List of megaprojects
Megaprojects may be defined as:
- Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
- Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public"
Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.
This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.
- Airbus A380, a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by Airbus.
- Antonov An-225 (1988), the longest and heaviest aircraft in the world in service.
- Rockwell B-1 Lancer, a supersonic bomber with a variable-sweep wing built in the 1980s as a strategic bomber. It has since acquired conventional and multi-role capabilities.
- Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, a US heavy bomber with "low observable" stealth. Total program cost including development, engineering, and testing averaged $2.1 billion per aircraft in 1997.
- Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the first nuclear bomber, which cost 50% more than the development of the bombs in the Manhattan Project.
- Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, the longest-running bomber program in the world with decades of service, one of the largest military aircraft ever built.
- Boeing 2707 and Lockheed L-2000 supersonic aircraft projects, initiated in 1963 via a US government-funded competition to build the United States' first Supersonic Transport (SST), prototypes never built, ultimately canceled due to political, environmental and economic reasons in 1971.
- Boeing 747, a wide-body commercial airliner first produced in 1970, often referred to by the nickname Jumbo Jet, is among the world's most recognizable aircraft.
- Boeing 787, made in the United States with local and globally sourced parts, is the first major aircraft to be made largely out of composite materials
- Concorde, a supersonic passenger airliner, a product of an Anglo-French government treaty that combined the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation, first flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for twenty-seven years.
- Eurofighter Typhoon, a twin-engine canard–delta wing multirole aircraft designed and built by a consortium of three separate partner companies -- Alenia Aeronautica, BAE Systems, and Airbus Defence and Space—working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, that was formed in 1986.
- F-22 Raptor, a single seat, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter aircraft manufactured by Lockheed Martin that uses stealth technology.
- Rafale, a French twin-engine delta-wing fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. The Rafale is a multirole combat aircraft capable of undertaking air supremacy, interdiction, reconnaissance, and the airborne nuclear deterrent missions.
- Sukhoi PAK FA/HAL FGFA, two variants of fifth-generation single and twin-engine stealth jet fighters jointly being developed by Sukhoi OKB and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Russian and the Indian Air Forces, respectively. It is a combined effort by Russia and India
- F-35 Lightning II, a fifth-generation, single-seat, single-engine stealth multirole fighter manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Variants of the F-35 are planned to replace five classes of combat aircraft that are presently in use with roles as varied as close air support, tactical bombing, and air defense missions
- F/A-18 Hornet, a twin-engine supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole fighter jet, designed to intercept air threats and attack ground targets.
- KH-11 reconnaissance satellite, manufactured by Lockheed Corporation and launched between 1976 and 1990.
- Saab JAS 39 Gripen, a Swedish 4.5 generation Multirole Jet Fighter developed by SAAB since 1978. Estimated project cost is 19 billion USD.
- Tupolev Tu-144, the first supersonic transport aircraft, made by the Russian aircraft company Tupolev, first flown on 31 December 1968 and entered service on 26 December 1970.
- Tupolev Tu-160, the world's largest and heaviest combat aircraft, the world's largest supersonic aircraft, and the largest variable-sweep aircraft ever built (The North American XB-70 Valkyrie had a higher empty weight and maximum speed but never entered production)
- Chengdu J-20, a fifth-generation, stealth, twin-engine fighter aircraft prototype developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
- The Chernobyl New Safe Confinement is being built to enclose the #4 reactor that was destroyed in the Chernobyl disaster of 1986.
- The Fukushima disaster cleanup is ongoing, and includes the removal of spent nuclear fuel stored at the site of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.
- The New York City rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks, nearing completion[when?], are the result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center site.
- Cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Exxon Valdez oil spill, and AZF chemical factory explosion were megaprojects.
- Storing nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository is supposed to prevent a disaster from leaking nuclear waste, the Obama Administration has since cancelled this project for political reasons.
- Many hurricanes and typhoons have caused extensive damage and required large cleanup efforts, the largest of which included projects that targeted the damaged infrastructure. The list of costliest Atlantic hurricanes covers the ones in the Atlantic region, including Hurricane Katrina from 2005.
