List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms
The following is a list of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. The story has been adapted in numerous forms, including films, television series, manga and video games.
- Fan Sanguo Yanyi (反三國演義; literally Reverse (of) Romance of the Three Kingdoms) is a novel by written by Zhou Dahuang (周大荒; 1886–1951) around 1919 and first published as a serial in the newspaper Min De Bao (民德報) in 1924. In 1930, it was compiled and published as a complete novel by the Shanghai Qingyun Book Company (上海卿雲書局). Fan Sanguo Yanyi retells the original story from the point where Xu Shu was forced to leave Liu Bei and join Cao Cao. With Zhao Yun's help, Xu Shu saved his mother, escaped from Cao Cao and returned to Liu Bei. As the story progresses, Liu Bei eventually defeated Cao Cao and reunified China under his rule. Other significant changes include: Zhao Yun and Ma Chao leading Liu Bei's forces in the final battles against Cao Cao; Pang Tong averting his fate at the Valley of the Fallen Phoenix and continuing to serve Liu Bei alongside Zhuge Liang; Zhou Yu having a more "righteous" personality and being supportive of Sun Shangxiang's marriage to Liu Bei; Zhao Yun's marriage to Ma Yunlu, a fictional sister of Ma Chao.
- Mie Shu Ji (滅蜀記; literally The Tale of the Destruction of Shu) is a 2008 novel by Li Bo (李柏) which dramatises the events leading to the fall of Shu Han, with Jiang Wei, Deng Ai and Zhong Hui as the main characters.
- Jiaqingqu (嫁情曲) by Lü Xiangru (呂相儒).
- The Ravages of Time, by Chan Mou, retells the events in Romance of the Three Kingdoms with Sima Yi as the central character. The drawing style is dark and grim, and while the main story is kept intact, the finer details are dramatised.
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义) published by Asiapac Books. The 10 volume graphic novel series is in English.
- Sanguo Shenbing (三國神兵) by Ip Ming-fat (葉明發).
- Sanguo Wushuang (三國無雙) and Sanguo Wushuang Zhuan (三國無雙傳) illustrated by Heui Ging-sam (许景琛). It is adapted from Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors.
- Sanguo Wushuang Mengjiang Zhuan (三國猛將傳) by Liu Gwong-jou (廖光祖).
- Sanguo Yanyi (三國演義) by Sun Jiayu (孫家裕)
- Sanguo Yingxiong Zhuan (三国英雄传) by Tung Yin-ming (童彦明).
- Shuyun Canglong Ji (蜀雲藏龍記) by Lin Mingfeng (林明鋒).
- Three Kingdoms by Lee Chi Ching. Lee also drew a spinoff manhua series titled Battle of Red Cliffs (赤壁之戰). He also illustrated the 13-volume manhua Zhuge Kongming.
- Wuba Sanguo (武霸三國) by Yongren (永仁) and Cai Jingdong (蔡景東)
Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been adapted into several Japanese manga, with varying degrees of historical accuracy and faithfulness to the original story and popular tradition. Some of the more widely read manga in Japan include:
- Blade Sangokushi (ブレイド三国志?) is a manga by Ichikawa Ryūnosuke (壱河 柳乃助?).
- Dragon Sister! (DRAGON SISTER！三國志 百花繚乱 Sangokushi Hyakka Ryōran?) by Nini.
- Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (GOGO玄徳くん?), a gag comedy manga, and its sequels Zoku Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (続・GOGO玄徳くん?) and Zokuzoku Gogo Gentoku-kun!! (続続・GOGO玄徳くん?) by Shirai Eriko (白井 惠理子?).
- Ikki Tousen is loosely based on the novel, but the characters in the story refer to the names in the Japanese version of the book. In the series, most characters appear to have similar fates as characters with the same names from the original story.
- Jimmu - Can Two Lords Be in the Grand Country? by Yasuhiko Yoshikazu (安彦 良和?).α
- Koutou no Akatsuki by Takaguchi Rinrin (滝口 琳琳?).
- Lord by Ryoichi Ikegami and Buronson is very loosely based on the novel. In the series, a general from the Nakoku country becomes Liu Bei.
- Magical Musou Tenshi Tsuki Irase!! Ryofuko-chan (まじかる無双天使 突き刺せ!! 呂布子ちゃん?) by Suzuki Jiro (铃木 次郎?). The anime Yawaraka Sangokushi Tsukisase!! Ryofuko-chan is adapted from it.
- Ouja no Yuugi by Iori Tabasa, with Guo Jia as the protagonist.
- Qwan (Media Factory) and its spinoff Foreign Grass by Aki Shimizu.
- Ryūrōden by Yoshito Yamahara (Kodansha).
- Sangokushi (Japanese for Records of the Three Kingdoms) by Yokoyama Mitsuteru (Ushio Shuppansha). The anime Yokoyama Mitsuteru Sangokushi is adapted from it.
