List of medical triads and pentads

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A medical triad is a group of three signs or symptoms for diagnosis of various conditions. A medical pentad is a group of five.

Triads[edit]

Name Triad Disease
Alkaptonuria Triad Ochronotic arthritis, Ochronotic pigmentation, Urine darkens on standing Alkaptonuria
Anderson Triad Bronchiectasis, Cystic fibrosis
Beck's triad Muffled heart sound, Distended neck veins, Hypotension Cardiac tamponade
Charcot's cholangitis triad Right Upper Quadrant Pain, Fever, Jaundice Ascending cholangitis
Charcot's neurologic triad scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus Multiple sclerosis
Triad of congenital toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications Congenital toxoplasmosis
Triad of congenital rubella cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus, sensorineural hearling loss Congenital rubella
Congestive Heart Failure Triad Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tender hepatomegaly Congestive Heart Failure
Cushing's triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure Bradycardia, Bradypnea, Hypertension head injuries
Dieulafoy's triad hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over McBurney's point Acute appendicitis
Fanconi syndrome triad Aminoaciduria, Proteinuria, Phosphaturia Fanconi syndrome
Female athlete triad eating disorders, amenorrhoea, decreased bone mineral density
Gradenigos Triad Sixth cranial n. Palsy, Persistent ear discharge, Deep seated retro orbital pain Gradenigo's syndrome
Triad of opiod overdose Respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, CNS depression
Triad of granulomatosis with polyangiitis Focal necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing granulomas in the lung and upper airway, necrotizing glomerulonephritis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Hakim Triad[1] (Adams Triad) Urinary incontinence, Gait disturbance, Dementia Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Hemobilia - Triad (Triad of Sandblom) Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic
Triad of Meigs' Syndrome ascites, pleural effusion, benign ovarian tumor Meigs' syndrome
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Triad Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure
Hutchinson's triad Hutchison's teeth, Interstitial keratitis, Nerve deafness Congenital syphilis
Kartagener Syndrome Triad Triad of bronchiectasis, Recurrent sinusitis, and, Situs inversus, Kartagener syndrome
Leriche's syndrome Triad Triad of bilateral hip, thigh, and buttock claudication, impotence, and symmetric atrophy of the bilateral lower extremities due to chronic ischemia Leriche's syndrome
Meckler's triad vomiting, pain and subcutaneous emphysema Boerhaave syndrome
Meltzer's triad purpura, arthralgias, weakness/myalgias Cryoglobulinemia
O’ Donoghue Triad (Also known as Unhappy Triad) Twisting force in a weight bearing knee joint causes injury to Medial collateral ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament, Medial meniscus
Triad of Reactive arthritis Urethritis, conjunctivitis and anterior uveitis, arthritis Reactive arthritis
Saint's Triad Gall stones, Diverticulosis, Hiatus hernia
Samter's triad (also known as Acetylsalicylic acid triad or Widal's triad or Francis' triad or Aspirin triad) Aspirin sensitivity, Nasal polyps, Asthma Aspirin-induced asthma
Tetany in Children - Triad Stridor, Carpopedal spasm, Convulsions Tetany
Triad of Albinism Black locks, Occulo-cutaneous Albinism, Deafness of sensorineural type Albinism
Triad of Alport Syndrome Sensorineural deafness, Progressive renal failure, Ocular anomalies Alport syndrome
Triad of Behcet's Syndrome Recurrent oral ulcers, Genital ulcers, Iridocyclitis Behcet's Syndrome
Triad of Causes of Biotin Deficiency Glossitis, Alopecia, Dermatitis
Triad of Henoch–Schönlein purpura Palpable purpura on buttock/legs, arthralgias, abdominal pain IgA vasculitis
Triad of Hypernephroma Pain, hematuria, renal mass Hypernephroma
Triad of Kwashiorkor Growth retardation, Mental changes, Edema Kwashiorkor
Triad of Plummer-Vinson syndrome Iron defiency anemia, dysphagia, esophageal webs Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Triple Test (for diagnosis of downs syndrome) Estimation of hcg, Estriol, and AFP
Trotter's Triad Conductive deafness, Immobility of homolateral soft palate, Trigeminal neuralgia
Unhappy Triad ACL, MCL, Medial Meniscus injury Knee Injury
Virchow's triad Stasis, Hypercoagulability, Vessel injury Venous thrombosis
Triad of Wernicke encephalopathy Confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia Wernicke encephalopathy
Whipple's Triad Hypoglycaemia during attacks, resolution of symptoms upon correction of blood glucose, symptoms brought about by low glucose states. Insulinoma
Classic Triad Chest pain, Heart failure, Syncope Aortic Stenosis

Pentads[edit]

Name Pentad Disease
Pentad of TTP Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, Fever, Disturbed neurological function, Renal failure, Thrombocytopenia Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Pentalogy of Cantrell Omphalocele, Anterior diaphragmatic hernia, Sternal cleft, Ectopia cordis, Intracardiac defect. Thoracoabdominal syndrome
Pentalogy of Fallot Fallot's tetralogy with, in addition, a patent foramen ovale or, Atrial septal defect.
Reynolds Pentad Abdominal pain, Fever, Jaundice, Shock and Depression of central nervous system function acute suppurative cholangitis

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wallenstein, Matthew B.; McKhann, Guy M. (July 2010). "Salomón Hakim and the discovery of normal-pressure hydrocephalus". Neurosurgery. 67 (1): 155–159; discussion 159. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000370058.12120.0e. ISSN 1524-4040. PMID 20568668. 

See also[edit]