- Many earthquakes (and resultant tsunamis) have caused enough damage to infrastructure that enormous projects were undertaken. The 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami are some of the most notorious and recent events that led to a megaproject.
- Flooding is the cause of many disasters. Some have caused enough damage that a megaproject would be used to recover. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and the 2011 Mississippi River floods are examples.
- Volcano eruptions rarely affect major industrial area, but the cleanup and recovery from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in rural Washington State was of megaproject proportions.
- Major restoration was necessary after the destruction caused by World War I and II, some of which was paid for by German reparations for World War I and for World War II.
For Oil and gas projects, see Oil megaprojects
- Three Gorges Dam, the largest hydro-electric facility in the world, China.
- China will spend $370 billion in 2015-25 on atomic energy
- Kemper Project, or Kemper County Energy Facility, is the world's first Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant with Carbon Capture & Sequestration. The project is currently under construction, and is expected to open the first half of 2016, nearly two years behind schedule. It is the first IGCC CCS project to have entered into the construction phase.
- Boundary Dam Power Station, the world's first large-scale, coal-fired Carbon Capture & Storage plant.
- Olkiluoto 3, a nuclear power-plant in Eurajoki, Finland.
- Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station, is a project to construct some of the first new nuclear units in the United States in over 30 years, at an existing nuclear power plant in Jenkinsville, South Carolina.
- Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, is a project to construct two new nuclear units at an existing nuclear power plant in Waynesboro, Georgia.
- Atacama Large Millimeter Array
- Compact Linear Collider, (plan)
- Envisat, an Earth observation satellite of European Space Agency (2002–2012)
- European Extremely Large Telescope, worlds largest optical to mid infrared telescope.
- European Spallation Source, strongest ever spallation source for advanced and new material research development.
- European x-ray free electron laser, in Germany, plan operating in 2015 and used for material research.
- Copernicus-programma, €8.4 Billion European satellite project for global, total and permanent earth observations.
- Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, in Germany (2012–)
- Human Genome Project, investigation to determine human genetic sequence (1990-2003) - cost $14.5bn, but generated an output of $965bn, personal income exceeding $293bn and more than 4.3 million job-years of employment
- India-based Neutrino Observatory, (plan)
- International Linear Collider, (plan)
- ITER International nuclear fusion project, in France (2008-ongoing)
- Large Hadron Collider, a 14 TeV CERN particle accelerator, in Switzerland and France (2000-ongoing)
- Manhattan Project, in the United States (1945) - 30bn in 2012 dollars
- National Ignition Facility, United States nuclear fusion project (1997-ongoing)
- Neutrino Factory, (plan)
- Square Kilometre Array in Australia and southern Africa
- Superconducting Super Collider, canceled 40 TeV particle accelerator in Texas (1991–1993)
- Tevatron 1 TeV particle accelerator, in the United States (1983)
- Thirty Meter Telescope,
- Very Large Array, a radio astronomy observatory in the US
- Materials Genome Initiative and advanced manufacturing partnership
- Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a $2 billion particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (2011– )
- Apollo program (1960–1975) - 203.4 bn in 2015 dollars
- Avatar RLV, Indian version of the Space Shuttle, being developed by the DRDO and ISRO.
- Buran program, canceled Soviet space shuttle program (1980–1993)
- Cassini–Huygens, a joint NASA/ESA/ASI spacecraft mission studying the planet Saturn and its many natural satellites since 2004. The total cost of this project is about $3.26 billion.
- Chandrayaan program, a lunar exploration program of ISRO of India.
- Compass navigation system, an independent system of satellite navigation by People's Republic of China (Est. 2015–2017)
- Constellation program, cancelled planned moon landing spacecraft and space shuttle replacement, part lives on as future Crew Escape Vehicle for ISS (2005–2010)
- Gaia (spacecraft), an ESA's mission to create a 3D map of local Milky Way. ($1 billion)
- Galileo (spacecraft), a mission to Jupiter (1989–2003) ($1.5 billion as 2003.)
