List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms

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The following is a list of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. The story has been adapted in numerous forms, including films, television series, manga and video games.


  • Mie Shu Ji (滅蜀記; lit. The Tale of the Destruction of Shu) is a 2008 novel by Li Bo (李柏) which dramatises the events leading to the fall of Shu Han, with Jiang Wei, Deng Ai and Zhong Hui as the main characters.[1]

Chinese manhua[edit]

  • Jiaqingqu (嫁情曲) by Lü Xiangru (呂相儒).
  • The Ravages of Time, by Chan Mou, retells the events in Romance of the Three Kingdoms with Sima Yi as the central character. The drawing style is dark and grim, and while the main story is kept intact, the finer details are dramatised.
  • Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义) published by Asiapac Books.[2] The 10 volume graphic novel series is in English.
  • Sanguo Shenbing (三國神兵) by Ip Ming-fat (葉明發).
  • Sanguo Wushuang (三國無雙) and Sanguo Wushuang Zhuan (三國無雙傳) illustrated by Heui Ging-sam (许景琛). It is adapted from Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors.
  • Sanguo Wushuang Mengjiang Zhuan (三國猛將傳) by Liu Gwong-jou (廖光祖).
  • Sanguo Yanyi (三國演義) by Sun Jiayu (孫家裕)
  • Sanguo Yingxiong Zhuan (三国英雄传) by Tung Yin-ming (童彦明).
  • Shuyun Canglong Ji (蜀雲藏龍記) by Lin Mingfeng (林明鋒).
  • Three Kingdoms by Lee Chi Ching. Lee also drew a spinoff manhua series titled Battle of Red Cliffs (赤壁之戰). He also illustrated the 13-volume manhua Zhuge Kongming.
  • Wuba Sanguo (武霸三國) by Yongren (永仁) and Cai Jingdong (蔡景東)

Japanese manga[edit]

Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been adapted into several Japanese manga, with varying degrees of historical accuracy and faithfulness to the original story and popular tradition.[3][4] Some of the more widely read manga in Japan include:

  • Blade Sangokushi (ブレイド三国志?) is a manga by Ichikawa Ryūnosuke (壱河 柳乃助?).
  • Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (GOGO玄徳くん?), a gag comedy manga, and its sequels Zoku Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (続・GOGO玄徳くん?) and Zokuzoku Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (続続・GOGO玄徳くん?) by Shirai Eriko (白井 惠理子?).
  • Ikki Tousen is loosely based on the novel, but the characters in the story refer to the names in the Japanese version of the book. In the series, most characters appear to have similar fates as characters with the same names from the original story.
  • Jimmu - Can Two Lords Be in the Grand Country? by Yasuhiko Yoshikazu (安彦 良和?).α
  • Koutou no Akatsuki by Takaguchi Rinrin (滝口 琳琳?).
  • Shin Sangokushi (新三国志?) by Yamazaki Hiromi (山崎 拓味?).
  • Soushoku-kei Danshi by Nekokurage
  • Sousou Moutoku Seiden by Ōnishi Kōichi (大西 巷一?).

Korean manhwa[edit]

  • Ko Woo-yeong Samgukji(고우영 삼국지/고우영 三國志) by Ko Woo-yeong(고우영)
  • Samgukji Gahujeon(삼국지 가후전/三國志 賈詡傳) by Masatokki(마사토끼)/Bea Min-su(배민수)[6]
  • Samgukjeontugi(삼국전투기/三國戰鬪記) by Choi hun(최훈)[7]
  • Yeajajegalryang(여자제갈량/女子諸葛亮) by Kimdal(김달)[8]


  • Red Cliff is a 2008 two-part Chinese film directed by John Woo. The plot is based on the Battle of Red Cliffs and features reenactments of stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms along with epic battle scenes.



