List of medical mnemonics

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This is a list of medical mnemonics categorized and alphabetized.

Contents

Mnemonics with wikipages[edit]

Anatomy[edit]

Afferent vs efferent[edit]

Afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection exits.

Anterior leg muscles[edit]

"The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places"

Tibialis anterior

extensor Hallucis longus

anterior tibial Artery

deep fibular Nerve

extensor Digitorum longus

Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius][3]

Brachial plexus[edit]

Remember To Drink Cold Beer - Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches

Bowel components[edit]

"Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report"[4]

From proximal to distal:

  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum
  • Appendix
  • Colon
  • Sigmoid
  • Rectum

Carotid sheath contents[edit]

I See 10 CC's in the IV:[4]p. 1

I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery

10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)

CC = Common Carotid artery

IV = Internal Jugular Vein

Cavernous sinus contents[edit]

O TOM CAT:[4]p. 1

O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior.

CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM.

Occulomotor nerve (III)

Trochlear nerve (IV)

Ophthalmic nerve (V1)

Maxillary nerve (V2)

Carotid artery

Abducent nerve (VI)

T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM

Coeliac trunk: branches[edit]

Left Hand Side (LHS):

Left gastric artery

Hepatic artery

Splenic artery

Chest[edit]

  • "The servant attacks with saw and axe the lumbar, stack and cord." - Cervical (atlas, axis), thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
  • "I Like To Rise So High", for Iliac vein (common), Lumbar vein, Testicular vein, Renal vein, Suprarenal vein and Hepatic vein to represent the tributaries of the Inferior vena cava [5]
  • Structures passing through greater sciatic foramen below piriformis (S.N.I.P. N.I.P.), sciatic nerve, nerve to obturator internus, internal pudendal vessel, pudendal nerve, nerve to quadratus femoris, inferior gluteal vessels, posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
  • Structures passing through lesser sciatic foramen: (P.I.N.T.) pudendal nerve, internal pudendal vessels, nerve to obturator internus, tendon of obturator internus
  • One common mnemonic used to remember the contents of the Tarsal tunnel from anterior to posterior is "Tom, Dick and Harry".[6][7][8] or alternatively "Tom, Dick (and very nervous) Harry" if the artery, vein, and nerve are included.
  • One mnemonic for remembering the contents of the cavernous sinus is "OTOM CAT".[9]
  • The branches of the subclavian artery can be remembered using VITamin C and D.
  • The contents of posterior mediastinum can be remembered using the mnemonic, "DATES", for Descending aorta, Azygous vein and hemiazygos vein, Thoracic duct, Esophagus, Sympathetic trunk/ganglia.[5]
  • A commonly used mnemonic to remember the level of the diaphragmatic apertures is this: Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12. Oesophagus, Vagal trunk = 10 letters = T10. Vena cava = 8 letters = T8
  • Another common mnemonic is:Voice Of America :vena cava oseophagus aorta ===8,10,12
"I ate ten eggs at twelve" I (IVC) ate (TV8); ten (TV10) eggs (esophagus); at (aorta, azygos) twelve (TV12)
  • "I Read Very Old And Torn Articles" - IVC, Right phrenic nerve, Vagus, Oesophagus, Aorta, Thoracic duct, Azygous vein.
  • Standing room only can be used to remember that V1 passes through the superior orbital fissure, V2 through the foramen rotundum, and V3 through the foramen ovale.[10]
  • Contents of the foramen magnum: VAMPS-ATM (Vertebral arteries, Anterior Spinal artery, Meningeal branches of the cervical nerves, Posterior spinal arteries, Spinal part of the accessory nerve, Alar and Apical ligaments of the dense, Tectorial membrane, Medulla oblongata)[citation needed]
  • Deep cerebellar nuclei and their positions relative to the midline: "Fat Guys Eat Donuts," where each letter indicates the medial to lateral location in the cerebellar white matter (nucleus fastigii, globose nucleus, nucleus emboliformis and dentate nucleus).[citation needed]
  • A mnemonic to remember the muscles that contribute tendons to the pes anserinus and the innervations of these muscles is SGT FOT (sergeant FOT): S- Sartorius G- Gracilis T- semiTendinosus (from anterior to posterior). F- femoral nerve O- obturator nerve T- tibial division of the sciatic nerve. Notice the order of the muscles (S, G, T) follows the order of the innervating nerves which correspond to those muscles (F, O, T)[citation needed]
  • The femoral triangle is shaped like the sail of a sailing ship and hence its boundaries can be remembered using the mnemonic, "SAIL" for Sartorius, Adductor longus and Inguinal Ligament.[5]
  • The order of structures in the femoral triangle is important in the embalming of bodies, as the femoral artery is often exposed and used to pump embalming fluids into the body. The order of this neurovascular bundle can be remembered using the mnemonic, "NAVY" for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Y -fronts (the British term of a style of men's underwear with a "Y" shaped front that acts as a fly). The "Y" is midline (corresponding with the penis) and the mnemonic always reads from lateral to medial (in other words, the Femoral Nerve is always lateral). An alternate to this mnemonic is "NAVEL" for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph, to include the deep inguinal lymph nodes located medial to the Femoral vein.[citation needed]
  • A useful mnemonic to remember popliteal fossa anatomy (medial-to-lateral arrangement) is: Serve And Volley Next Ball. S: semimembranosus and semitendinosus (superior medial border) A: artery (popliteal artery) V: vein (popliteal vein) N: nerve (tibial nerve) B: biceps femoris (superior lateral border). The lateral and medial heads of gastrocnemius form the inferior border.[11]

Cranial nerves[edit]

There are many mnemonics for the names of the cranial nerves, e.g. "OOOTTAFAGVSH" is "OLd OPen OCeans TROuble TRIbesmen ABout Fish VEnom Giving VArious ACute/SPlitting Headaches" (a mnemonic that gives enough letters to distinguish between nerves that start with the same letter), or "On old Olympus's towering tops, a Finn and German viewed some hops,"[12] and for the initial letters "OOOTTAFVGVAH" is "Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good velvet ... ah, heaven."and for the initial letters "OOOTTAFVGVAH" is "Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good vagina ... ah,[13] The differences between these depend on "acoustic" versus "vestibulocochlear" and "spinal-accessory" versus "accessory".

A common example mnemonic for remembering which nerves are motor (M), sensory (S), or both (B), "Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Benevolent Bride Matters More". There are a very large number of additional mnemonics.[14]

For the five branches of the facial nerve there are: Two Zebras Bit My Cookie or To Zanzibar By MotorCar

List of mnemonics for the cranial nerves, their respective type and foramen
NERVE: Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Pathic (Trochlear) nerve Trigeminal (dentist) nerve Abducens nerve Facial nerve Vestibulo-cochlear (Auditory) nerve Glosso-pharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve Spinal Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve
Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular
Mnemonic:
(for nerve)[15]
OLd OPen OCeans TROuble TRIbesmen ABout Fish VEnom Giving VArious ACute / SPlitting Headaches
TYPE: Sensory Sensory Motor Motor Both (sensory + motor) Motor Both Sensory Both Both Motor Motor
Mnemonic:
(for type)[16]
Some Say Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Business Makes Money
FORAMINA: Cribriform plate Optic canal Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Foramen Rotundum Foramen Ovale Superior Orbital Fissure Internal Acoustic Meatus Internal Acoustic Meatus Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Hypoglossal Canal
Mnemonics:
(for foramina)
Cleaners Only Spray Smelly Stuff Right On Smelly Idiots In Jumbled Junkyards Juggled High
Carl Only Swims South. Silly Roger Only Swims In Infiniti Jacuzzis. Jane Just Hitchhikes.

Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels[edit]

Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12

Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10

Vena cava = 8 letters = T8[4]p. 1

I ate 10 eggs at 12:

I = IVC ate = T8

Eggs = Esophagus T10

At = Aorta T12

(V)oice (O)f (A)merica V- vena cava -T8 O-oesophagus-T10 A-aorta-T12

Duodenum: lengths of parts[edit]

"Counting 1 to 4 but staggered":[4]p. 1

1st part: 2 inches

2nd part: 3 inches

3rd part: 4 inches

4th part: 1 inch

Endocrine glands[edit]

The major glands of the endocrine system, excluding ovaries and testes.

"T.A.P." (T2, A3, P4)

Thymus

Thyroid

Anterior pituitary

Adrenal cortex

Adrenal medulla

Posterior pituitary

Parathyroid gland

Pancreas

Pineal[17]

Extraocular muscles[edit]

A good mnemonic to remember which muscles are innervated by what nerve is to paraphrase it as a molecular equation: LR6SO4R3.[18]

  • Lateral Rectus - Cranial Nerve VI
  • Superior Oblique - Cranial Nerve IV
  • the Rest of the muscles - Cranial Nerve III

Another way to remember which nerves innervate which muscles is to understand the meaning behind all the Latin words.

  • The fourth cranial nerve, the trochlear, is so named because the muscle it innervates, the superior oblique, runs through a little fascial pulley that changes its direction of pull (the trochlea of superior oblique). This pulley exists in the superiomedial corner of each orbit, and "trochl-" is Latin for "pulley."
  • The sixth cranial nerve, the abducens, is so named because it controls the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye (rotates it laterally) upon contraction.
  • The third cranial nerve, the oculomotor, is so named because it is in charge of the movement (motor) of the eye (oculo-). It controls all the other muscles.

G.I. tract layers (simplified)[edit]

M.S.M.S.

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis propria

Serosa[19]

Lateral geniculate nucleus[edit]

A simple mnemonic for remembering this is "See I? I see, I see," with "see" representing the C in "contralateral," and "I" representing the I in "ipsilateral." Another is "Emily and Pete meet eye to eye" as in "M and P meet I to I," or again, Magno and Parvo meet Ipsi to Ipsi.

Another way of remembering this is 2+3=5, which is correct, so ipsilateral side, and 1+4 doesn't equal 6, so contralateral.

Placenta-crossing substances[edit]

WANT My Hot Dog[20]

Wastes

Antibodies

Nutrients

Teratogens

Microorganisms

Hormones, HIV

Drugs

Retina[edit]

A mnemonic to remember the layers of the retina:

My Membrane (internal limiting)
Nerves Nerve fibers
Get Ganglions
In Inner plexiform
Knots Inner nuclear
Outside Outer plexiform
Our Outer nuclear
Easy External limiting membrane
Practice Photoreceptors
Review Retinal pigment epithelium

Sperm: path through male reproductive system[edit]

"My boyfriend's name is STEVE":[4]

Seminiferous Tubules

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

Sternal angle[edit]

A useful mnemonic for what passes through the sternal angle is "RAT PLLANT"

  • Rib 2
  • Aortic arch
  • Tracheal bifurcation
  • Pulmonary trunk
  • Ligamentum arteriosum
  • Left recurrent laryngeal
  • Azygos Vein
  • Nerves (Cardiac and Pulmonary plexuses)
  • Thoracic duct


A more detailed mnemonic is "PLOT of EARTH PLLANTS"

  • Phrenic and Vagus Nerve
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Oblique fissure of lungs (top of it)
  • Thymus
  • Esophagus (trending right to left)
  • Aortic Arch (bottom of the arch)
  • Rib 2, Manubrium-sternal angle, T4(more specifically T4-5 disc)
  • Tracheal Bifurcation (Carina: Latin –like keel of boat)
  • Heart
  • Pulmonary trunk bifurcation
  • L2 : Left Recurrent Laryngeal (Looping under Aorta); Ligamentum Arteriosum: Connects Aortic Arch to Pulmonary. Bifurcation
  • Azygous vein arches over the root of the Rt. Lung and opens in SVC.
  • Nerve plexi: Cardiac and Pulmonary Plexus
  • Thoracic duct (on its way to drain into the Left Subclavian)
  • SVC going down

Spine[edit]

Breakfast at 7:00--- 7 cervical vertebrae

Lunch at 12:00--- 12 thoracic vertebrae

Dinner at 5:00--- 5 lumbar vertebrae[21]

Hand[edit]

  • Carpal bones:

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle:
Scaphoid, Lunatum, Triquetrum, Pisiforme, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate and Hamate

  • Carpal Bones:

She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her:
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiforme, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate and Hamate

  • Carpal bones:

Scabby Lucy Tried Pissing Hours after Copulating Two Twins:
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiforme, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, and Trapezium:
In clockwise order from Scaphoid-remember zoids do not touch each other. M. Hall

  • Carpal bones:

So Long To Pinky Here Comes The Thumb:
Scaphoid, Lunatum, Triquetrum, Pisiforme, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium

Internal iliac artery: branches[edit]

I Like Going Places Using My Very Own Unmanned Vehicle
Posterior division:

  • Iliolumbar artery
  • Lateral sacral artery
  • Superior gluteal artery

Anterior division:

  • Inferior gluteal artery
  • Internal pudendal artery
  • Umbilical artery
  • Middle rectal artery
  • Superior and inferior vesical artery
  • Obturator artery
  • Uterine artery (female)
  • Vaginal artery (female)

Neuroscience[edit]

Coronal section of brain: structures "In Extremis, Cannibals Eat People's Globus Pallidi Instead of Their Hearts":

· From insula to midline:

  • Insula
  • Extreme capsule
  • Claustrum
  • External capsule
  • Putamen
  • Globus pallidus
  • Internal capsule
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus

Anterior Pituitary Hormones "FLAG TOP ":

FSH

LH

ACTH

GH

TSH

MelanOcyte Stimulating Hormone

Prolactin

Anaesthesiology[edit]

Anesthesia machine/room check[edit]

MS MAID:

Monitors (EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc.)

Suction

Machine check (according to ASA guidelines)

Airway equipment (ETT, laryngoscope, oral/nasal airway)

IV equipment

Drugs (emergency, inductions, NMBs, etc.)

Endotracheal intubation: diagnosis of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation[edit]

DOPE:

Displaced (usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa, etc.)

Obstruction (kinked or bitten tube, mucous plug, etc.)

Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)

Esophagus

General anaesthesia: equipment check prior to inducing[edit]

MALES:

Masks

Airways

Laryngoscopes

Endotracheal tubes

Suction/ Stylette, bougie

Spinal anesthesia agents[edit]

"Little Boys Prefer Toys":

Lidocaine

Bupivicaine

Procaine

Tetracaine

Xylocaine: where not to use with epinephrine[edit]

"Ears, Nose, Hose, Fingers and Toes"

  • Vasoconstrictive effects of xylocaine with epinephrine are helpful in providing hemostasis while suturing. However, may cause local ischemic necrosis in distal structures such as the digits, tip of nose, penis, ears.