- Galileo Navigation Satellite System, a European Union and European Space Agency global satellite navigation system (Est. 2014)
- Global Positioning System, a global satellite navigation system created by the United States Air Force (1994)
- GLONASS, the Russian equivalent of GPS (1995)
- Herschel Space Observatory, ESA space observatory sensitive to the far infrared and submillimetre bands (€1,1 billion)
- Hubble Space Telescope
- International Space Station, multinational space station in low Earth orbit (1998–), 150bn in 2010 dollars
- IRNSS, the Indian equivalent of GPS developed by ISRO.
- James Webb Space Telescope (under construction, cost $8.8 billion in 2013)
- Juno (spacecraft), a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter (2011– )
- Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer, a planned mission to Jupiter (Est. 2022)
- Kennedy Space Center, The Main Spaceport in the USA.
- Mangalyaan, A Mars mission from ISRO of India. It is the first nation to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.
- Mars Science Laboratory, $2.5 billion
- Mir, Russian space station (1986–2001)
- Orion (spacecraft), a planned spacecraft that is being built by Lockheed Martin for NASA
- Planck (spacecraft), an ESA's mission to observing cosmic microwave background
- Soviet Moonshot, canceled moon landing program (1962–1969)
- Space Shuttle program (1972–2011) - 203.6 bn in 2015 dollars
Sports and culture projects
- 1976 Summer Olympics, Canada, C$1.6 billion total cost
- 2008 Summer Olympics, China, $40 billion
- 2012 Summer Olympics, United Kingdom, $15.2 billion
- 2014 Winter Olympics, Russia, $51 billion
- 2016 Summer Olympics, Brazil, $16.3 billion
- 2010 Commonwealth Games, India, $9.7 billion. Most expensive Commonwealth Games ever, held in Delhi, India.
- Every Olympic Game and FIFA World Cup in the 21st century has cost more than $1 billion in arenas, hotels etc., usually several billions.
- The current Yankee Stadium in New York City cost approximately $2.3 billion.
- The three newest National Football League stadiums—MetLife Stadium near New York City, AT&T Stadium in the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex, and Levi's Stadium in the San Francisco Bay Area—each cost over US$1 billion. The two NFL stadiums currently under construction, U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis and the Mercedes-Benz Stadium, are also expected to cost over $1 billion.
- The only cultural arena known to have exceeded $1 billion is Elbe Philharmonic Hall. Some of the most expensive are Copenhagen Opera House and Philharmonie de Paris, both at $500 million.
Planned cities and urban renewal projects
|Eko Atlantic City||Lagos State, Nigeria||Under development||$6,000,000,000 ||A planned city of Lagos State, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. The project broke ground in 2007 and is being spearheaded by South Energyx Nigeria Ltd. Upon completion the project anticipates 400,000 residents and a daily flow of 250,000 commuters.|
|Falconcity of Wonders||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$36,500,000,000|
|Centenary City||Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria||Under development||$18,000,000,000||Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on June 19, 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion.|
|Clark Green City||Pampanga, Philippines||Under construction||$59,288,000,000||The 9,450-hectare master-plannes property will be the Philippines’ most modern and the first technologically-integrated city with a mix of residential, commercial, agro-industrial, institutional and information technology developments. Modeled after South Korea's Songdo City, with sustainable buildings and efficient power and energy use operated by Singapore's SSR C-Solar power plant.|
|Songdo International Business District||Seoul, South Korea||Under development||$40,000,000,000||To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network. It was also constructed for the full establishment of Korea as a center of Eastern Asia.|
|China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)||Area from Kashgar, China to South coast of Pakistan||Under development||$46,000,000,000||aims to connect Gwadar Port in southwestern Pakistan to China’s northwestern autonomous region of Xinjiang, via a network of highways, railways and pipelines to transport oil and gas. The economic corridor is considered central to China–Pakistan relations and will run about 3,000 km from Gwadar to Kashgar. Other than transport infrastructure, the economic corridor will provide Pakistan with telecommunications and energy infrastructure. The project also aims to improve intelligence sharing between the countries.|
|Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor||Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India||Under development||$90,000,000,000||Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.|
|Modderfontein - New Gauteng City||Johannesburg Gauteng, South Africa||Under development||$70,000,000,000||Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later.|
|İstanbul Finance Center||İstanbul, Turkey||Under development||$5,000,000,000||Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir|
|Turkey Urban Renewal Project||Turkey||Under development||$4,000,000,000,000||Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey). Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.|
|Dubai Meydan City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$2,200,000,000|
|Masjid Al-Haram||Mecca, Saudi arabia||Under development||$21,000,000,000|
|Business Bay||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$30,000,000,000||Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.|