  • Sangokushi (三国志; 1985) and its sequel Sangokushi II: Amakakeru Otoko-tachi (三国志II 天翔ける英雄(おとこ)たち; 1986) are anime television specials produced by Shin-Ei Animation.
  • Sangokushi is a three-part Japanese anime film series produced and released by Toei Animation between 1987 and 1991 (Sangokushi (1): Eiyū-tachi no Yoake (三国志(第1部) 英雄たちの夜明け?), Sangokushi (2) Chōkō Moyu! (三国志(第2部) 長江燃ゆ!?), and Sangokushi (3) Harukanaru Taichi (三国志(第3部) 遥かなる大地?)).[9] The theme song "Fūshi Hana-den" (風姿花伝) was performed by Tanimura Shinji.
  • Ikkitousen is a five-season Japanese anime loosely based on the manga. The five seasons were released between 2003 and 2011.
  • Kōtetsu Sangokushi is a shounen-ai anime released in 2007 in Japan. It featured homosexual relationships between some of the male characters in the novel.

Live action[edit]

  • Zhuge Liang is a 1985 Chinese television series based on the life of Zhuge Liang.
  • K.O.3an Guo is a 2009 Taiwanese television drama that spoofs Romance of the Three Kingdoms in a modern high school setting. It starred several Taiwanese teen idols, including members of the bands Wu Hu Jiang and Fahrenheit.
  • Three Kingdoms RPG is a 2012 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. The story is about a young game addict in Hong Kong who accidentally travels back in time to the Three Kingdoms era.
  • Cao Cao is a 2014 Chinese television series based on the life of Cao Cao before the Battle of Red Cliffs. Directed by Hu Mei, it aims to revise Cao Cao's traditional image as a villain and portray him in a more historically accurate manner.

Video games[edit]

  • Dynasty Warriors is a series of eight tactical action video games by Koei and Omega Force. The series has been released for PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3,PlayStation 4, PlayStation Portable, Xbox, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, and the PC. It has also generated the spinoff Dynasty Tactics and Warriors Orochi series.
  • Fantasia Sango is a 2D RPG series released by UserJoy Technology. It uses the events in the novel as the backdrop for the plot. The re-telling of the story also involves traditional Chinese supernatural entities and concepts. Besides Fantasia Sango, UserJoy Technology has also developed the MMORPG The Legend of Three Kingdoms Online.
  • Kessen II is a battle-focused real-time strategy game released by Koei in 2001. Unlike the other Koei games, this game has a highly fantasised version of the novel as a plot and also introduces magic to the series as a usable skill. Both the parent and predecessor versions of the game are set in Japan and not China.
  • Koihime Musō is a visual novel by BaseSon portrays many heroes from the novel as female warriors and lords. Shin Koihime Musō is a new version of Koihime Musō with many new characters released in 2008. Both games were adapted into anime.
  • Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a series of 12 computerised strategy war games produced by Koei. The PC versions of V through X were released only in Asia, along with "power-up kits" for some of them. The series is also released on other video game consoles such as PlayStation 2, Super NES, NES, Sega Saturn, and Sega Genesis outside of Asia.
  • The Sango Fighter series portrayed the generals as characters in a two-dimensional fighting game.
  • Three Kingdoms Online, real time browser strategy game released by Koramgame in 2009.[10]


  • Sangokushi Taisen is a hybrid card-board-strategy game released by Sega. Players manipulate cards on a tabletop to move military units in order to take destroy enemy castles.
  • Generals Order is a strategy card game released by Strategy Entertainment. The game is also a collectible trading card game.


Emperor Jimmu was the first Emperor of Japan.


  1. ^ "滅蜀記". Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  2. ^ "ROMANCE OF THE THREE KINGDOMS (NEW SET)". Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  3. ^ (Chinese) 三国搜集[dead link]
  4. ^ "無双ファンサイトの一風景" (in Japanese). June 29, 2005. Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "Director John Woo Makes Anime Voice Debut in Sōten Kōro". Anime News Network. April 13, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  6. ^ "가후전" (in Korean). Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  7. ^ "삼국전투기" (in Korean). Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  8. ^ "여자제갈량" (in Korean). Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  9. ^ "アニメは東映アニメーション > 作品ラインナップ > 劇場版" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  10. ^ Three Kingdoms Online at