"Digital PEN" - Digits, Penis, ear, nose.

Behavioural science / psychology[edit]

Depression: major episode characteristics[edit]

SPACE DIGS:

Sleep disruption

Psychomotor retardation

Appetite change

Concentration loss

Energy loss

Depressed mood

Interest wanes

Guilt

Suicidal tendencies

Depression: DSM-V Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder

"SIG E CAPS":

Sleep disturbances

Interest decreased (anhedonia)

Guilt and/or feelings of worthlessness

Energy decreased

Concentration problems

Appetite/weight changes

Psychomotor agitation or retardation

Suicidal ideation

Gain: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary[edit]

Primary: Patient's Psyche improved.

Secondary: Symptom Sympathy for patient.

Tertiary: Therapist's gain

Kubler-Ross dying process: stages[edit]

"'Death Always Brings Great Acceptance":

Denial

Anger

Bargaining

Grieving

Acceptance

Middle adolescence (14-17 years): characteristics[edit]

HERO:

Heterosexual crushes/ Homosexual Experience

Education regarding short term benefits

Risk taking

Omnipotence

Narcolepsy: symptoms, epidemiology[edit]

CHAP:

Cataplexy

Hallucinations

Attacks of sleep

Paralysis on waking

  • Usual presentation is a young male, hence "chap"

Sleep stages: features[edit]

DElta waves during DEepest sleep (stages 3 & 4, slow-wave).

dREaM during REM sleep.

Impotence causes[edit]

PLANE:

Psychogenic: performance anxiety

Libido: decreased with androgen deficiency, drugs

Autonomic neuropathy: impede blood flow redirection

Nitric oxide deficiency: impaired synthesis, decreased blood pressure

Erectile reserve: can't maintain an erection

Male erectile dysfunction (MED): biological causes[edit]

MED:

Medicines (propranalol, methyldopa, SSRI, etc.)

Ethanol

Diabetes mellitus

Premature ejaculation: treatment[edit]

2 S's:

SSRIs

Squeezing technique [glans pressure before climax]

More detail with 2 more S's:

Sensate-focus exercises [relieves anxiety]

Stop and start method [5-6 rehearsals of stopping stimulation before climax]

Biochemistry[edit]

B vitamin names[edit]

"The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious":

In increasing order:

Thiamine (B1)

Riboflavin (B2)

Niacin (B3)

Pyridoxine (B6)

Cobalamin (B12)

Essential amino acids[edit]

"PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires":

Phe

Val

Thr

Trp

Ile

Met

His

Arg

Lue

Lys

  • Always argues: the A is for Arg, not Asp.
  • 'Never tires': T is not Tyr, but is both Thr and Trp.

Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles[edit]

"Muscles LIVe fast":

Leucine

Isoleucine

Valine

Folate deficiency: causes[edit]

A FOLIC DROP:

Alcoholism

Folic acid antagonists

Oral contraceptives

Low dietary intake

Infection with Giardia

Celiac sprue

Dilatin

Relative folate deficiency

Old

Pregnant

Glycogen storage: Anderson's (IV) vs. Cori's (III) enzyme defect[edit]

ABCD:

Anderson's=Branching enzyme.

Cori's=Debranching enzyme.

  • Otherwise, can't really distinguish clinically.

Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI[edit]

"Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardon Tendency":

Von Gierke's

Pompe's

Cori's

Anderson's

McArdle's

Her's

Tarui's

Enzymes involved in Genetic Defects in Glycogen Metabolism (From 0-7, and 9)[edit]

0- Store fat, "winter is coming"→ glycogen synthase

1- Shit, now you're too fat, lets burn calories with sex... sex sounds like six so→ glucose-6-phosphatase

2- Then take some acid, because that's what you do after sex→ acid maltase

3- Now you are so freaking high you rip all the branches from the Christmas tree→ debranching enzyme

4- Then you think Holy Crap! Why did I do that, so you try to put the branches back on→ branching enzyme

5- After all of this your MUSCLES are so tired from phosphorylation→ m-glycogen phosphorylase

6- To make up for all that PHOSPHORYLATION you get drunk which ruins your liver→ L-glycogen phosphorylase

7- more Points For Killing your liver→ muscle phosphofructokinase (m-PFK1)

9- PHOK I'm a dumbass→ Phosphorylase Kinase (PHOK)

Cardiology[edit]

Aortic regurgitation: causes[edit]

CREAM:

Congenital

Rheumatic damage

Endocarditis

Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation

Marfan’s

Aortic stenosis characteristics[edit]

SAD:[4]p. 29

Syncope

Angina

Dyspnoea

Aortic to right Subclavian path[edit]

ABC'S[4]p. 1

Aortic arch gives rise to:

Brachiocephalic trunk

Right Common Carotid

Right Subclavian

Heart valves (right to left)[edit]

Toilet Paper My Ass (or They Pay Me Alcohol)[20]

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Aortic semilunar valve

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable[edit]

HILT:[4]p. 29

Heaving

Impalpable

Laterally displaced

Thrusting/ Tapping

If it's impalpable, causes are COPD:[4]p. 29

COPD

Obesity

Pleural, Pericardial effusion

Dextrocardia

Atrial Arrhythmias[edit]

Anticoagulants: To prevent embolization.

Beta blockers: To block the effects of certain hormones on the heart to slow the heart rate.

Calcium Channel Blockers: Help slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Digoxin: Helps slow the heart rate by blocking the number of electrical impulses that pass through the AV node into the lower heart chambers (ventricles).

Electrocardioversion: A procedure in which electric currents are used to reset the heart's rhythm back to regular pattern.[22]

Atrial Fibrillation causes[edit]

Pirates:[4]p. 3

Pulmonary: PE, COPD

Iatrogenic

Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation

Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD

Thyroid: hyperthyroid

Endocarditis

Sick sinus syndrome

Atrial fibrillation management[edit]

ABCD:[4]p. 30

Anti-coagulate

Beta-block to control rate

Cardiovert

Digoxin

Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade)[edit]

3 D's:[4]p. 30

Distant heart sounds

Distended jugular veins

Decreased arterial pressure

Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers[edit]

Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium:[4]p. 30

Betaxolol

Acebutelol

Esmolol

Atenolol

Metoprolol

CHF Treatment[edit]

LMNOP

Lasix

Morphine

Nitrites

Oxygen

VassoPressors[23]

CHF: causes of exacerbation[edit]

FAILURE[4]p. 30

Forgot medication

Arrhythmia/ Anaemia

Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection

Lifestyle: taken too much salt

Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism

Renal failure

Embolism: pulmonary

Complications of Myocardial Infarction[edit]

Darth Vader

Death

Arrythmia

Rupture(free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)

Tamponade

Heart failure (acute or chronic)

Valve disease

Aneurysm of Ventricles

Dressler's Syndrome

thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)

Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation[24]

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications[edit]

DUST:[4]p. 31

Depressed ventricular function

Unstable angina

Stenosis of the left main stem

Triple vessel disease

ECG: left vs. right bundle block[edit]

WiLLiaM MaRRoW:[4]p. 31

W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.

