List of megaprojects

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This is a list of megaprojects, which may be defined as:

  • Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a large amount of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, the natural and built environment, and budgets.
  • Projects that are "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public".[1]

Some examples include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems. This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.

Legend[edit]

Terms used in the Status Column Status Color
Proposed
In Planning, Approved, Under/In Development, Under Construction, Re-Construction In Progress, Nearly Complete
On Hold
Abandoned, Cancelled
Completed

Aerospace projects[edit]

Disaster cleanup[edit]

Construction of the new confinement structure for the nuclear reactor that melted down at Chernobyl in Ukraine.
Bags of oily waste are piled up during the cleanup of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989.

While most megaprojects are planned and undertaken with careful forethought, some are undertaken out of necessity after a natural disaster occurs. There have also been a few man-made disasters.

Energy projects[edit]

World's largest photovoltaic power stations
Name Capacity
(MW)
Location Year Completed
Bhadla Solar Park 2,245 Rajasthan, India 2020[15][16][17]
Pavagada Solar Park 2,245 Karnataka, India 2019[18][19]
Tengger Desert Solar Park 1,547 Ningxia, China 2016[20][21]
Benban Solar Park 1,500 Egypt 2019
Noor Abu Dhabi 1,177 United Arab Emirates 2019[22]
Largest operational solar thermal power stations
Name Capacity
(MW)
Location Notes
Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park 1000 Bahawalpur, Pakistan Phase-1 of 100 MW Operational since 2015. other under construction.
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility 392 Mojave Desert, California, USA Operational since February 2014. Located southwest of Las Vegas.
Solar Energy Generating Systems 354 Mojave Desert, California, USA Commissioned between 1984 and 1991. Collection of 9 units.
Mojave Solar Project 280 Barstow, California, USA Completed December 2014
Solana Generating Station 280 Gila Bend, Arizona, USA Completed October 2013
Includes a 6h thermal energy storage
Genesis Solar Energy Project 250 Blythe, California, USA Completed April 2014

Science projects[edit]

CMS detector for LHC

Spacecraft[edit]

Other spaceflight projects[edit]

Sports and culture projects[edit]

Every Olympic Games and FIFA World Cup in the latter part of the twentieth century and entering into the 21st century has cost more than $1 billion in arenas, hotels etc., usually several billions.

Indian Sports Megaprojects[edit]

Indian Sports Megaprojects
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Sardar Vallbhbhai Patel Sports Enclave Ahmedabad, Gujarat Partially operational US$640 million
Narendra Modi Stadium Ahmedabad, Gujarat Completed US$110 million It is the largest cricket stadium in the world with a seating capacity of 132,000 spectators.[42]

Olympic Games[edit]

Note: Some values are not shown on the other list due to research, which needs verification. The listed costs were converted to US Dollars at the time of the games.

FIFA World Cup[edit]

Major League Baseball (MLB)[edit]

MLB megaprojects
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Globe Life Field Arlington, Texas Completed $1,100,000,000 This retractable-roof stadium opened in 2020 as the new home of the Texas Rangers.[43]
Yankee Stadium New York City (Bronx), New York Completed $2,309,000,000
($2.79 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
This open-air stadium opened in 2009 as the replacement for the New York Yankees' original Yankee Stadium.[45] It has since become home to a Major League Soccer team, New York City FC.

National Basketball Association (NBA)[edit]

NBA megaprojects
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Barclays Center Brooklyn, New York Completed $1,000,000,000
($1.13 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
Opened in 2012 as the new home of the Brooklyn Nets. Also served as full-time or part-time home of the NHL's New York Islanders from 2015 to 2020.[46]

National Football League (NFL)[edit]

NFL megaprojects
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Allegiant Stadium Paradise, Nevada Completed $1,900,000,000 This domed stadium opened in 2020 as home to the Las Vegas Raiders as well as a local college team, the UNLV Rebels.[47]
AT&T Stadium Arlington, Texas Completed $1,300,000,000
($1.57 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
A retractable-roof stadium that opened in 2009 as the new home of the Dallas Cowboys. It also hosts other major events, most notably the Big 12 Championship Game and Cotton Bowl Classic in college football.[48]
Levi's Stadium Santa Clara, California Completed $1,300,000,000
($1.42 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
An open-air stadium that opened in 2014 as the new home of the San Francisco 49ers.[49]
Mercedes-Benz Stadium Atlanta, Georgia Completed $1,600,000,000
($1.69 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
A retractable-roof stadium that opened in 2017 as the new home of the Atlanta Falcons, as well as Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer.
MetLife Stadium East Rutherford, New Jersey Completed $1,600,000,000
($1.9 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
An open-air stadium that opened in 2011 as the new home of two NFL teams, the New York Giants and New York Jets.
SoFi Stadium Inglewood, California Completed $4,900,000,000 This domed stadium opened in 2020 as home to two NFL teams, the Los Angeles Rams (which own the stadium) and Los Angeles Chargers.[50]
U.S. Bank Stadium Minneapolis, Minnesota Completed $1,061,000,000
($1.14 billion in 2019 dollars[44])
A domed stadium that opened in 2016 as the new home of the Minnesota Vikings.[51]

National Hockey League (NHL)[edit]

NHL megaprojects
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Climate Pledge Arena Seattle, Washington Completed $1,050,000,000 Renovation and expansion of Seattle's main indoor arena for the Seattle Kraken, which started NHL play in the rebuilt venue in 2021. The originally planned cost of $700 million was increased due to changes to the arena plans and COVID-19 issues. A very small part of the total cost was to pay for another major arena tenant, the Seattle Storm of the WNBA, to move its home games to other area venues during the project. The arena will also be suitable for a potential NBA franchise in the city.[52]
UBS Arena Elmont, Nassau County, New York Completed $1,000,000,000 Construction of this new arena started in 2019 and opening commenced in 2021. This new multi-use arena is designed to handle 18,000 seats to host New York Islanders home games.[53] This new arena also includes other multi-use functions.

