List of megaprojects

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This is a list of megaprojects. "Megaprojects are temporary endeavours (i.e. projects) characterized by: large investment commitment, vast complexity (especially in organizational terms), and long-lasting impact on the economy, the environment, and society".[1] The number of such projects is so large that the list may never be fully completed.


Megaprojects may be defined as:

  • Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
  • Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public"[2]

Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.

Aerospace projects[edit]

Disaster cleanup[edit]

Construction of the new confinement structure for the nuclear reactor that melted down at Chernobyl in Ukraine.
Bags of oily waste are piled up during the cleanup of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989.

While most megaprojects are planned and undertaken with careful forethought, some are undertaken out of necessity after a natural disaster occurs. There have also been a few man-made disasters.

Energy projects[edit]

EDF has said its third-generation EPR Flamanville 3 project (seen here in 2010) will be delayed until 2018, due to "both structural and economic reasons," and the project's total cost has climbed to EUR 11 billion in 2012.[11] Similarly, the cost of the EPR being built at Olkiluoto, Finland has escalated dramatically, and the project is well behind schedule. The initial low cost forecasts for these megaprojects exhibited "optimism bias".[12]
World's largest photovoltaic power stations as of 2015
Name Capacity
Location Year Completed
Solar Star I and II 579 USA 2015[16]
Topaz Solar Farm 550 California, USA 2014
Desert Sunlight Solar Farm 550 California, USA 2015
Longyangxia Dam Solar Park 320 Qinghai, China 2013
California Valley Solar Ranch 292 California, USA 2013
Agua Caliente Solar Project 290 Arizona, USA 2014
Largest operational solar thermal power stations
Name Capacity
Location Notes
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility 392 Mojave Desert, California, USA Operational since February 2014. Located southwest of Las Vegas.
Solar Energy Generating Systems 354 Mojave Desert, California, USA Commissioned between 1984 and 1991. Collection of 9 units.
Mojave Solar Project 280 Barstow, California, USA Completed December 2014
Solana Generating Station 280 Gila Bend, Arizona, USA Completed October 2013
Includes a 6h thermal energy storage
Genesis Solar Energy Project 250 Blythe, California, USA Completed April 2014

Science projects[edit]

CMS detector for LHC

Spaceflight projects[edit]

Apollo Program Saturn V awaiting launch

Sports and culture projects[edit]

Transport infrastructure[edit]

Ground transportation systems like roads, tunnels, bridges, terminals, railways, and mass transit systems are often megaprojects. Numerous large airports and terminals used for airborne passenger and cargo transportation are built as megaprojects. Waterways and canals, and the locks that connect them, are frequently major undertakings as well.

Planned cities and urban renewal projects[edit]

Abuja, FCT in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and still expanding rapidly.[33]
Las Vegas CityCenter, the largest set of resorts in the largest gambling center in the world.
Brickell Key in Miami.
Navi Mumbai, the world's largest planned city.
Verclaire Gate South in Downtown Markham.


Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Madinaty Egypt Under development $10,000,000,000 Expected to open by 2014, houses 600,000 population
New Cairo Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt Under development $45,000,000,000 Expected to open by 2022, houses a population of 5 million. Main objective is to move all goverment buildings and build new infrastructure to lessen Cairo's congestion [34]
ModderfonteinNew Gauteng City South Africa Under development $7,800,000,000 Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later.[35][36]
Abuja Nigeria Completed The planned capital city of Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s. It officially became Nigeria's capital on 12 December 1991, replacing Lagos, and has since witnessed a huge influx of people into the city. As at 2006, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria, with an estimated metropolitan population of well over three million. Abuja is currently amongst the four largest urban areas in Nigeria.[37]
Asokoro Island Abuja, Nigeria Under development $1,000,000,000 A peninsula development located in Asokoro district, in Abuja. The mixed-use development is approximately 60 hectares of land, located at the shores of Pendam Lake. Its residential development ranges from apartment buildings to villas. They are majorly luxury properties with private balconies, mezzanines, floor-to-ceiling windows, swimming pool and sun terrace etc. The commercial and work section presents hotels, offices, shopping malls, business and primary schools.[38]
Centenary City Abuja, Nigeria Under development $18,000,000,000 Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria PLC to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on June 19, 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion. The city, which is located in the Federal Capital Territory, anticipates over 400,000 residents.[39]
Eko Atlantic Lagos State, Nigeria Under development $6,000,000,000 A planned city of Lagos State, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. The project broke ground in 2007 and is being spearheaded by South Energyx Nigeria Ltd. Upon completion the project anticipates at least 250,000 residents and an additional daily flow of 150,000 commuters.[40]
FESTAC Phase 2 Lagos, Nigeria Under development $2,400,000,000 In 2014, The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development signed deal with the New Festac Property Development Company, to develop the second phase of Festac Town. Since the award, the company has been carrying out extensive preliminary project development activities including surveys, field studies, site investigation, environmental impact assessment, and town planning for the project.[41]
Lekki Lagos State, Nigeria Under development A peninsula city which is 755 square kilometres. Lekki Phase 1 has been completed and it currently houses several Estates and gated residential developments; other phases of the project include, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, with an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate well over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million.[42]


East Asia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Songdo International Business District Incheon, South Korea Under development $40,000,000,000 To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network.
Roppongi Hills Tokyo, Japan Completed $4,000,000,000 One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.