M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications[edit]

RAMP:[4]p. 31

Recent MI

Aortic stenosis

MI in the last 7 days

Pulmonary hypertension

Endocarditis[edit]

FROM JANE:

Fever

Roth's spots

Osler's nodes

Murmur of heart

Janeway lesions

Anemia

Emboli

Heart valve sequence[edit]

Try Puling My Aorta:[4]p. 3

Tricuspid

Pulmonary

Mitral (bicuspid)

Aorta

Heart blocks[edit]

If the R is far from P, then you have a First Degree.

Longer, longer, longer, drop! Then you have a Wenkebach.

if some P's don't get through, then you have Mobitz II.

If P's and Q's don't agree, then you have a Third Degree.[25]

Infarctions[edit]

INFARCTIONS[4]p. 34

IV access

Narcotic analgesics (e.g. morphine, pethidine)

Facilities for defibrillation (DF)

Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)

Rest

Converting enzyme inhibitor

Thrombolysis

IV beta blocker

Oxygen 60%

Nitrates

Stool Softeners

JVP: wave form[edit]

ASK ME[4]p. 32

Atrial contraction

Systole (ventricular contraction)

Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling

Maximal atrial filling

Emptying of atrium

MI: basic management[edit]

BOOMAR:[4]p. 32

Bed rest

Oxygen

Opiate

Monitor

Anticoagulate

Reduce clot size

MI: signs and symptoms[edit]

PULSE:[4]p. 32

Persistent chest pains

Upset stomach

Lightheadedness

Shortness of breath

Excessive sweating

MI: therapeutic treatment[edit]

O BATMAN![4]p. 32

Oxygen

Beta blocker

ASA

Thrombolytics (e.g. heparin)

Morphine

Ace prn

Nitroglycerin

MI: treatment of acute MI[edit]

COAG:[4]p. 32

Cyclomorph

Oxygen

Aspirin

Glycerol trinitrate

Murmur attributes[edit]

"IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves):[4]p. 32

Intensity

Loccasion

Pitch

Quality

Radiation

Shape

Timing

Murmurs: innocent murmur features[edit]

8 S's:[4]p. 32

Soft

Systolic

Short

Sounds (S1 & S2) normal

Symptomless

Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)

Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)

Sternal depression

Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration[edit]

LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration

RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration.[4]p. 32

Murmurs: questions to ask[edit]

SCRIPT:[4]p. 32

Site

Character (e.g. harsh, soft, blowing)

Radiation

Intensity

Pitch

Timing

Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic[edit]

PASS:Pulmonic & Aortic

Stenosis=Systolic.

PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic

Insufficiency=Diastolic.[4]p. 32

Pericarditis: causes[edit]

CARDIAC RIND:[4]p. 34

Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm

Radiation

Drugs (such as hydralazine)

Infections

Acute renal failure

Cardiac infarction

Rheumatic fever

Injury

Neoplasms

Dressler's syndrome

Pericarditis: EKG[edit]

PericarditiS:[4]p. 34

PR depression in precordial leads.

ST elevation.

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria[edit]

SICVD:[4]p. 34

Symmetry of leg musculature

Integrity of skin

Color of toenails

Varicose veins

Distribution of hair

Pulseless electrical activity: causes[edit]

PATCH MED:[4]p. 34

Pulmonary embolus

Acidosis

Tension pneumothorax

Cardiac tamponade

Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia

Myocardial infarction

Electrolyte derangements

Drugs

ST elevation causes in ECG[edit]

ELEVATION:[4]p. 34

Electrolytes

LBBB

Early repolarization

Ventricular hypertrophy

Aneurysm

Treatment (e.g. pericardiocentesis)

Injury (AMI, contusion)

Osborne waves (hypothermia)

Non-occlusive vasospasm

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment[edit]

ABCDE:[4]p. 35

Adenosine

Beta-blocker

Calcium channel antagonist

Digoxin

Excitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment[edit]

LAMB:[4]p. 35

Lidocaine

Amiodarone

Mexiltene/ Magnesium

Beta-blocker

White Blood Cell Count[edit]

Never let monkeys eat bananas:

Neutrophils

lymphocytes

monocytes

eosinophils

basophils[26]

Emergency medicine[edit]

Acute LVF management[edit]

LMNOP:[4]

Lasix (furosemide)

Morphine (diamorphine)

Nitrates

Oxygen (sit patient up)

Pulmonary ventilation (if doing badly)

Atrial fibrillation: causes of new onset[edit]

THE ATRIAL FIBS:[4]

Thyroid

Hypothermia

Embolism (P.E.)

Alcohol

Trauma (cardiac contusion)

Recent surgery (post CABG)

Ischemia

Atrial enlargement

Lone or idiopathic

Fever, anemia, high-output states

Infarct

Bad valves (mitral stenosis)

Stimulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine)

GCS Intubation[edit]

Under 8, intubate.[27]

Ipecac: contraindications[edit]

4 C's:[4]

Comatose

Convulsing

Corrosive

hydroCarbon

JVP: raised JVP differential[edit]

PQRST(EKG waves):[4]

Pericardial effusion

Quantity of fluid raised (fluid over load)

Right heart failure

Superior vena caval obstruction

Tricuspid stenosis/Tricuspid regurgitation/Tamponade (cardiac)

MI: immediate treatment[edit]

DOGASH:[4]

Diamorphine

Oxygen

GTN spray

Asprin 300 mg

Streptokinase

Heparin

PEA/Asystole (ACLS): cause[edit]

ITCHPAD[4]

Infarction

Tension pneumothorax

Cardiac tamponade

Hypovolemia/Hypothermia/Hypo-,Hyperkalemia/Hypomagnesmia/Hypoxemia

Pulmonary embolism

Acidosis

Drug overdose

Rapid sequence intubation (RSI)[edit]

SOAP ME

Suction

Oxygen

Airway Equipment

Positioning

Monitoring & Meds

EtCO2 & other Equipment[28]

Rapid Sequence intubation Medications (RSI) (CCRx)

Very Calmly Engage the Respiratory System

Vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg [29]

Cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg [29]

Etomidate 0.3 mg/kg [29]

Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg-1.2 mg/kg [29]

Succinylcholine 1 mg/kg [29]

Shock: signs and symptoms[edit]

TV SPARC CUBE:[4]

Thirst

Vomitting

Sweating

Pulse weak

Anxious

Respirations shallow/rapid

Cool

Cyanotic

Unconscious

BP low

Eyes blank

Shock: types[edit]

RN CHAMPS (Alternatively: "MR. C.H. SNAP", or "NH CRAMPS"):

Respiratory

Neurogenic

Cardiogenic

Hemorrhagic

Anaphylactic

Metabolic

Psychogenic

Septic[30]

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes[edit]

BATS:[4]

Berry aneurysm

Arteriovenous malformation/Adult polycystic kidney disease

Trauma

Stroke

Syncope causes, by system[edit]

HEAD HEART VESSELS:[4]

CNS causes include HEAD:

Hypoxia/Hypoglycemia

Epilepsy

Anxiety

Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA)

Cardiac causes are HEART:

Heart attack

Embolism (PE)

Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma)

Rhythm disturbance, ventricular

Tachycardia

Vascular causes are VESSELS:

Vasovagal

Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia)

Situational

Subclavian steal

ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia)

Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's, diabetic vascular neuropathy)