Chinese megaprojects[edit]

Chinese megaprojects
Project City, Province Status Cost (local currency) Cost (USD) Notes
Guangzhou Evergrande Football Stadium Guangzhou, Guangdong Under Construction ¥12,000,000,000 $1,700,000,000 Construction on this 100,000-seat football (soccer) stadium, the future home of Guangzhou F.C. of the Chinese Super League, began in April 2020 and is scheduled to be complete in 2022.[54]

UK megaprojects[edit]

UK megaprojects
Project City Status Cost (local currency) Cost (USD) Notes
Tottenham Hotspur Stadium London, England Completed £850,000,000 $1,120,000,000[a] Opened in 2019 as the new home of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. Also designed to host American football games in the NFL International Series.[55]
Wembley Stadium London, England Completed £798,000,000
(£1.12 billion in 2019 pounds[56])
$1,564,000,000[b] Opened in 2007 as the new home of the England national football team; also designed to host many other large events.[57]
  1. ^ Based on conversion rate of $1.32 per pound on the stadium's opening date of 3 April 2019; rounded to nearest $1 million.
  2. ^ Based on conversion rate of $1.96 per pound on the stadium's opening date of 9 March 2007; rounded to nearest $1 million.

Roads and transport infrastructure[edit]

Ground transportation systems like roads, tunnels, bridges, terminals, railways, and mass transit systems are often megaprojects. Numerous large airports and terminals used for airborne passenger and cargo transportation are built as megaprojects.

Africa[edit]

West Africa[edit]

African Union

The Third Mainland Bridge is currently the longest of three bridges connecting the island of Lagos to the mainland.

Nigeria[edit]

Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Abuja Light Rail Abuja, FCT Under Construction $2,650,000,000 The Abuja Light Rail project is a light rail transport system that is underway in Abuja in Federal Capital Territory. The first phase of the project connects the city centre to Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport, stopping at the Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway station in Idu. The first 12 stations opened in July 2018.[58] The first phase of the project cost $824 million,[59] while the second phase will be costing $1.79 billion.[60]
Fourth Mainland Bridge Ikorodu to Lekki, Lagos State Under Development $4,200,000,000 The fourth mainland bridge will join three other bridges connecting the Island of Lagos to the mainland. The 38 km bridge and expressway will become the longest bridge and expressway in the world when completed.[61]
Lagos–Calabar Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Calabar, Cross River Under Development $11,920,000,000 The Lagos–Calabar Railway is a planned standard gauge railway that will run from Lagos through to Calabar. The first phase of the project (Calabar-Port Harcourt) is expected to be completed by 2018. The total length of the rail will be 1,402 kilometres.[62][needs update]
Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Kano, Kano State Under Construction $8,300,000,000 The Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway is a standard gauge railway across Nigeria, from the port of Lagos to Kano, near the Niger border. The railway will run parallel to the British-built Cape gauge line, which has a lower design capacity and is in a deteriorated condition. The Abuja-Kaduna route is completed and operational, whilst the Lagos-Ibadan route is underconstruction, and several other routes are underdevelopment. The total length of the rail will be 2,733 kilometres.[63]
Lagos Rail Mass Transit Lagos, Lagos Under Construction $3,600,000,000 The Lagos Rail Mass Transit is an urban rail system being developed and under construction in Lagos. The system is envisioned to consist eventually of seven lines.[64] The railway equipment including electric power, signalling, rolling stock, and fare collection equipment will be provided by the private sector under a Concession Contract, while LAMATA is responsible for policy direction, regulation, and infrastructure for the network. The first section of the network, Phase I of the Blue Line, was originally planned to be completed in 2011. After many delays caused by funding shortfalls, the opening date was revised to 2022.[65]
Third Mainland Bridge Lagos, Lagos State Completed Unknown The Third Mainland Bridge is currently the longest of three bridges connecting the island of Lagos to the mainland. It was completed in 1990 and became the longest bridge in Africa. The bridge was built by Julius Berger Nigeria PLC and it measures about 11.8 km in length.

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]
Project City/District/Province/Prefecture Status Cost Notes
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Area from Kashgar, China to South coast of Pakistan Under Development $62,000,000,000 The project aims to connect Gwadar Port in southwestern Pakistan (Central Asia/South Asia) to China's northwestern (East Asia) autonomous region of Xinjiang, via a network of highways, railways and pipelines to transport oil and gas.[66] The economic corridor is considered central to China–Pakistan relations and will run about 3,000 km from Gwadar to Kashgar. Other than transport infrastructure, the economic corridor will provide Pakistan with telecommunications and energy infrastructure. The project also aims to improve intelligence sharing between the countries.
Beijing Daxing International Airport Daxing District, Beijing & Guangyang District, Langfang, Hebei Province Completed $17,000,000,000 Completed and Opened November 2019.
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HKZMB) Pearl River Delta Completed $10,600,000,000 Opened in 2018.
Japan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost (Japanese Yen ¥) Cost (US $) Notes
Japan's Maglev High-Speed Rail (Chūō Shinkansen) TokyoNagoyaOsaka, Japan Under Construction ¥9,000,000,000,000 $85,000,000,000 JR Central aims to begin commercial service between Tokyo and Nagoya in 2027, with the Nagoya–Osaka section to be completed by 2037.
South Korea[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Incheon International Airport Incheon Completed $5,000,000,000+ Construction of Phase 1 began in November 1992.[67] Phase 1 of the project opened 22 March 2001, after 8 years of construction and 6 additional months of testing of the systems as well as the runways.
Incheon International Airport Phase 2 Incheon Completed $4,600,000,000 Construction of Phase 2 began in February 2002 and was completed 20 June 2008 prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China.[67]
Incheon International Airport Phase 3 Incheon Completed $4,500,000,000 Construction of Phase 3 began in September 2013 and has been split into 2 phases itself.[67] Phase 3 was completed in 2016 ahead of the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.
Incheon International Airport Phase 4[68] Incheon Under Construction $3,700,000,000 Construction of Phase 4 begins 2019 with the expansion of Terminal 2 and construction of an additional runway, which is expected to be completed by 2025.

South Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Padma Bridge Louhajong, Munshiganj, Shariatpur, Madaripur Under Construction $3,600,000,000 The Padma Multipurpose Bridge is a multipurpose road-rail bridge across the Padma River, the main distributary of Ganges, under construction in Bangladesh with its own resources. It connects Louhajong, Munshiganj to Shariatpur and Madaripur, linking the south-west of the country, to northern and eastern regions. Padma Multipurpose Bridge is considered to be the most challenging construction project in the history of Bangladesh. The two-level steel truss bridge carries a four-lane highway on the upper level and a single-track railway on a lower level. The bridge with 150.12 m (492.5 ft) long 41 spans, 6.150 km (3.821 mi) total length and 18.18 m (59.6 ft) width, is the longest bridge in Bangladesh, the second longest in the Indo-Gangetic Plain after Bhupen Hazarika Setu in Assam and the longest over Ganges in terms of both span and the total length. The highest depth of pile of this bridge is 122 metre, which is highest among all other bridges. Padma Multipurpose Bridge, when commissioned, is expected to boost the GDP of Bangladesh by as much as 1.2 percent.
Dhaka Metro Rail Dhaka Under Construction $2,800,000,000 The Dhaka Metro Rail Line-6 consists of 16 elevated stations each of 180m long and 20.1 km of electricity powered light rail tracks. Construction began on 26 June 2016 and is expected to end by 2021
Karnaphuli Tunnel Chittagong Under Construction $1,200,000,000 First underwater tunnel in South Asian region, part of Dhaka-Chittagong-Cox's Bazaar highway network.
Bangabandhu Railway Bridge Sirajganj, Jamuna River Under Construction $1,600,000,000 A 4.8 km long railway bridge near Bangabandhu Bridge, is expected to be the largest dedicated rail bridge in the country.
Hazrat Shahjalal (R) International Airport Terminal 3 Dhaka Under Construction $2,500,000,000 The expansion will include a passenger terminal with a floor area of roughly 226,000 m2 (2,430,000 sq ft); a 5,900 m2 (64,000 sq ft) square VVIP complex; a 41,200 m2 (443,000 sq ft) cargo building; and multi-level car park building with a tunnel. Upon completion of the third terminal, passenger handling capacity of the airport will increase to 20 million from current 8 million per annum. Cargo handling capacity will also increase to 500,000 from 200,000 tonnes annually
Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant Ishwardi Under Construction $12,650,000,000 It will be the country's first nuclear power plant, and the first of two units are expected to go into operation in 2023.
Central Business District Purbachal Under Development $17,000,000,000 It will have three super-tall skyscrapers, surrounded by thirty-eight 40+ floor skyscrapers.
India[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Hyderabad Metro Rail Hyderabad, Telangana Under Construction $2,500,000,000+ To respond to the rising public transport need and mitigate escalating vehicular traffic. Partially opened in 2017[69] and phase 1 is operational from November 2019.[70][71]
Navi Mumbai International Airport Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra Under Construction $2,500,000,000+ The airport project, aimed at easing air traffic congestion at CSIA is expected to be completed by 2024.[72]
Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project Multiple States in India Under construction $90,000,000,000+ One of the world's largest infrastructure projects with an estimated investment of US$90 billion and is planned as a high-tech industrial zone spread across six states,[73] as well as Delhi, the national capital and itself a Union Territory.[74] The investments will be spread across the 1,500 km long Western Dedicated Freight Corridor which will serve as the industrial corridor's transportation backbone.[75]
Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor Multiple States in India Under construction $18,000,000,000+ High-speed rail line connecting the cities of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, and Mumbai. When completed, it will be India's first high-speed rail line.[76]
Bharatmala Multiple States in India Under construction $110,000,000,000+ Bharatmala Pariyojana (Project) is a centrally-sponsored and funded Road and Highways project of the Government of India.[77] The project will build highways from Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and then cover the entire string of Himalayan states – Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand – and then portions of borders of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alongside Terai, and move to West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and right up to the Indo-Myanmar border in Manipur and Mizoram.[77]
Char Dham Highway Uttarakhand Under construction $1,500,000,000+ Char Dham Expressway National Highway (Hindi: चार धाम महामार्ग), is an under construction two-lane (in each direction) express National Highway with a minimum width of 10 metres in the state of Uttarakhand. The proposed highway will complement the under development Char Dham Railway by connecting the four holy places in Uttarakhand states includes Badrinath, Kedarnath, Champawat, Pithoragarh, Gangotri and Yamunotri The project includes 900 km national highways will connect whole of Uttarakhand state.
Sagarmala Multiple State of India Under construction $130,000,000,000+ The Sagarmala Programme is an initiative by the government of India to enhance the performance of the country's logistics sector. The programme envisages unlocking the potential of waterways and the coastline to minimize infrastructural investments required to meet these targets.[78][79]
Noida International Green Field Airport Noida, Uttar Pradesh $4,000,000,000+ Also known as the Jewar Airport, it is expected to decongest the load of the Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi. Moreover, with the Delhi Airport expected to reach its capacity in the next few years, this airport will serve as a second airport. The master plan is to expend the airport in a period of 30 years with three phases. After the completion of the final phase, the airport will serve 120 million passengers per year and will have a total of eight runways. It will then become Asia's and world's largest airport. O'Hare International Airport in Chicago and Jewar Airport, both will remain world's largest airports. The first phase will handle 5 million passengers per year with two runways. It is expected to completed by August/September 2024.[80][81]
Hyperloop Proposed Proposal to establish hyperloop infrastructure for the Pune-Mumbai corridor.[82]

In addition, the company Hyperloop Transportation Technologies is in a process to sign a Letter of Intent with the Indian Government for a proposed route between Chennai and Bangalore. If things go as planned, the distance of 345 km could be covered in 30 minutes.[83] HTT also signed an agreement with Andhra Pradesh government to build India's first Hyperloop project connecting Amaravati to Vijayawada in a 6-minute ride. Also, Indore-based Dinclix GroundWorks' DGW Hyperloop advocates a Hyperloop corridor between Mumbai and Delhi, via Indore, Kota, and Jaipur.[84]