- The novel serves as the model for SD Gundam Sangokuden: Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a manga/model kit line in the long running Musha Gundam SD Gundam series.
- Shin Sangokushi (新三国志?) by Yamazaki Hiromi (山崎 拓味?).
- Sōten Kōro by King Gonta (Kodansha).
- Soushoku-kei Danshi by Nekokurage
- Sousou Moutoku Seiden by Ōnishi Kōichi (大西 巷一?).
- Tenchi o Kurau by Motomiya Hiroshi (Shueisha).
- Yawaraka Sangokushi Tsukisase!! Ryofuko-chan
- Ko Woo-yeong Samgukji (고우영 삼국지/고우영 三國志) by Ko Woo-yeong (고우영)
- Samgukji Gahujeon (삼국지 가후전/三國志 賈詡傳) by Masatokki (마사토끼) / Bea Min-su (배민수)
- Samgukjeontugi (삼국전투기/三國戰鬪記) by Choi Hun (최훈)
- Yeoja Jegalryang (여자제갈량/女子諸葛亮) by Kimdal (김달)
- The Battle of Dingjunshan was a 1905 Chinese film directed by Ren Jingfeng (任景丰). The only print was destroyed in a fire in the 1940s. The plot is based on the Battle of Mount Dingjun as described in Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
- The Witty Sorcerer is a 1931 Hong Kong film directed by, and starring Lai Man-Wai. The plot is based on a story in Romance of the Three Kingdoms about Zuo Ci playing tricks on Cao Cao.
- Diao Chan is a 1938 Chinese sound film directed by Bu Wancang. The story centres on Diaochan.
- Three Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon is a 2008 Hong Kong film directed by Daniel Lee. The plot centres on the story of Zhao Yun and is loosely based on stories about Zhao Yun in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Andy Lau starred as Zhao Zilong (Zhao Yun) while Maggie Q portrayed the antagonist Cao Ying, a fictional granddaughter of Cao Cao.
- Red Cliff is a 2008 two-part Chinese film directed by John Woo. The plot is based on the Battle of Red Cliffs and features reenactments of stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms along with epic battle scenes.
- The Lost Bladesman is a 2011 Hong Kong film directed by Alan Mak and Felix Chong. The plot is loosely based on the story in Romance of the Three Kingdoms about Guan Yu crossing five passes and slaying six generals. Donnie Yen portrayed Guan Yu.
- The Assassins is a 2012 Chinese film directed by Zhao Linshan. The story is loosely based on two attempts on Cao Cao's life – one by the physician Ji Ben (or Ji Ping) and the other by Empress Fu Shou and her father Fu Wan. Chow Yun-fat portrayed Cao Cao.
- Sangokushi (三国志; 1985) and its sequel Sangokushi II: Amakakeru Otoko-tachi (三国志II 天翔ける
英雄たち; 1986) are anime television specials produced by Shin-Ei Animation.
- Sangokushi is a three-part Japanese anime film series produced and released by Toei Animation between 1987 and 1991 (Sangokushi (1): Eiyū-tachi no Yoake (三国志（第1部） 英雄たちの夜明け?), Sangokushi (2) Chōkō Moyu! (三国志（第2部） 長江燃ゆ！?), and Sangokushi (3) Harukanaru Taichi (三国志（第3部） 遥かなる大地?)). The theme song "Fūshi Hana-den" (風姿花伝) was performed by Tanimura Shinji.
- Yokoyama Mitsuteru Sangokushi is a Japanese anime series which ran for 47 episodes on TV Tokyo between 1991 and 1992. It focused on the stories before the Battle of Red Cliffs.
- Ikkitousen is a five-season Japanese anime loosely based on the manga. The five seasons were released between 2003 and 2011.
- Kōtetsu Sangokushi is a shounen-ai anime released in 2007 in Japan. It featured homosexual relationships between some of the male characters in the novel.
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 2009 Chinese-Japanese co-produced animation.
- SD Gundam Sangokuden Brave Battle Warriors is a Japanese anime adaptation of the SD Gundam model kit series BB Senshi Sangokuden which began airing on 3 April 2010.
- God of River Lok is a 1975 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. The story is based on the life of Lady Zhen and folktales about her romantic entanglements with Cao Pi and Cao Zhi.
- Three Kingdoms is a 1976 Hong Kong television series produced by RTV (now ATV). It follows the story of Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei in the novel, starting from the Oath of the Peach Garden and ending with Liu Bei's death.
- The Legendary Prime Minister – Zhuge Liang is a 1985 Hong Kong television series produced by ATV. It is based on the life of Zhuge Liang and features a fictional romance between Zhuge Liang and Xiao Qiao.
- Zhuge Liang is a 1985 Chinese television series based on the life of Zhuge Liang.
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 1994 Chinese television series produced by CCTV.
- Guan Gong is a 1996 Taiwanese television series which centres on the story of Guan Yu and incorporates elements of fantasy and Chinese mythology.