Sensitive carotid sinus

Tension pneumothorax: signs and symptoms[edit]

P-THORAX[20]

Pleuritic pain

Tracheal deviation

Hyperresonance

Onset sudden

Reduced breath sounds (and dyspnea)

Absent fremitus

X-ray shows collapse

Ventricular fibrillation: treatment[edit]

Shock, Shock, Shock, Everybody Shock, Little Shock, Big Shock, Momma Shock, Poppa Shock:[4]

Shock= Defibrillate

Everybody= Epinephrine

Little= Lidocaine

Big= Bretylium

Momma= MgSO4

Poppa= Pocainamide

Interviewing / Physical exam[edit]

Abdominal Assessment[edit]

To assess abdomen, palpate all 4 quadrants for DR. GERM:

Distension: liver problems, bowel obstruction

Rigidity (board like): bleeding

Guarding: muscular tension when touched

Eviseration/ Ecchymosis

Rebound tenderness: infection

Masses

Altered Level of Consciousness: Reasons[edit]

AEIOU TIPS

Alcohol

Epilepsy, Electrolytes, and Encephalopathy

Insulin

Overdose, Oxygen

Underdose, Uremia

Trauma, Temperature

Infection

Psychogenic, Poisons

Stroke, Shock[31]

Cause of symptoms[edit]

OPQRST (Works well for cardiac, and respiratory patients.)[32]

Onset of the event

Provocation or palliation

Quality of the pain

Region and radiation

Severity

Time

Fetal Monitoring[edit]

VEAL CHOP

FHR Pattern: Variable Early Deceleration Acceleration Late Deceleration
Meaning: Cord compression Head compression O2 Placental Insufficiency
  [33]

Neurovascular Assessment[edit]

5 P's:

Pain

Pallor

Paresthesia

Pulse

Paralysis[34]

Trauma assessment[edit]

DCAP-BTLS

Deformities & Discolorations

Contusions

Abrasions & Avulsion

Penetrations & Punctures

Burns

Tenderness

Lacerations

Swelling & Symmetry

Toxicological seizures: Causes[edit]

OTIS CAMPBELL

Organophosphates

Tricyclic antidepressants

Isoniazid, Insulin

Sympathomimetics

Camphor, Cocaine

Amphetamines

Methylxanthines

PCP, Propoxyphene, Phenol, Propranolol

Benzodiazepine withdrawal, Botanicals

Ethanol withdrawal

Lithium, Lidocaine

Lindane, Lead[35]

Vomiting: non-GIT differential[edit]

ABCDEFGHI:

Acute renal failure

Brain [increased ICP]

Cardiac [inferior MI]

DKA

Ears [labyrinthitis]

Foreign substances [paracetamol, theo, etc.]

Glaucoma

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Infection [pyelonephritis, meningitis]

Heart valve auscultation sites[edit]

"All Patients Take Meds":

Reading from top left:

Aortic

Pulmonary

Tricuspid

Mitral

Glasgow coma scale: components and numbers[edit]

Scale types is 3 V's:

Visual response

Verbal response

Vibratory (motor) response Scale scores are 4,5,6:

Scale of 4: see so much more

Scale of 5: talking jive

Scale of 6: feels the pricks (if testing motor by pain withdrawal)

Mental state examination: stages in order[edit]

"Assessed Mental State To Be Positively Clinically Unremarkable":

Appearance and behaviour [observe state, clothing...]

Mood [recent spirit]

Speech [rate, form, content]

Thinking [thoughts, perceptions]

Behavioural abnormalities

Perception abnormalities

Cognition [time, place, age...]

Understanding of condition [ideas, expectations, concerns]

History[edit]

SAMPLE history

Signs and Symptoms

Allergies

Medications

Past medical history, injuries, illnesses

Last meal/intake

Events leading up to the injury and/or illness

Orthopaedic Assessment[edit]

CLORIDE FPP

Character: sharp or dull pain

Loccasion: region (joint) of origin

Onset: sudden vs. gradual

Radiation:

Intensity: how severe (scale 1-10), impact on ADLs (activities of daily living), is it getting better, worse or staying the same?

Duration: acute vs. chronic

Events associated: falls, morning stiffness, swelling, redness, joint clicking or locking, muscle cramps, muscle wasting, movement limitation, weakness, numbness or tingling, fever, chills, trauma (mechanism of injury), occupation activities, sports, repetitive movements

Frequency: intermittent vs. constant, have you ever had this pain before?

Palliative factors: is there anything that makes it better? (rest, activity, meds, heat, cold)

Provocative factors: is there anything that makes it worse? (rest, activity, etc.)[36]

Pain history checklist[edit]

SOCRATES:

Site

Onset

Character

Radiation

Alleviating factors/ Associated symptoms

Timing (duration, frequency)

Exacerbating factors

Severity

Alternatively, Signs and Symptoms with the 'S'

PLOTRADIO

Past history

Location

Onset/offset

Type/character (of pain)

Radiation

Aggravating/alleviating factors

Duration

Intensity

Other associated symptoms

Abdominal swelling causes[edit]

9 F's:

Fat

Feces

Fluid

Flatus

Fetus

Full-sized tumors

Full bladder

Fibroids

False pregnancy

Head Trauma: rapid neuro exam[edit]

12 P's

Psychological (mental) status

Pupils: size, symmetry, reaction

Paired ocular movements

Papilloedema

Pressure (BP, increased ICP)

Pulse and rate

Paralysis, Paresis

Pyramidal signs

Pin prick sensory response

Pee (incontinent)

Patellar reflex

Ptosis

Ocular bobbing vs. dipping[edit]

"Breakfast is fast, Dinner is slow, both go down":

Bobbing is fast

Dipping is slow

In both, the initial movement is down.

Pupillary dilation (persistent): causes[edit]

3AM:

3rd nerve palsy

Anti-muscarinic eye drops (e.g. to facilitate fundoscopy)

Myotonic pupil

Clinical examination: initial Inspection of patient from end of bed[edit]

ABC:

Appearance (SOB, pain, etc.)

Behaviour

Connections (drips, inhalers, etc. connected to patient)

Differential diagnosis checklist[edit]

"A VITAMIN C"

A and C stand for Acquired and Congenital

VITAMIN stands for:

Vascular

Inflammatory (Infectious and non-Infectious)

Trauma/ Toxins

Autoimmune

Metabolic

Idiopathic

Neoplastic

  • Example usage: List causes of decreased vision: Central retinal artery occlusion, Retinitis pigmentosa, Perforation to gobe, Chronic Gentamycin use, Ruematoid arthritis, Diabetes, Idiopathic, Any eye tumor, Myopia.

Primitive Reflexes[edit]

"Absent Reflexes Should Get Paediatrics Professors Mad"

Absent: Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex

Reflexes: Rooting Reflex

Should: Suck Reflex

Get: Grasp Reflex

Paediatrics: Placing Reflex

Professors: Parachute Reflex

Mad: Moro Reflex

Family history (FH)[edit]

BALD CHASM:

Blood pressure (high)

Arthritis

Lung disease

Diabetes

Cancer

Heart disease

Alcoholism

Stroke

Mental health disorders (depression, etc.)

