List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms

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The following is a list of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. The story has been adapted in numerous forms, including films, television series, manga and video games.


  • Fan Sanguo Yanyi (反三國演義; literally Reverse (of) Romance of the Three Kingdoms) is a novel by written by Zhou Dahuang (周大荒; 1886–1951) around 1919 and first published as a serial in the newspaper Min De Bao (民德報) in 1924. In 1930, it was compiled and published as a complete novel by the Shanghai Qingyun Book Company (上海卿雲書局). Fan Sanguo Yanyi retells the original story from the point where Xu Shu was forced to leave Liu Bei and join Cao Cao. With Zhao Yun's help, Xu Shu saved his mother, escaped from Cao Cao and returned to Liu Bei. As the story progresses, Liu Bei eventually defeated Cao Cao and reunified China under his rule. Other significant changes include: Zhao Yun and Ma Chao leading Liu Bei's forces in the final battles against Cao Cao; Pang Tong averting his fate at the Valley of the Fallen Phoenix and continuing to serve Liu Bei alongside Zhuge Liang; Zhou Yu having a more "righteous" personality and being supportive of Sun Shangxiang's marriage to Liu Bei; Zhao Yun's marriage to Ma Yunlu, a fictional sister of Ma Chao.
  • Mie Shu Ji (滅蜀記; literally The Tale of the Destruction of Shu) is a 2008 novel by Li Bo (李柏) which dramatises the events leading to the fall of Shu Han, with Jiang Wei, Deng Ai and Zhong Hui as the main characters.[1]

Chinese manhua[edit]

  • Jiaqingqu (嫁情曲) by Lü Xiangru (呂相儒).
  • The Ravages of Time, by Chan Mou, retells the events in Romance of the Three Kingdoms with Sima Yi as the central character. The drawing style is dark and grim, and while the main story is kept intact, the finer details are dramatised.
  • Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三国演义) published by Asiapac Books.[2] The 10 volume graphic novel series is in English.
  • Sanguo Shenbing (三國神兵) by Ip Ming-fat (葉明發).
  • Sanguo Wushuang (三國無雙) and Sanguo Wushuang Zhuan (三國無雙傳) illustrated by Heui Ging-sam (许景琛). It is adapted from Koei's video game series Dynasty Warriors.
  • Sanguo Wushuang Mengjiang Zhuan (三國猛將傳) by Liu Gwong-jou (廖光祖).
  • Sanguo Yanyi (三國演義) by Sun Jiayu (孫家裕)
  • Sanguo Yingxiong Zhuan (三国英雄传) by Tung Yin-ming (童彦明).
  • Shuyun Canglong Ji (蜀雲藏龍記) by Lin Mingfeng (林明鋒).
  • Three Kingdoms by Lee Chi Ching. Lee also drew a spinoff manhua series titled Battle of Red Cliffs (赤壁之戰). He also illustrated the 13-volume manhua Zhuge Kongming.
  • Wuba Sanguo (武霸三國) by Yongren (永仁) and Cai Jingdong (蔡景東)

Japanese manga[edit]

Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been adapted into several Japanese manga, with varying degrees of historical accuracy and faithfulness to the original story and popular tradition.[3][4] Some of the more widely read manga in Japan include:

Korean manhwa[edit]

  • Ko Woo-yeong Samgukji (고우영 삼국지/고우영 三國志) by Ko Woo-yeong (고우영)
  • Samgukji Gahujeon (삼국지 가후전/三國志 賈詡傳) by Masatokki (마사토끼) / Bea Min-su (배민수)[6]
  • Samgukjeontugi (삼국전투기/三國戰鬪記) by Choi Hun (최훈)[7]
  • Yeoja Jegalryang (여자제갈량/女子諸葛亮) by Kimdal (김달)[8]




  • Sangokushi (三国志; 1985) and its sequel Sangokushi II: Amakakeru Otoko-tachi (三国志II 天翔ける英雄 (おとこ)たち; 1986) are anime television specials produced by Shin-Ei Animation.
  • Sangokushi is a three-part Japanese anime film series produced and released by Toei Animation between 1987 and 1991 (Sangokushi (1): Eiyū-tachi no Yoake (三国志(第1部) 英雄たちの夜明け), Sangokushi (2) Chōkō Moyu! (三国志(第2部) 長江燃ゆ!), and Sangokushi (3) Harukanaru Taichi (三国志(第3部) 遥かなる大地)).[9] The theme song "Fūshi Hana-den" (風姿花伝) was performed by Tanimura Shinji.
  • Yokoyama Mitsuteru Sangokushi is a Japanese anime series which ran for 47 episodes on TV Tokyo between 1991 and 1992. It focused on the stories before the Battle of Red Cliffs.
  • Ikkitousen is a five-season Japanese anime loosely based on the manga. The five seasons were released between 2003 and 2011.
  • Kōtetsu Sangokushi is a shounen-ai anime released in 2007 in Japan. It featured homosexual relationships between some of the male characters in the novel.
  • Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 2009 Chinese-Japanese co-produced animation.
  • SD Gundam Sangokuden Brave Battle Warriors is a Japanese anime adaptation of the SD Gundam model kit series BB Senshi Sangokuden which began airing on 3 April 2010.

Live action[edit]

Video games[edit]

Romance of the Three Kingdoms[edit]

Dynasty Warriors[edit]



  • Generals Order is a strategy card game released by Strategy Entertainment. The game is also a collectible trading card game.
  • Portal Three Kingdoms is an expansion set for the trading card game Magic: The Gathering.
  • Sangokushi Taisen is a hybrid card-board-strategy game released by Sega. Players manipulate cards on a tabletop to move military units in order to take destroy enemy castles.
  • Guangzhou Radio had a popular one-man retelling of the stories in the 1980s.
  • Romance of the Three Kingdoms Podcast is a podcast retelling the novel in English, with supplemental background information for context.


Emperor Jimmu was the first Emperor of Japan.


  1. ^ "滅蜀記". Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  2. ^ "ROMANCE OF THE THREE KINGDOMS (NEW SET)". Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  3. ^ (in Chinese) 三国搜集 Archived December 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ 無双ファンサイトの一風景 (in Japanese). June 29, 2005. Archived from the original on February 8, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Director John Woo Makes Anime Voice Debut in Sōten Kōro". Anime News Network. April 13, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  6. ^ 가후전 (in Korean). Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  7. ^ 삼국전투기 (in Korean). Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  8. ^ 여자제갈량 (in Korean). Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  9. ^ アニメは東映アニメーション > 作品ラインナップ > 劇場版 (in Japanese). Toei Animation. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  10. ^ Three Kingdoms Online at