Gujarat International Finance-Tec City (GIFT) City Gujarat Under Construction India's first International Financial Services Centre (IFSC). It is expected to be fully completed by 2025.
Pakistan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Karachi–Lahore Motorway Multiple Provinces of Pakistan Completed $6,600,000,000 The Karachi–Lahore Motorway (KLM) is a 1,694-kilometre-long (1,053 mi) six-lane, high-speed, limited-access motorway that will connect Karachi and Peshawar through Islamabad, Lahore, Multan and Sukkur. The KLM is divided into seven sections: Karachi-Hyderabad (M-9, 136 km); Hyderabad-Sukkur (M-6, 296 km); Sukkur-Multan (M-5, 387 km); Multan-Abdul Hakeem (M-4, 103 km); Abdul Hakeem-Lahore (M-3, 230 km); Lahore-Islamabad (M2, 376 km); and Islamabad-Peshawar (M1, 166 km).
Karachi Circular Railway Karachi Under Development $1,600,000,000 Revival of the Karachi Circular Railway which became operational in 1969. It discontinued in 1999 as a result of mismanagement. In 2012, the governments of Pakistan and Sindh agreed to revive the railway to meet the needs of Karachi citizens. The project includes 23 stations, 3 lines and a total of over 50 kilometers of track. The government of Pakistan will have a 60% share in the project, Sindh will have a 25% share and Karachi will have a 15% share. Once completed, it will once again be Pakistan's largest local train.
Karachi Metrobus Karachi Under Construction $400,000,000 A new rapid transit system in Karachi. With a planned length of about 115 kilometers, it will become the largest metro bus system in Pakistan.[citation needed]
Malir Expressway Karachi Under Development $400,000,000 A 40.3 km three-lane Expressway with controlled access along the Malir River in Karachi. It starts at the Qayumanbad Bridge and ends at the Karachi-Hyderabad Motorway (M-9). The project would cost around Rs40 billion. Construction is ordered to start in mid-2019.
Gwadar International Airport Gwadar Under Development $400,000,000 Planned international airport in Gurandani, 26 km north-east of the existing airport in Gwadar City.[citation needed]
Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line ML-1 Multiple Provinces in Pakistan Under Development $7,000,000,000 Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line (also referred to as Main Line 1 or ML-1) is one of four main railway lines in Pakistan, operated and maintained by Pakistan Railways. The total length of this railway line is 1,687 kilometers (1,048 mi). There are 184 railway stations from Kiamari to Peshawar Cantonment on this line. The line serves as the main passenger and freight line of the country. 75% of the country's cargo and passenger traffic uses the line. The line is currently undergoing a six-year ₨886.68 billion (US$7.4 billion) upgrade and renovation as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, with average rail speeds expected to be doubled to 160 kilometers per hour upon completion.
Orange Line Metro Lahore Completed $1,500,000,000 Orange Line is an automated rapid transit system in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Opened in 2020, it is Pakistan's first metro since the Karachi Metro that was started in 1969. The orange line is the first of the three proposed rail lines for the Lahore Metro. The line spans 27.1 km (16.8 mi) with 25.4 km (15.8 mi) elevated and 1.72 km (1.1 mi) underground. The line is served by 26 stations and is expected to handle 250,000 passengers daily.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Indonesia[edit]
Project City/Region Status Cost Notes
Jakarta MRT Jakarta Completed $2,860,000,000 Currently consists of one line (North-South Line) and divided into two phases. Phase 1 was opened in March 2019, extensions of this line under Phase 2 shall open by 2024, and a second line (East-West) is expected by 2026.
Greater Jakarta LRT Jakarta, West Java Under Construction $1,580,000,000 Phase 1, consists of Bekasi Line and part of Cibubur Line, is currently under construction and will open in 2022.[85]
Jakarta–Bandung–Kertajati HSR Java Under Construction $5,500,000,000
Trans-Sumatra Toll Road Sumatra Under Construction $33,200,000,000 Some segments are already under operation.
Malaysia[edit]
Project City/State Status Cost (Ringgit RM) Cost (US $) Notes
Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit Project Kuala Lumpur Under Development RM50,000,000,000 A part of another mega project to transform Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur into one big Megapolis called as Greater Kuala Lumpur.
ECRL Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor Under Development RM44,000,000,000
KLIA 2 Selangor Completed RM3,920,000,000
Penang Sentral Penang Completed RM230,000,000
West Coast Expressway Selangor and Perak Under Development RM5,044,000,000
Philippines[edit]
Project City/Region/Province Status Cost Notes
Bataan–Cavite Interlink Bridge Bataan
Cavite
Approved $3,750,000,000 A 32 km (20 mi) bridge over the Manila Bay that will connect Central and Southern Luzon.[86]
Manila Metro Rail Transit System Metro Manila
Central Luzon
Calabarzon
Partially operational $15,845,000,000 One line operational as of 2020. It is expected to have a total of eight lines with a total length of 142 km (88 mi), and to open from 2021 onward.[87][88][89][90][91][92]
New Manila International Airport Bulacan Under construction $14,111,000,000 Aimed to decongest and eventually replace the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. It will be operated by the San Miguel Corporation.[93]
North–South Commuter Railway Metro Manila
Central Luzon
Laguna
Under Construction $14,950,000,000 Set to be fully operational by 2023, it will connect Clark International Airport with Metro Manila and Calabarzon.[94]
Philippine National Railways' new intercity network Luzon
Mindanao
Approved $5,590,000,000+ Includes the PNR South Long Haul project,[95] the Subic–Clark Railway and the first phase of the Mindanao Railway expansion.[96] All of these projects are standard-gauge railways.
South Luzon Expressway expansion Metro Manila
Calabarzon
Bicol Region
Waiting approval $2,278,000,000 Includes Toll Road 4 from Calamba to Lucena, Toll Road 5 from Lucena to Matnog, and the Pasig River Expressway.
Thailand[edit]
Project City/Region Status Cost Notes
High-speed rail in Thailand Central, Western and Southern Thailand Proposed $30,000,000,000 Consists of four proposed corridors with international extensions to Laos and Malaysia.
Vietnam[edit]
Project City/Region Status Cost Notes
Long Thanh International Airport Ho Chi Minh City Under Construction $7,800,000,000 This first phase of the project has begun construction in 2019 and is being split into 3 sub-phases. Sub-Phase 1A will see the construction of one terminal and one runway ($5.6 Billion allocated to this sub-phase) to be completed by 2023. Sub-Phase 1B will be the construction of a 2nd runway starting in 2023 and be completed in 2025. Sub-Phase 1C will be the construction of the remaining facilities and land-clearance for future phase to begin and finish in 2025.
Long Thang International Airport Phase 2 Ho Chi Minh City In Development This phase will begin in 2025 after Phase 1 is completed and the airport opens that same year. Phase 2 will see the construction of a 3rd runway and expansion of the 1st Terminal or construction of a 2nd Terminal to increase passenger capacity to 50 million passengers. Phase 2 is expected to be completed by 2035.
Long Thang International Airport Phase 3 Ho Chi Minh City In Development This phase will begin in 2035 after Phase 2 is completed and the airport opens that same year. Phase 3 will see the construction of a 4th runway with the possibility of another terminal or additional concourses to increase passenger capacity up to 100 million passengers. Phase 3 is expected to be completed sometime after 2035.