Middle East[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes


Abdali Project[43][44] Amman, Jordan Under development $5,000,000,000 Project is being developed on 384,000 square metres (0.148 sq mi) of land, intending to create a total built-up area of over 1,700,000 square metres (0.66 sq mi) consisting of hotels, apartments, offices, commercial outlets and entertainment.[43][44]
Dubai Meydan City Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $2,200,000,000
Falconcity of Wonders Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $36,500,000,000
Masjid Al-Haram Mecca, Saudi arabia Under development $100,000,000,000 The Saudi government is reportedly paying as high as 500,000 Saudi riyals (around $133,000) per square meter to the owners of the buildings close to the mosque in return for the expropriation. This brings the total figure to around $100 billion.
Business Bay Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $30,000,000,000 Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.
Jeddah Economic City Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Under development $20,000,000,000 Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be Jeddah Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.
Masdar City United Arab Emirates Under development $22,000,000,000 The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Under development $86,000,000,000

No credible signs of development are present

Lusail Qatar Under development $45,000,000,000 Planned to be a host city of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, planned population of 260,000 people
The World Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $14,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.
Madinat al-Hareer Kuwait Under development $94,000,000,000 Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.
Palm Jumeirah Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed $12,300,000,000 It is the world's largest man-made island.
Dubai Marina Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Palm Jebel Ali Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.
Palm Deira Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.
Yas Island Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Under development $36,000,000,000 It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.
Dubai International City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.
Jumeirah Garden City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.
Dubailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $64,300,000,000 Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development.

South Asia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Area from Kashgar, China to South coast of Pakistan Under development $46,000,000,000 aims to connect Gwadar Port in southwestern Pakistan to China’s northwestern autonomous region of Xinjiang, via a network of highways, railways and pipelines to transport oil and gas.[45] The economic corridor is considered central to China–Pakistan relations and will run about 3,000 km from Gwadar to Kashgar. Other than transport infrastructure, the economic corridor will provide Pakistan with telecommunications and energy infrastructure. The project also aims to improve intelligence sharing between the countries.
Pak-US Knowledge Corridor Pakistan and United St Under development Pak-Us Knowledge Corridor (PUKC) is a minister-proposed mega project. This project was proposed by Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal, the term US-Pakistan Knowledge Corridor, he used to boost cooperation between Pakistan and America in education sector.
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India Under development $90,000,000,000 Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.
Colombo Port City Colombo, Sri Lanka Under development $15,000,000,000 A planned offshore city in Colombo, Sri Lanka which is to be built on reclaimed land adjacent to the Galle Face Green. The city will use construction resources from the Colombo Harbour Expansion Project, currently under construction near the site of this proposed city.[46]
Islamabad Pakistan Completed The new capital city of Pakistan. A planned city located on north of Rawalpindi. The city has population of 2.2 million.[47]
DHA City, Karachi (DCK) Karachi, Pakistan Under development The green and sustainable city is to be built on a 4,700 hectares piece of virgin land located several kilometres northeast of Karachi.[48] Upon completion, the new city which is still under development is anticipating at least 250,000 residents and a daily flow of 50,000 commuters.[49]
Mubarak Center and new Central Business District at Gulberg Lahore, Pakistan Under development $3,200,000,000 A new Central Business District for the city of Lahore to be built at land previously occupied by Walton Airport which will provide Lahore with a modern set of skyscrapers while the city itself retains most of its original architecture and historical character.[50]
LDA City Lahore, Pakistan Under development LDA City is the biggest housing society project ever undertaken by LDA,[51] and is the largest housing society in Punjab, Pakistan. The city is to be built on a 3,059 hectares (7560 acres) piece of virgin land located several kilometres south of Lahore.
Navi Mumbai India Completed World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.[52]
Ravi Riverfront Development Project Lahore, Pakistan Under development $7,000,000,000 Sprawling over an area of 70,000 acres, the RRDZ project entails high-quality residential, commercial, institutional, cultural and recreational zones along both sides of the river at a stretch of 33 km.[53] The riverfront will be dotted with highrise condominiums, modern piers, boardwalks and 70 per cent area dedicated to trees to make it environment friendly.[54] Around 25,000 acres of riverfront would be sold to investors for business, cultural and lifestyle activities.[55]
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City India Under development $20,000,000,000 The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow.[56] When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect.[57] It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.
SmartCity, Kochi Kochi, India Under development $1,000,000,000 (for the 1st phase) First phase of project to be completed by 2020.[58]