- Lü Bu and Diaochan is a 2001 Chinese television series directed by Chen Kaige. It is loosely based on the romance between Lü Bu and Diaochan and takes many liberties with the original story.
- The Legend of Guan Gong is a 2002 Chinese television series based on the life of Guan Yu.
- Where the Legend Begins is a 2002 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. The story is similar to God of River Lok (1975).
- K.O.3an Guo is a 2009 Taiwanese television drama that spoofs Romance of the Three Kingdoms in a modern high school setting. It starred several Taiwanese teen idols, including members of the bands Wu Hu Jiang and Fahrenheit.
- Three Kingdoms is a 2010 Chinese television series directed by Gao Xixi.
- Three Kingdoms RPG is a 2012 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. The story is about a young game addict in Hong Kong who accidentally travels back in time to the Three Kingdoms era.
- Legend of Goddess Luo is a 2013 Chinese television series based on Lady Zhen's romantic entanglements with Cao Cao, Cao Pi and Cao Zhi.
- Cao Cao is a 2014 Chinese television series based on the life of Cao Cao before the Battle of Red Cliffs. Directed by Hu Mei, it aims to revise Cao Cao's traditional image as a villain and portray him in a more historically accurate manner.
- God of War, Zhao Yun is a 2016 Chinese television series loosely based on the life of Zhao Yun (Zhao Zilong) and introducing numerous other fictional characters and elements. It starred cast members from mainland China, South Korea and Taiwan.
- Atlantica Online: Three Kingdoms is an expansion in Tactical Battle System in this MMORPG published by Nexon Corporation.
- Destiny of an Emperor is a RPG for the NES released in North America.
- Dynasty Warriors is a series of eight tactical action hack and slash video games by Koei and Omega Force. The series has been released for PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3,PlayStation 4, PlayStation Portable, Xbox, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, and the PC. It has also generated the spinoff Dynasty Tactics and Warriors Orochi series.
- Dynasty Wars and its sequel Warriors of Fate, released by Capcom. They are based on Motomiya Hiroshi's manga Tenchi o Kurau. Three instalments of a similar game were released by International Games System. These are best described as side-scrolling "beat-'em-up" games, similar to the Double Dragon video games.
- Fantasia Sango is a 2D RPG series released by UserJoy Technology. It uses the events in the novel as the backdrop for the plot. The re-telling of the story also involves traditional Chinese supernatural entities and concepts. Besides Fantasia Sango, UserJoy Technology has also developed the MMORPG The Legend of Three Kingdoms Online.
- Heroes of Three Kingdoms is a MMORPG by Perfect World Entertainment.
- Kessen II is a battle-focused real-time strategy game released by Koei in 2001. Unlike the other Koei games, this game has a highly fantasised version of the novel as a plot and also introduces magic to the series as a usable skill. Both the parent and predecessor versions of the game are set in Japan and not China.
- Knights of Valour is a side-scrolling "beat-'em-up" action video game released by International Games System.
- Koihime Musō is a visual novel by BaseSon portrays many heroes from the novel as female warriors and lords. Shin Koihime Musō is a new version of Koihime Musō with many new characters released in 2008. Both games were adapted into anime.
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a series of 13 computerised strategy war games produced by Koei. The PC versions of V through X were released only in Asia, along with "power-up kits" for some of them. The series is also released on other video game consoles such as PlayStation 2, Super NES, NES, Sega Saturn, and Sega Genesis outside of Asia.
- The Sango Fighter series portrayed the generals as characters in a two-dimensional fighting game.
- Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon is a real time strategy game released for the PC by Eidos Interactive in 2001. It portrays all of the events in the original story.
- Three Kingdoms Online, real time browser strategy game released by Koramgame in 2009.
- Dynasty War, real time mobile strategy game released by NGames in 2014.
- Sangokushi Taisen is a hybrid card-board-strategy game released by Sega. Players manipulate cards on a tabletop to move military units in order to take destroy enemy castles.
- Generals Order is a strategy card game released by Strategy Entertainment. The game is also a collectible trading card game.
- Portal Three Kingdoms is an expansion set for the trading card game Magic: The Gathering.
- "滅蜀記". www.books.com.tw. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "ROMANCE OF THE THREE KINGDOMS (NEW SET)". www.asiapacbooks.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- (Chinese) 三国搜集 Archived December 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "無双ファンサイトの一風景" (in Japanese). blog.goo.ne.jp. June 29, 2005. Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Director John Woo Makes Anime Voice Debut in Sōten Kōro". Anime News Network. April 13, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "가후전" (in Korean). www.lezhin.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "삼국전투기" (in Korean). comic.naver.com. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "여자제갈량" (in Korean). comic.naver.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "アニメは東映アニメーション > 作品ラインナップ > 劇場版" (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- Three Kingdoms Online at dotmmo.com
- Dynasty War at ngames.com