Middle East[edit]

Bahrain[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Bahrain International Airport Expansion Project Muharraq, Muharraq Island Under Construction $1,100,000,000
Bahrain Light Rail Network Bahrain Under Construction $2,000,000,000
Iran[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Tehran-Shomal Freeway Iran Under Construction Around US$1 Billion to finish 121 km freeway connecting Tehran to Chalus[97]
Israel[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost (ILS ₪) Cost (US $) Notes
Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway Between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem Nearing Completion $1,900,000,000–$2,800,000,000 1. Construction on the line between Tel Aviv HaHaganah and Ben Gurion Airport (western part of Railway 27) was completed in 2004 and is currently open.

2. Construction on the line between Ben Gurion Airport and Kfar Daniel (eastern part of Railway 27) completed in 2007 with service commencing in September 2007.

3. Construction on the line between Kfar Daniel and Latrun (Section A) was completed in 2011 and is currently open.

4. Construction on the line between Latrun and Sha'ar HaGai (Section B) was completed in 2015 and is currently open.

5. Construction on the line between Sha'ar HaGai and Mevaseret Zion (Section C) was completed between 2014 & 2016 and is currently open.

6. Construction on the line between Mevaseret Zion and Jerusalem Binyanei HaUma Railway Station, Jerusalem (Section D) began either sometime in 2010.

Electrification works on the existing railway between Tel Aviv Central and Herzliya are expected to be finished in the fall of 2020 and would allow trains from Jerusalem to terminate in Herzliya instead of Tel Aviv Central.

Tel Aviv Light Rail Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area Under Construction ₪187,500,000,000 $55,000,000,000 The project will consist of four new light rail lines and three new metro lines: the light rail lines will cost around a combined ILS 37.5 billion ILS & the Tel Aviv Metro is planned to cost around 45 billion ILS.
Kuwait[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Causeway Project Kuwait Bay Completed $3,000,000,000 Completed in 2019, it is the launching point Madinat Al-Hareer in Subiya, Kuwait; which is north of Kuwait City across Kuwait Bay.
Kuwait International Airport Passenger Terminal 2[98] Kuwait City Under Construction $4,310,182,400 Construction began in May 2017 to expand the capacity of the airport. Expected to be Completed in 2022.
Qatar[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Doha Metro Doha Under Construction $36,000,000,000 Planned length of 300 km; set for completion in 2026.
Qatar Expressway Programme Doha Under Construction US$28 billion (CAPEX) The Expressway Programme aims to deliver more than 800 kilometres of new or upgraded roads and more than 200 interchanges in Qatar. It is part of the Qatar National Vision 2030. One of the motivating factors is the planned 2022 FIFA World Cup.[99]
Saudi Arabia[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
King Abdulaziz Airport Expansion Jeddah Completed $7,200,000,000 Completed on 1 January 2019.
Riyadh Metro Riyadh Under Construction $23,500,000,000 Set to begin operation by 2021.
United Arab Emirates[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Al Maktoum International Airport Dubai Under Construction $82,000,000,000 Upon completion it will be the fourth largest airport in the world.[100]

Central America[edit]

Costa Rica[edit]

Project City Status Cost Notes
Orotina Mega Airport
Green Costa Rican Canal
Electric Train of The Great Metropolitan Area

Panama[edit]

Project City Status Cost Notes
4th bridge over the Panama Canal Panama Under Construction $1,400,000,000
Panama Metro line 1 Panama Completed $1,800,000,000
Panama metro line 2 Panama Completed $2,000,000,000[101]
Panama metro line 3 Panama In planning $2,600,000,000[102]

Europe[edit]

Serbia-North Macedonia-Greece[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
DanubeMoravaVardarAegean Canal SerbiaNorth MacedoniaGreece In Planning $17,000,000,000 The Danube-Morava-Vardar-Aegean Canal is in planning for a very long time, significant progress has been made in 2013 and 2014, with China having interests in building a canal. The project would cost around $17,000,000,000. Serbia is most interested country in building this project, which would make Great Morava and South Morava passable for boats from Thessaloniki. There would be many hydropower plants as well as 9 ports in Jagodina, Stalać, Kruševac, Kraljevo, Niš, Leskovac, Vranje, Kumanovo and Skopje. It would connect new rivers into three main rivers, and make Morava and Vardar navigable rivers, and clean them for passage of boats. The project was a major theme of the January 2020 Thessaloniki summit, when all three leaders met.[103]

Serbia-Hungary[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Budapest–Belgrade railway Serbia,
Hungary
Under Construction around $5,000,000,000 The Budapest–Belgrade railway project aims to connect Budapest and Belgrade by high-speed rail. The project is the first stage of the planned Budapest–Belgrade–Skopje–Athens railway, which itself is part of China's Belt and Road Initiative and would connect the China-run Piraeus port in Greece with the "heart" of Europe.