South East Asia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Clark Green City Pampanga, Philippines Under construction $59,288,000,000 The 9,450-hectare master-planned property will be the Philippines’ most modern and the first technologically-integrated city with a mix of residential, commercial, agro-industrial, institutional and information technology developments. Modeled after South Korea's Songdo City, with sustainable buildings and efficient power and energy use operated by Singapore's SSR C-Solar power plant.
Putrajaya Malaysia Completed $8,100,000,000
Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit Project Malaysia Under development $50,000,000,000 A part of another mega project to transform Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur into one big Megapolis called as Greater Kuala Lumpur.
Eastwood City Quezon City, Philippines Completed Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.
Pagcor City Manila Bay, Philippines Under development $15,000,000,000 A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".
Bonifacio Global City Philippines Completed A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters


Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
İstanbul Finance Center İstanbul, Turkey Under development $5,000,000,000 Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir
Turkey Urban Renewal Project Turkey Under development $400,000,000,000[59][60] Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul[61] as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey).[62] Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.[63]
Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment Berlin, Germany Completed Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.
CTBA - Madrid Financial District Madrid, Spain Completed est. $1,000,000,000 A complex of 4 skyscrappers, each about 240 metres high, located on one of Madrid's most expensive avenua, La Castellana. The towers were built on Real Madrid's former Ciudad Deportiva, and were completed in 2008. The tallest building is Torre Cepsa, designed by world-famous architect Norman Foster, and has a height of 249 metres, making it Spain's tallest structure.
Bilbao Renovation Project Bilbao, Spain Completed In the 1990s, the city began a desindustralisation process, which radically changed its image. After closing several factories and decontaminating the city's river, several megaprojects were built. A whole new airport, designed by Spanish world'-amous architect Santiago Calatrava, a metro system designed by British Lord Norman Foster, a recovery of the city's old fashioned tram network changed the city's public transport system. The Iberdrola Tower, which is Bilbao's tallest building, the Alhondiga, the Zubizuri bridge and several other significant buildings changed the city center's polluted past. The whole renovation process started because of the construction of The Guggemheim Museum Of Bilbao, the city's landmark and main museum.
La Défense Paris, France Completed The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.
Khazar Islands Azerbaijan Under development $100,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.
HafenCity Hamburg, Germany Under development Completion expected in 2020–2030
Stratford City London, United Kingdom Under development £3,500,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Movement of Kiruna Centrum Kiruna, Sweden Under development $2,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2013.
Esplanada City Center Bucharest, Romania Cancelled $4,200,000,000
Big City Plan Birmingham, United Kingdom Under development $17,000,000,000
Okhta Center Saint Petersburg, Russia Cancelled $2,500,000,000 Never built, will be replaced by the new project Lakhta Center
Moscow International Business Center Moscow, Russia Under development $12,000,000,000

Latin America[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Bogota Urban Renewal Colombia Under development $50,000,000,000 One of the most ambitious projects in Latin American history. Includes building over 60 skyscrapers, 500 highrises, 3 new CBDs, a subway system, and a smart city near Usaquén. The project is meant to establish Bogota as the financial, industrial, and technological capital of Latin America.
Brasília Brazil Completed At the close of the 20th century, Brasília held the distinction of being the largest city in the world which had not existed at the beginning of the century.[64]
Cancún Quintana Roo, Mexico Completed One of main tourist destinations in the world.
Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Under development $35,700,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2015.
Santa Fe, Mexico City Mexico City, Mexico Completed Before the city dump, today one of largest CBDs in the world.

North America[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
CityCenter Las Vegas, United States Completed $11,000,000,000 The largest privately financed development in the United States.
Brickell Key Miami, United States Completed
Riverside South New York City, United States Under development $3,000,000,000
Atlantic Yards New York City, United States Under construction The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center, opened in September 2012.
Battery Park City New York City, United States Completed
Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project New York City, United States Under development $20,000,000,000
Downtown Markham Markham, Canada Under development


Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Barangaroo Sydney, Australia Under development $6,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2023
Central Station to Eveleigh Airspace Development Sydney, Australia Proposed $10,000,000,000 Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.[65]
Rebuilding of Christchurch New Zealand Under development $17,000,000,000 Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.


See also[edit]


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External links[edit]