Four point physical assessment of a disease[edit]

"I'm A People Person"

Inspection

Auscultation

Percussion

Palpation

Medical history: disease checklist[edit]

MJ THREADS:

Myocardial infarction

Jaundice

Tuberculosis

Hypertension

Rheumatic fever/ Rheumatoid arthritis

Epilepsy

Asthma

Diabetes

Strokes

Past medical history (PMH)[edit]

VAMP THIS:

Vices (tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sexual risks)

Allergies

Medications

Preexisting medical conditions

Trauma

Hospitalizations

Immunizations

Surgeries

Patient examination organization[edit]

SOAP:

Subjective: what the patient says.

Objective: what the examiner observes.

Assessment: what the examiner thinks is going on.

Plan: what they intend to do about it

Patient profile (PP)[edit]

LADDERS:

Living situation/ Lifestyle

Anxiety

Depression

Daily activities (describe a typical day)

Environmental risks/ Exposure

Relationships

Support system/ Stress

Physical exam for 'lumps and bumps'[edit]

"6 Students and 3 Teachers go for CAMPFIRE":

Site, Size, Shape, Surface, Skin, Scar

Tenderness, Temperature, Transillumination

Consistency

Attachment

Mobility

Pulsation

Fluctuation

Irreducibility

Regional lymph nodes

Edge

Physical examination - correct order[edit]

"I Palpate People's Abdomens":

Inspection

Palpation

Percussion

Auscultation

Short stature causes[edit]

RETARD HEIGHT:

Rickets

Endocrine (cretinism, hypopituitarism, Cushing's)

Turner syndrome

Achondroplasia

Respiratory(suppurative lung disease)

Down syndrome

Hereditary

Environmental (postirradiation, postinfectious)

IUGR

GI (malabsorption)

Heart (congenital heart disease)

Tilted backbone (scoliosis)

Sign vs. symptom[edit]

sIgn: something I can detect even if patient is unconscious. sYMptom is something only hYM knows about.

Surgical sieve for diagnostic categories[edit]

INVESTIGATIONS:

Iatrogenic

Neoplastic

Vascular

Endocrine

Structural/ Mechanical

Traumatic

Inflammatory

Genetic/ Congenital

Autoimmune

Toxic

Infective

Old age/ Degenerative

Nutritional

Spontaneous/ Idiopathic

Surgical sieve for diagnostic categories (alternate)[edit]

PAST MIDNIGHT:

Psychological

Autoimmune

Spontaneous/idiopathic

Toxic

Metabolic

Inflammatory

Degenerative

Neoplastic

Inflammatory

Genetic

Hematological

Traumatic

VITAMIN CDEF:

Vascular

Infective/inflammatory

Traumatic

Autoimmune

Metabolic

Iatrogenic/idiopathic

Neoplastic

Congenital

Degenerative/developmental

Endocrine/environmental

Functional

Breast history checklist[edit]

LMNOP:

Lump

Mammary changes

Nipple changes

Other symptoms

Patient risk factors

Delivering Bad News[edit]

SPIKES:

Setting up

Perception

Invitation

Knowledge

Emotions

Strategy and Summary

Neurology[edit]

Chorea: common causes[edit]

St. VITUS'S DANCE:[4]

Sydenhams

Vascular

Increased RBC's (polycythemia)

Toxins: CO, Mg, Hg

Uremia

SLE

Senile chorea

Drugs

APLA syndrome

Neurodegenerative conditions: HD, neuroacanthocytosis, DRPLA

Conception related: pregnancy, OCP's

Endocrine: hyperthyroidism, hypo-, hyperglycemia

Congenital myopathy: features[edit]

DREAMS:[4]

Dominantly inherited, mostly

Reflexes decreased

Enzymes normal

Apathetic floppy baby

Milestones delayed

Skeletal abnormalities

Dementia: reversible dementia causes[edit]

DEMENTIA:[4]

Drugs/Depression

Elderly

Multi-infarct/Medication

Environmental

Nutritional

Toxins

Ischemia

Alcohol

Stroke risk factors[edit]

HEADS:[4]

Hypertension/ Hyperlipidemia

Elderly

Atrial fib

Diabetes mellitus/ Drugs (cocaine)

Smoking/Sex (male)

Horner Syndrome[edit]

Horny PAMELA:

Ptosis

Anhydrosis

Miosis

Enophtalmos

Loss of ciliary-spinal reflex

Anisocoria

Pathology[edit]

Acute intermittent porphyria: signs and symptoms[edit]

5 Ps:[37]

Pain in the abdomen

Polyneuropathy

Psychological abnormalities

Pink urine

Precipitated by drugs (including barbiturates, oral contraceptives, and sulfa drugs)

Acute ischemia: signs [especially limbs][edit]

6 P's:

Pain

Pallor

Pulselessness

Paralysis

Paraesthesia

Perishingly cold

Anemia (normocytic): causes[edit]

ABCD:

Acute blood loss

Bone marrow failure

Chronic disease

Destruction (hemolysis)

Anemia causes (simplified)[edit]

ANEMIA:

Anemia of chronic disease

No folate or B12

Ethanol

Marrow failure & hemaglobinopathies

Iron deficient

Acute & chronic blood loss

Atherosclerosis risk factors[edit]

"You're a SAD BET with these risk factors":

Sex: male

Age: middle-aged, elderly

Diabetes mellitus

BP high: hypertension

Elevated cholesterol

Tobacco

Carcinoid syndrome: components[edit]

CARCinoid:

Cutaneous flushing

Asthmatic wheezing

Right sided valvular heart lesions

Cramping and diarrhea

Cushing syndrome[edit]

CUSHING:

Central obesity/ Cervical fat pads/ Collagen fiber weakness/ Comedones (acne)

Urinary free corisol and glucose increase

Striae/ Suppressed immunity

Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism

Iatrogenic (Increased administration of corticosteroids)

Noniatrogenic (Neoplasms)

Glucose intolerance/Growth retardation

Diabetic ketoacidosis: I vs. II[edit]

ketONEbodies are seen in type ONEdiabetes.

Gallstones: risk factors[edit]

5 F's:

Fat

Female

Fair (gallstones more common in Caucasians)

Fertile (premenopausal- increased estrogen is thought to increase cholesterol levels in bile and decrease gallbladder contractions)

Forty or above (age)[38]

Hepatomegaly: 3 common causes, 3 rarer causes[edit]

Common are 3 C's:

Cirrhosis

Carcinoma

Cardiac failure

Rarer are 3 C's:

Cholestasis

Cysts

Cellular infiltration

Hyperkalemia (signs and symptoms)[edit]

MURDER[20]

Muscle weakness

Urine: oliguria, anuria

Respiratory distress

Decreased cardiac contractility

EKG changes (peaked T waves; QRS widening)

Reflexes: Hyperreflexia or areflexia (flaccid)

Hypernatremia (signs and symptoms)[edit]

FRIED SALT[20]

FRIED

Fever (low), Flushed skin

Restless (irritable)

Increased fluid retention, Increased blood pressure

Edema (peripheral and pitting)

Decreased urinary output, Dry mouth

SALT

Skin flushed

Agitated

Low-grade fever

Thirst

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: which has cobblestones[edit]

Crohn's has Cobblestones on endoscopy.