Serbia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Belgrade Metro Serbia In Planning around $5,000,000,000 Belgrade Metro is a project in planning for over a century, but recently, new progress has been made in planning, and construction is set to start by end of 2021. It would have 43 stations and 2 lines, and would cost around $5,000,000,000. Line 1:Route:Železnik ↔ Mirijevo,Length:21.3 km (13.2 mi),23 stations.Line 2:Route:Zemun railway station ↔ Mirijevo,Length:19.2 km (11.9 mi),20 stations. It would be built by French and many other companies.
Belgrade-Boljare motorway Serbia Under Construction $2,389,800,000 Belgrade-Boljare Motorway is part of Belgrade-Bar motorway motorway, and will connect Serbian Capital Belgrade and Montenegro Port city of Bar. Serbian Section is set to cost $2,389,800,000 with first and Completed Section of Belgrade-Pozega 151.63 kilometres long costing 889.8 million euros, and because of favourable terrain it will be the cheapest section of the motorway.Second Section under Construction is Pozega-Boljare Section, and it would cost at least US$1.5 billion,for approximately 110 km.Second Section is most expensive section of whole Belgrade-Boljare motorway,because of not favourable terrain with many tunnels and bridges.
Belgrade Waterfront Serbia Under Construction $3,500,000,000 Belgrade Waterfront is an urban renewal development project headed by the Government of Serbia aimed at improving Belgrade's cityscape and economy by revitalizing the Sava amphitheater, a neglected stretch of land on the right bank of the Sava river, between the Belgrade Fair and Branko's bridge. It was started in 2014 with the reconstruction of the Belgrade Cooperative building, which was finished in June of the same year.

European Union (As a whole)[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost (€) Cost (US $) Notes
TEN-T Core Network Europe Under Construction €600,000,000,000 (or more to complete) $625,000,000,000 The purpose of the project is connect nine European Corridors, east–west and north–south. The nine corridors are the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor, the North Sea-Baltic Corridor, the Mediterranean Corridor, the Orient/East-Med Corridor, the Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor,[104] the Rhine-Alpine Corridor, the Atlantic Corridor, the North Sea-Mediterranean Corridor, and the Rhine-Danube Corridor.[105] The Trans-European conventional rail network is part of the EU Mega-Project to help alleviate and assist in the transport of goods throughout the 27 EU member states.

Slovenia

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Divača–Koper Railway upgrade Slovenia Under Construction $1,175,000,000 New, 27.1km long railway between Divača and Koper, better connecting inland with the seaside town and port of Koper, with a maximum speeds of 160km/h and more than 7 tunnels. Construction started in 2021.[106][107]

Czech Republic[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Blanka tunnel complex Prague Completed $1,970,000,000 The longest city tunnel in Europe at 5.5 km. The three continuous tunnels improve traffic in the northern part of Prague as well as reducing the load on the main transit route through the city center.

France[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Grand Paris Express Paris Under Construction $45,000,000,000 Construction began in 2015 and is expected to be completed as well as opened in stages between 2020 & 2030.

Germany[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit Nr. 8 Between Berlin Main Station and Nuremberg Main Station Mostly Completed $10,000,000,000 Including the Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway, the Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway, upgrades to the existing Berlin–Halle railway and linking onward to the Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway

Greece[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Athens Metro Athens Under Construction $6,480,000,000 Line 2 and Line 3 of Athens Metro were constructed between 1992 and 2000 (Line 1 began operation in 1869).[108] The construction of lines 2 and 3 (including their ongoing extensions) cost €4.30 billion.[109] Line 4 is set to begin construction in 2019 with a budget of €1.45 billion.[110]
Egnatia Odos Greece Completed $6,690,000,000 Construction began in 1995, and a total of 670 kilometres (420 mi) of motorways running along the general route of the ancient Roman Via Egnatia.[111] It runs from Igoumenitsa, in Epirus, crosses Western Macedonia, Central Macedonia, and ends on Greece's border with Turkey in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The project cost €5.93 billion.[111]
Egnatia Railway Greece In planning $11,270,000,000 Proposed in 2017 at a cost of €10 billion,[112] the Egnatia Railway will be Europe's largest railway megaproject.[113] The original stated start date was March 2019.[112]
Ionia Odos Greece Completed $1,240,000,000 Construction began in 2006, and a total of 196 kilometres (122 mi) of motorways running north–south through Western Greece, from Ioannina to the Rio-Antirio Bridge, were built.[114] The project had a budget of over €1.1 billion.[114]
Thessaloniki Metro Thessaloniki Under Construction $2,550,000,000 The purpose of the project is to create a 35-station underground rapid transit system in Greece's second-largest city. Currently phases 1 and 2 (18 stations) are under construction and will be operational by late 2020 at a price tag of €2.26 billion.[115]
ThessalonikiKavalaXanthi railway Greece In planning $1,475,000,000 A new electrified railway line connecting the northern Greek cities of Thessaloniki, Kavala, and Xanthi, at a cost of €1.25 billion.[116] It will run in parallel with the Egnatia Odos highway, cutting travel times and will replace the existing Thessaloniki–Alexandroupoli railway which was built during Ottoman times.[116]
Tithorea-Domokos bypass Greece Completed $2,030,000,000 Construction began in 1997, and a total of 106 kilometres (66 mi) of high-speed railways running between the towns of Tithorea and Domokos were built as a bypass to the existing conventional mountainous railway line linking Thessaloniki in the north with Athens in the south, including 35.5 kilometres (22.1 mi) of tunnels and 6.8 kilometres (4.2 mi) of bridges.[117] The project had a budget of over €1.8 billion.[114] The bypass was opened in January 2019.[118]

Montenegro[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Bar-Boljare motorway Montenegro Under Construction $3,000,000,000 Construction began on 11 May 2015; The length of the route of the highway is 40.871 km, and national road standards of Montenegro are adopted, with reference to the European specifications as well. These construction standards will be applied for the two-way four-lane highway, with the speed of 100 km/h according to the design, and the construction period of 4 years. The highway stretches from south to the north across the mountains. In technical terms it is very demanding, and the construction is very challenging. Bridges and tunnels make up to about 60% of the entire route. In recent years, it is the largest infrastructure project in Montenegro, and the implementation of the project is very challenging.

