ, Levine L (1991). Food processing operations and scale-up. New York: CRC Press. pp. 134–7. ISBN 0-8247-8279-8.
- Luna, Nancy (November 12, 2007). "Kellogg buys Irvine-maker of Gardenburger frozen foods". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Media related to Meat substitutes at Wikimedia Commons