Morphine: effects[edit]

MORPHINES:

Miosis

Orthostatic hypotension

Respiratory depression

Pain suppression

Histamine release/Hormonal alterations

Increased ICT

Nausea

Euphoria

Sedation

Kwashiorkor: distinguishing from Marasmus[edit]

FLAME:

Fatty

Liver

Anemia

Malabsorption

Edema

Pancreatitis: causes[edit]

I GET SMASHED:

Idiopathic

Gallstones

Ethanol

Trauma

Steroids

Mumps

Autoimmune

Scorpion sting

Hhyperlipidaemia/hypercalcaemia

ERCP

Drugs[39]

PKU findings[edit]

PKU:

Pale hair, skin

Krazy (neurological abnormalities)

Unpleasant smell

Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine[edit]

"MorPHINE:Fine. AmPHETamine:Fat":

Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).

Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat).

Pericarditis findings[edit]

PERICarditis:

Pulsus paradoxus

ECG changes

Rub

Increased JVP

Chest pain [worse on inspiration, better when leaning forward]

Gout vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findings[edit]

P seduogout crystals are:

P ositive birefringent

P olygon shaped

Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals. Also, gout classically strikes great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi.

Signs of Chronic Liver Disease[edit]

abcdefghij

Asterixis, Ascites, Ankle oedema, Atrophy of testicles

Bruising

Clubbing/ Colour change of nails (leuconychia)

Dupuytren’s contracture

Encephalopathy / palmar Erythema

Foetor hepaticus

Gynaecomastia

Hepatomegaly

Increase size of parotids

Jaundice[40]

Pharmacology[edit]

Sedatives and hypnotics drugs[edit]

Myosis

Out of it (sedation)

Respiratory depression

Pneumonia

Hypotension

Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)

Nausea

Emesis

Psychiatry[edit]

Conduct disorder vs. Antisocial personality disorder[edit]

Conduct disorder is seen in Children. Antisocial personality disorder is seen in Adults.

Depression: symptoms and signs (DSM-IV criteria)[edit]

AWESOME:

Affect flat

Weight change (loss or gain)

Energy, loss of

Sad feelings/ Suicide thoughts or plans or attempts/ Sexual inhibition/ Sleep change (loss or excess)/ Social withdrawal

Others (guilt, loss of pleasure, hopeless)

Memory loss

Emotional blunting

Depression[edit]

UNHAPPINESS:

Understandable (such as bereavement, major stresses)

Neurotic (high anxiety personalities, negative parental upbringing Hypochondriasis)

Agitation (usually organic causes such as dementia)

Pseudodementia

Pain

Importuniing (whingeing, complaining)

Nihilistic

Endogenous

Secondary (i.e. cancer at the head of the pancreas, bronchogenic cancer)

Syndromal

Erikson's developmental stages[edit]

"The sad tale of Erikson Motors":

  • The stages in order by age group:

Mr. Trust and MsTrust had an auto they were ashamed of. She took the initiative to find the guilty party. She found the industry was inferior. They were making cars with dents [identity] and rolling fuses [role confusion]. Mr. N.T. Macy [intimacy] isolated the problem, General TVT absorbed the cost. In the end, they found the tires were just gritty and the should have used de- spare!

Mania: cardinal symptoms[edit]

DIG FAST:

Distractibility

Indiscretion (DSM-IV's "excessive involvement in pleasurable activities")

Grandiosity

Flight of ideas

Activity increase

Sleep deficit (decreased need for sleep)

Talkativeness (pressured speech)

Mania: diagnostic criteria[edit]

Must have 3 of MANIAC:

Mouth (pressure of speech)/ Moodl

Activity increased

Naughty (disinhibition)

Insomnia

Attention (distractability)

Confidence (grandiose ideas)

Parasomnias: time of onset[edit]

SLeep terrors and SLeepwalking occur during SLow-wave sleep (stages 3 & 4).NightmaRE occurs during REM sleep (and is REMembered).

Psychiatric review of symptoms[edit]

"Depressed Patients Seem Anxious, So Claim Psychiatrists":

Depression and other mood disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymia)

Personality disorders (primarily borderline personality disorder)

Substance abuse disorders

Anxiety disorders (panic disorder with agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder)

Somatization disorder, eating disorders (these two disorders are combined because both involve disorders of bodily perception)

Cognitive disorders (dementia, delirium)

Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, delusional disorder and psychosis accompanying depression, substance abuse or dementia)

Schizophrenia: negative features[edit]

4 A's:

Ambivalence

Affective incongruence

Associative loosening

Autism

Substance dependence: features (DSM IV)[edit]

WITHDraw IT:

  • 3 of 7 within 12-month period:

Withdrawal

Interest or Important activities given up or reduced

Tolerance

Harm to physical and psychosocial known but continue to use

Desire to cut down, control

Intended time, amount exceeded

Time spent too much

Radiology / Oncology[edit]

Anterior mediastinal masses[edit]

4 T's:

Teratoma

Thymoma

Testicular-type

T-cell / Hodgkin's lymphoma

Dermatomyositis or polymyositis: risk of underlying malignancy[edit]

Risk is 30% at age 30. Risk is 40% at age 40, and so on.

Chest radiograph: checklist to examine[edit]

"Pamela Found Our Rotation Particularly Exciting; Very Highly Commended Mainly 'Cus She Arouses":

Patient details

Film details

Objects (e.g. lines, electrodes)

Rotation

Penetration

Expansion

Vessels

Hila

Costophrenic angles

Mediastinum

Cardiothoracic Ratio

Soft tissues and bones

Air (diaphragm, pneumothorax, subcut. emphysema)

Chest X-ray interpretation[edit]

Preliminary is ABCDEF:

AP or PA

Body position

Confirm name

Date

Exposure

Films for comparison

Analysis is ABCDEF:

Airways (hilar adenopathy or enlargement)

Breast shadows/ Bones (rib fractures, lytic bone lesions)

Cardiac silhoutte (cardiac enlargement)/ Costophrenic angles (pleural effusions)

Diaphragm (evidence of free air)/ Digestive tract

Edges (apices for fibrosis, pneumothorax, pleural thickening or plaques)/ Extrathoracic tissues

Fields (evidence of alveolar filling)/ Failure (alveolar air space disease with prominent vascularity with or without pleural effusions)

Chest X-ray: cavitating lesions differential[edit]

"If you see HOLES on chest X-ray, they are WEIRD":

Wegener's syndrome

Embolic (pulmonary, septic)

Infection (anaerobes, pneumocystis, TB)

Rheumatoid (necrobiotic nodules)

Developmental cysts (sequestration)

Histiocytosis

Oncological

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Environmental, occupational

Sarcoid

Alternatively: L=Left atrial myxoma

Lung cancer: main sites for distant metastases[edit]

BLAB:

Bone

Liver

Adrenals

Brain

Elbow ossification centers, in sequence[edit]

CRITOE: Capitellum

Radial head

Internal epicondyle

Trochlea

Olecranon

External epicondyle

Esophageal cancer: risk factors[edit]

ABCDEF:

Achalasia

Barret's esophagus

Corrosive esophagitis

Diverticuliis

Esophageal web

Familial

Head CT scan: evaluation checklist[edit]

"Blood Can Be Very Bad":

B lood

Cistern

Brain

Ventricles

Bone

Lung cancer: notorious consequences[edit]

SPEECH:

Superior vena cava syndrome

Paralysis of diaphragm (Phrenic nerve)

Ectopic hormones

Eaton-Lambert syndrome

Clubbing

Horner syndrome/ Hoarseness

Mole: signs of trouble[edit]

ABCDE:

Asymmetry

Border irregular

Colour irregular

Diameter usually > 0.5 cm

Elevation irregular

Neck sagittal x-ray: examination checklist[edit]

ABCD:

Anterior: look for swelling

Bones: examine each bone for fractures

Cartilage: look for slipped discs

Dark spots: ensure not abnormally big, or could mean excess blood

Osteoarthritis: x-ray signs[edit]

LOSS:

Loss of joint space

Osteopyhtes

Subcondral sclerosis

Subchondral cysts

Prognotic factors for cancer: general[edit]

PROGNOSIS:

Presentation (time & course)

Response to treatment

Old (bad prog.)