|Masdar City||United Arab Emirates||Under development||$22,000,000,000||The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.|
|Kingdom City||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia||Under development||$20,000,000,000||Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be Kingdom Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.|
|Navi Mumbai||India||Completed||World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.|
|Bogota Urban Renewal||Colombia||Under development||$50,000,000,000||One of the most ambitious projects in Latin American history. Includes building over 60 skyscrapers, 500 highrises, 3 new CBDs, a subway system, and a smart city near Usaquén. The project is meant to establish Bogota as the finanical, industrial, and technological capital of Latin America.|
|Roppongi Hills||Tokyo, Japan||Completed||$4,000,000,000||One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.|
|CityCenter||Las Vegas, United States||Completed||$11,000,000,000||The largest privately financed development in the United States.|
|Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment||Berlin, Germany||Completed||Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.|
|La Défense||Paris, France||Completed||The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.|
|King Abdullah Economic City||Saudi Arabia||Under development||$86,000,000,000||
No credible signs of development are present
|The World||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$14,000,000,000||Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.|
|Khazar Islands||Azerbaijan||Under development||$100,000,000,000||Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.|
|Madinat al-Hareer||Kuwait||Under development||$94,000,000,000||Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.|
|Barangaroo||Sydney, Australia||Under development||$6,000,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2023|
|Central Station to Eveleigh Airspace Development||Sydney, Australia||Proposed||$10,000,000,000||Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.|
|Rebuilding of Christchurch||New Zealand||Under development||$17,000,000,000||Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.|
|Gujarat International Finance Tec-City||India||Under development||$20,000,000,000||The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow. When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect. It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.|
|Madinaty||Egypt||Under development||$10,000,000,000||Expected to open by 2014, houses 600,000 population|
|HafenCity||Hamburg, Germany||Under development||Completion expected in 2020–2030|
|Stratford City||London, United Kingdom||Under development||£3,500,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2020.|
|Movement of Kiruna Centrum||Kiruna, Sweden||Under development||$2,100,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2013.|
|Palm Jumeirah||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Completed||$12,300,000,000||It is the world's largest man-made island.|
|Palm Jebel Ali||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.|
|Palm Deira||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.|
|Porto Maravilha||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Under development||$35,700,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2015.|
|SmartCity, Kochi||Kochi, India||Under development||$1,000,000,000 (for the 1st phase)||First phase of project to be completed by 2020.|
|Brickell Key||Miami, United States||Completed|
|Eastwood City||Quezon City, Philippines||Completed||Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.|
|Dubai Marina||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Completed||World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.|
|Pagcor City||Manila Bay, Philippines||Under development||$15,000,000,000||A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".|
|Yas Island||Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$36,000,000,000||It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.|
|Riverside South||New York City, United States||Under development||$3,000,000,000|
|Bonifacio Global City||Philippines||Completed||A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters|
|Dubai International City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$95,000,000,000||A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.|
|Jumeirah Garden City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$95,000,000,000||Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.|
|Moscow International Business Center||Moscow, Russia||Under development||$12,000,000,000|
|Dubailand||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$64,300,000,000||Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development.|
|Atlantic Yards||New York City, United States||Under development||The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center broke ground on March 11, 2010.|
|Battery Park City||New York City, United States||Completed|
|Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project||New York City, United States||Under development||$20,000,000,000|
|Esplanada City Center||Bucharest, Romania||Cancelled||$4,200,000,000|
|Big City Plan||Birmingham, United Kingdom||Proposed||$17,000,000,000|
|Okhta Center||Saint Petersburg, Russia||Under development||$2,500,000,000||Relocated to a new site, construction underway.|
|Dubai Waterfront||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.|
- Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
- Panama Canal
- Suez Canal
- Delta Works
- Zuiderzee Works
- South–North Water Transfer Project, water from South to North China. $79 billion spent.
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