List of medical triads and pentads

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A medical triad is a group of three signs or symptoms for diagnosis of various conditions. A medical pentad is a group of five.


Name Triad Disease
Alkaptonuria Triad Ochronotic arthritis, Ochronotic pigmentation, Urine darkens on standing Alkaptonuria
Anderson Triad Bronchiectasis, Cystic fibrosis
Beck's triad Muffled heart sound, Distended neck veins, Hypotension Cardiac tamponade
Charcot's cholangitis triad Right RUQ Pain, Fever, Jaundice Ascending cholangitis
Charcot's neurologic triad scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus Multiple sclerosis
Congestive Heart Failure Triad Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tender hepatomegaly Congestive Heart Failure
Cushing's triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure Bradycardia, Bradypnea, Hypertension head injuries
Dieulafoy's triad hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over McBurney's point Acute appendicitis
Fanconi syndrome triad Aminoaciduria, Proteinuria, Phosphaturia Fanconi syndrome
Female athlete triad eating disorders, amenorrhoea, decreased bone mineral density
Gradenigos Triad Sixth cranial n. Palsy, Persistent ear discharge, Deep seated retro orbital pain Gradenigo's syndrome
Hakim Triad[1] (Adams Triad) Urinary incontinence, Gait disturbance, Dementia Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Hemobilia - Triad (Triad of Sandblom) Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Triad Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure
Hutchinson's triad Hutchison's teeth, Interstitial keratitis, Nerve deafness Congenital syphilis
Kartagener Syndrome Triad Triad of bronchiectasis, Recurrent sinusitis, and, Situs inversus, Kartagener syndrome
Meckler's triad vomiting, pain and subcutaneous emphysema Boerhaave syndrome
O’ Donoghue Triad (Also known as Unhappy Triad) Twisting force in a weight bearing knee joint causes injury to Medial collateral ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament, Medial meniscus
Saint's Triad Gall stones, Diverticulosis, Hiatus hernia
Samter's triad (also known as Acetylsalicylic acid triad or Widal's triad or Francis' triad or Aspirin triad) Aspirin sensitivity, Nasal polyps, Asthma Aspirin-induced asthma
Tetany in Children - Triad Stridor, Carpopedal spasm, Convulsions Tetany
Triad of Albinism Black locks, Occulo-cutaneous Albinism, Deafness of sensorineural type Albinism
Triad of Alport Syndrome Sensorineural deafness, Progressive renal failure, Ocular anomalies Alport syndrome
Triad of Behcet's Syndrome Recurrent oral ulcers, Genital ulcers, Iridocyclitis Behcet's Syndrome
Triad of Causes of Biotin Deficiency Glossitis, Alopecia, Dermatitis
Triad of Hypernephroma Pain, hematuria, renal mass Hypernephroma
Triad of Kwashiorkor Growth retardation, Mental changes, Edema Kwashiorkor
Triple Test (for diagnosis of downs syndrome) Estimation of hcg, Estriol, and AFP
Trotter's Triad Conductive deafness, Immobility of homolateral soft palate, Trigeminal neuralgia
Unhappy Triad ACL, MCL, Medial Meniscus injury Knee Injury
Virchow's triad Stasis, Hypercoagulability, Vessel injury Venous thrombosis
Whipple's Triad Hypoglycaemia during attacks, S.glucose 10%, Hypergammaglobulinemia, Lytic bone lesions Insulinoma
Classic Triad Chest pain, Heart failure, Syncope Aortic Stenosis


Name Pentad Disease
Pentad of TTP Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, Fever, Disturbed neurological function, Renal failure, Thrombocytopenia Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Pentalogy of Fallot Fallot's tetralogy with, in addition, a patent foramen ovale or, Atrial septal defect.
Reynolds Pentad Abdominal pain, Fever, Jaundice, Shock and Depression of central nervous system function acute suppurative cholangitis


  1. ^ Wallenstein, Matthew B.; McKhann, Guy M. (July 2010). "Salomón Hakim and the discovery of normal-pressure hydrocephalus". Neurosurgery 67 (1): 155–159; discussion 159. ISSN 1524-4040. PMID 20568668. 

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