Good intervention (i.e. early)

Non-compliance with treatment

Order of differentiation (>1 cell type)

Stage of disease

Ill health

Spread (diffuse)

Pituitary endocrine functions often affected by pituitary-associated tumor[edit]

"Go Look For the Adenoma Please":

Tropic hormones affected by growth tumor are:

GnRH

LSH

FSH

ACTH

Prolactin function

T2 vs. T1 MRI scan[edit]

"WW 2" (World War II):

Water is White in a T2 scan.

Conversely, a T1 scan shows fat as being whiter.

Upper lobe shadowing: causes[edit]

BREASTS:

Beryllium

Radiation

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Sarcoidosis

TB

Siliconiosis

Respirology[edit]

Airway assessment[edit]

LEMON

Asthma management[edit]

ASTHMA

  • Adrenergic agonists
  • Steroids
  • Theophylline
  • Hydration
  • Masked oxygen
  • Anticholinergics[41]

COPD Assessment Test (CAT) [42][edit]

CAT items: CHEST SEA

To aid memory, think of the chest (or lungs) floating in a sea of yellow sputum, which is commonly seen in COPD.

  • Cough
  • Home-leaving confidence
  • Exercise tolerance (uphill/ 1 flight of stairs)
  • Sputum (phlegm/ mucus)
  • Tightness of chest
  • Sleep
  • Energy level
  • ADL at home

Croup symptoms[edit]

  • 3 S's:
    • Stridor
    • Subglottic swelling
    • Seal-bark cough

Miscellaneous[edit]

The following may or may not fit properly into one of the above categories. They are being stored in this section either temporarily or permanently. Categorize them if needed.

Cholinergic Crisis[edit]

SLUDGE and the Killer B's:

Salivation

Lacrimation

Urination

Diaphoresis, Diarrhea

Gastrointestinal cramping

Emesis

Bradycardia

Bronchospasm

Bronchorrhea[43]

also known as DUMBBELLS

Diarrhea

Urination

Miosis

Bradycardia

Bronchospasm

Emesis

Lacrimation

Loss of muscle strength

Salivation/Sweating

DISCO

DIGITALIS ISONIAZID SPIRILACTINE CIMETIDINE, KETOCONQZILE OESTROGEN

Drugs for Bradycardia and Hypotension[edit]

Isoproterenol

Dopamine

Epinephrine

Atropine Sulfate[citation needed]

Gynaecomastia causing drugs[edit]

Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers

Spironolactone

Digitalis

Cimetidine

Alcohol

Ketoconazole[44]

Diaphragm innervation[edit]

C3, 4, 5 Keeps the Diaphragm Alive[45]

Intubation preparation[edit]

7 P's

Preparation

Preoxygenation

Pretreatment

Paralysis with induction

Positioning

Placement of tube

Postintubation management[46]

Pentad of TTP[edit]

FAT RN:

Fever

Anemia

Thrombocytopenia

Renal

Neuro changes[47]

Pulmonary Edema: Treatment[edit]

LMNOP:

Lasix

Morphine

Nitro

Oxygen

Position/Positive pressure ventilation[48]

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Diagnostic symptoms[edit]

SOAP BRAIN MD

Serositis

Oral ulcers

Arthritis

P hotosensitivity, pulmonary fibrosis

Blood cells

Renal, Raynaud's

ANA

Immunologic (anti-Sm, anti-dsDNA)

Neuropsych

Malar rash

Discoid rash however, not in order of diagnostic importance.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ APGAR, V (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant.". Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia. 32 (4): 260–7. PMID 13083014. doi:10.1213/00000539-195301000-00041. 
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  6. ^ "Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome & Nerve Entrapments". Archived from the original on November 4, 2006. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  7. ^ http://doctor.medscape.com/viewarticle/413587 Archived December 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ MedicalMnemonics.com: 1182 7
  9. ^ MedicalMnemonics.com: 1094
  10. ^ MedicalMnemonics.com: 38
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  12. ^ Dennis Long (2006). Vive Les Verbes Français!: 6,000 Verbs to Add Savoir-Flair to Your French. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-07-147875-5. 
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  15. ^ Textbook of Basic Nursing by Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194; Medical Terminology for Dummies by Beverley Henderson and Jennifer Dorsey (For Dummies, 2008) p327
  16. ^ Caroline Bunker Rosdahl and Mary T. Kowalski, Textbook of Basic Nursing (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007) p194
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  20. ^ a b c d e Mega List of Mnemonics for Nurses & Nursing Students. Examville Study Guides. 2010. 
  21. ^ http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/notes/api%20notes%20h%20skeletal%20vertebrae.htm. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ Pharmacology nursing mnemonics
  23. ^ Principles of Pathophysiology
  24. ^ "Cardiovascular Mnemonics - Oxford Medical Education". Retrieved 2015-08-23. 
  25. ^ The Heart Block Poem
  26. ^ Connie Allen; Valerie Harper (5 January 2011). Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 418–. ISBN 978-0-470-59890-0. 
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  28. ^ "UMEM Educational Pearls". University of Maryland School of Medicine. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Drug Information Handbook 19th edition 2010-2011
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  32. ^ Coughlin, Christopher. EMT Emergency Medical Technician Crash Course. Research and Education Association. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7386-1006-1. 
  33. ^ NCLEX-RN EXCEL: Test Success through Unfolding Case Study Review. 
  34. ^ Andrews LW. "Neurovascular assessment.". Adv Clin Care. 5: 5–7. PMID 2222741. 
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  37. ^ Biochemistry Mnemonics for Health Sciences Students & Professionals. Examville Study Guides. p. 6. 
  38. ^ "Clinical Cases Cholelithiasis (Gallstones)". University of Michigan. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  39. ^ Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)
  40. ^ "Hepatology Mnemonics - Oxford Medical Education". Retrieved 2015-08-23. 
  41. ^ ASTHMA
  42. ^ "COPD Assessment Test" (PDF). 
  43. ^ Burchum, Jacqueline. Lehne's Pharmacology for Nursing Car. 
  44. ^ "Pharmacology Recall". Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  45. ^ Davies SJ. ""C3, 4, 5 Keeps the Diaphragm Alive." Is phrenic nerve palsy part of the pathophysiological mechanism in strangulation and hanging?". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 31: 100–2. PMID 19935388. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e3181c297e1. 
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  47. ^ Samir Mehta (1 October 2009). Step-Up to USMLE Step 1: A High-Yield, Systems-Based Review for the USMLE Step 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-1-60547-470-0. 
  48. ^ "PULMONARY EDEMA" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2015. 

Further reading[edit]