Norway[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost (Noraway Krone kr) Cost (US $) Notes
Coastal Highway E39 Trondheim to Kristiansand In Planning 382,000,000,000kr $42,400,000,000 The purpose of the project is to replace all the ferry links along the route with fixed connections in order to reduce travel time from 21 hours to 11 hours. The first part, Rogfast is since 2018 under construction at a cost of $1.9 bn, but the rest is controversial and not decided. Some of the fjords are too deep for pillars or undersea tunnels and too wide for suspension bridges, so floating bridges in untested sizes are suggested. Initial cost estimates placed the project around 150 bn kroner, but an August 2020 updated estimate moved the cost to 382 bn. A study is underway with the goal of cutting costs, and it is possible the project may be scaled back.
InterCity Østlandet Under Construction $36,300,000,000 Project to connect all major towns in the vicinity of Oslo by a double rail line. 270 km of new line will be added and existing infrastructure will be upgraded, improving passenger flow and experience, as well as allowing train speeds up to 250 km/h throughout the region. Expected to be completed by 2034.

Poland[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Central Transport Hub Gmina Baranów In planning $8,000,000,000+[119] The project involves the construction of the largest airport in Poland and one of the largest in Europe, Solidarity Airport (initially able to handle 45 million passengers a year, with the possibility of extension up to 100 millions), along with highway and high-speed rail infrastructure connecting major Polish citities and the airport. Phase 1 scheduled to open in 2027.[119]

Portugal[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Vasco da Gama Bridge Lisbon Completed $1,100,000,000 Construction began in February 1995; the bridge was opened to traffic on 29 March 1998, just in time for Expo 98, the World's Fair that celebrated the 500th anniversary of the discovery by Vasco da Gama of the sea route from Europe to India.

It is the longest bridge in Europe (including viaducts), with a total length of 12.3 kilometres (7.6 mi), including 0.8 kilometres (0.50 mi) for the main bridge and 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) in viaducts. The Bridge is served by 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) of dedicated access roads. It was built to alleviate the congestion on Lisbon's 25 de Abril Bridge, and eliminate the need for traffic between the country's northern and southern regions to pass through the capital city.

Serbia-North Macedonia-Greece[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
DanubeMoravaVardarAegean Canal SerbiaNorth MacedoniaGreece In Planning $17,000,000,000 The Danube-Morava-Vardar-Aegean Canal is in planning for a very long time, significant progress has been made in 2013 and 2014, with China having interests in building a canal. The project would cost around $17,000,000,000. Serbia is most interested country in building this project, which would make Great Morava and South Morava passable for boats from Thessaloniki. There would be many hydropower plants as well as 9 ports in Jagodina, Stalać, Kruševac, Kraljevo, Niš, Leskovac, Vranje, Kumanovo and Skopje. It would connect new rivers into three main rivers, and make Morava and Vardar navigable rivers, and clean them for passage of boats. The project was a major theme of the January 2020 Thessaloniki summit, when all three leaders met.[103]

Switzerland[edit]

Project City/Canton Status Cost (CHF) Cost (US $) Notes
Gotthard Base Tunnel Bodio, Canton of Ticino (End) & Erstfeld, Canton of Uri (Start) Completed CHF9,560,000,000 $10,300,000,000 At 57 km, the world's longest and deepest rail tunnel upon its completion in 2015.[citation needed]

United Kingdom[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost (£) Cost (US $) Notes
Expansion of Heathrow Airport England Approved $25,234,620,000 Building a 3rd Runway and an additional Terminal.
Irish Sea Bridge Scotland/Northern Ireland Abandoned £335,000,000,000 $446,500,000,000 Abandoned due to cost[120]
High Speed 2 England Under Construction $96,000,000,000 Completion planned for 2026 (phase 1), 2033 (phase 2)
High Speed 3 England Planned $19,000,000,000 Completion planned for 2033
London Crossrail Project London, England Under Construction $26,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2021.
M8 motorway (Scotland) Glasgow, Scotland Completed £30,000,000 Most completed by 1980.

North America[edit]

The new Port Mann Bridge with the old bridge fully demolished.

Canada[edit]

Project City/Province Status Cost Notes
Southwest Calgary Ring Road Calgary, Alberta Under Construction $5,000,000,000+ "...extend from Lott Creek Boulevard on Glenmore Trail/Highway 8 south to Macleod Trail (Highway 2A) and is approximately 21 kilometres long."[121] Set for Completion in Fall 2022.
West Calgary Ring Road Calgary, Alberta Under Construction $1,000,000,000+ Set for Completion in 2021.
Calgary LRT Expansion Calgary, Alberta Under Construction $4,500,000,000+ Set for Completion in 2026.
Crowchild Trail Upgrades Calgary, Alberta Under Construction $3,000,000,000+ Set for Completion in 2030
New Champlain Bridge Corridor Project Montréal to Brossard, Québec Completed $4,239,000,000 Construction completed 2019 with the full opening of the Samuel-de-Champlain Bridge by July 2019. Shortly after the opening, the old Champlain Bridge will start to be demolished at a cost of about $400,000,000 and take 4 years to complete.
Réseau express métropolitain Montréal, Québec Under Construction $6,300,000,000 Set for Completion in 2023.[121]
Gordie Howe International Bridge Windsor, Ontario Under Construction $5,700,000,000 International cable stayed bridge over Detroit river between Canada and United States. Set for completion in 2024.
Confederation Bridge The Maritimes, Prince Edward Island Completed $1,300,000,000 The 12.9 km bridge is the longest bridge in the world crossing ice-covered water.
Line 5 Eglinton Toronto, Ontario Under Construction $9,100,000,000 Set for Completion in 2023.[121]
Port Mann Bridge Vancouver, British Columbia Completed $1,930,000,000 The widest bridge in the world (until the Bay Bridge's east span recently opened), the bridge east of Vancouver, B.C., which opened in 2012, remains the second-longest bridge in North America. The cable-stay bridge uses an impressive 288 cables to reach a total bridge length of 6,866 feet.
Confederation Line Ottawa, Ontario Completed $2,100,000,000 The largest project in Ottawa since the Rideau Canal. Opened in September 2019[122] (Phase 1).
Baluarte Bridge under construction, 10 March 2012

Mexico[edit]

Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Durango-Mazatlán Highway Durango-Sinaloa Completed $1,400,000,000 Construction in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Upon this projects completion, President Felipe Calderón received a Guinness record certifying that the Baluarte Bicentennial Bridge is the highest suspension bridge in western Mexico.
New International Airport for Mexico City Mexico City Cancelled $13,300,000,000 After taking office, President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, cancelled this mega-project at Texcoco in favor of a "metropolitan airport system", which keeps the Benito Juárez International Airport (with 2 Runways) from being decommissioned and adds the now under construction Felipe Ángeles Airport (with 3 Runways) as well as Toluca International Airport (with 2 Runways).
Felipe Ángeles Airport Mexico City Under Construction $7,100,000,000 Being built at the Santa Lucía Air Force Base north of Mexico City and named after Mexican General Felipe Ángeles Ramírez
Boston's highway system before and after the Central Artery/Tunnel Project
The completed replacement and the old eastern span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (2013)
The Evergreen Point Floating Bridge viewed from the east end in Medina shortly after opening in April 2016

United States[edit]

Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Project Connect Austin, Texas Under Construction $7,100,000,000 Project Connect is a public transit expansion in Austin, adding the Blue and Orange light rail lines, the Green commuter rail line, and the Gold bus rapid transit line along with other network improvements.[123] The project started construction in 2021 and is expected to be complete by 2034.[124]
Big Dig Boston, Massachusetts Completed $14,600,000,000 Estimated to cost $24.3 billion after interest.
C.R.E.A.T.E. Chicago, Illinois Under Construction $4,600,000,000 C.R.E.A.T.E. is a railway improvement project in Chicago.[125] Completion of the entire project is expected to occur sometime in 2025.
O'Hare Modernization Chicago, Illinois Under Construction $8,800,000,000 Construction began in 2001 with an initial cost of $6.6 billion, however, over the last few years, additions to the Modernization Plan brought on by the Chicago City Council's approval on new leases to American and United has increased to the cost by $2.2 billion, which will include a new terminal where Terminal 2 now, sits as well as two more remote concourses. The completion of the O'Hare Modernization is expected to occur sometime in 2026.
Gordie Howe International Bridge Detroit, Michigan-Windsor, Ontario, Canada Under Construction $5,700,000,000 The project was first proposed in 2004. Construction started in 2018 and is expected to be completed in 2024. The Windsor-Detroit crossing is the busiest crossing between the US and Canada and is currently handled by the Ambassador Bridge, the Windsor-Detroit Tunnel and the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel. The Gordie Howe Bridge will add needed capacity to these crossings.
Crescent Corridor Expansion Eastern Coast States-East South Central States-Gulf Coast States Under Construction $2,500,000,000 The freight rail company Norfolk Southern will utilize special intermodal trains on its freight rail network running from New York to Louisiana. This project covers 4023 km (2,500 miles) and thirteen states, and is expected to be fully developed by 2020."[126]
California High-Speed Rail Los Angeles-San Francisco, California Under Construction $100,000,000,000 A 1300 km (808 miles) high-speed rail system is expected to be Completed in phases up to 2030. Currently some of the funding is being held up in Congress by lack of agreement between Democrats and Republicans.
Los Angeles International Airport Los Angeles, California Under Construction $14,000,000,000
Ohio River Bridges Project Louisville, Kentucky Completed $2,300,000,000[127] A Louisville metropolitan area transportation project involving the reconstruction of the Kennedy Interchange (locally known as "Spaghetti Junction"), the completion of two new Ohio River bridges and the reconstruction of ramps on Interstate 65 between Muhammad Ali Boulevard and downtown. The final project omitted some features of the original plan.
Second Avenue Subway Project Manhattan, New York City, New York Under Construction $17,000,000,000 The proposed full line would be 13.7 km (8.5 miles) long with 16 stations and a projected ridership of 560,000 people. Phase 1 of the project, which runs from 96th Street to 57th Street and 7th Avenue, opened 1 January 2017. Other phases of the project are either under development or are under construction.
East Side Access (ESA) Manhattan & Queens, New York City, New York Under Construction $11,100,000,000+ ESA is a public works and an MTA network expansion project intended to increase direct services into Grand Central Terminal by providing Long Island Rail Road commuters – via the Main Line and Port Washington Branch tracks traveling westbound from Queens and Long Island – regular access to the major depot; and saving them up to forty (40) minutes per day and reducing congestion in Midtown Manhattan’s dense business district’s streets and subways. Additionally, the project is intended to create capacity and provide regular access for Metro-North Railroad’s New Haven Line and Hudson Line into Penn Station via Amtrak’s underused Hell Gate Bridge (Hell Gate Line) and Empire Connection (West Side Line), respectively, per the Penn Station Access project.
Interstate Highway System Nationwide Completed $500,000,000 Began in 1956, and was completed 62 years later
Newark Airport Terminal One Newark, New Jersey Under Construction $2,300,000,000 A redevelopment plan to build a new Terminal A to replace the existing, which opened in 1973. The new terminal will be called Terminal One. It will include a new parking garage, 33 gates, and a walkway to connect the Airtrain station, parking garage, and terminal. It is expected to be completed by 2022.
LaGuardia Airport Project Queens, New York City, New York Under Construction $8,000,000,000 A complete retrofit of the entire airport slated to be completed by 2022.
JFK Airport Redevelopment Queens, New York City, New York Under Construction $17,000,000,000 Plan to rebuild passenger facilities and approaches to JFK Airport. Two new international terminals would be added. The redevelopment construction of JFK Airport began on 7 January 2020. Also, "on February 11, 2020, Cuomo and the Port Authority, along with Delta Air Lines, announced a $3.8 billion plan to add sixteen domestic gates to the 'A' side of Terminal 4," bring the total cost to almost $17 billion.
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Eastern Span San Francisco-Oakland, California Completed $6,400,000,000 The Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge began in 2002 and was Completed in 2013. Currently the Old East Span is being deconstructed and removed for recycling while the foundations are being demolished with explosives or converted for other uses.
San Francisco International Airport Redevelopment San Francisco, California Under Construction $2,400,000,000 The airport began a multiphase renovation project in June 2016, which will see Terminal 1 be transformed into a world-class, environment-friendly passenger facility when Completed in 2024.
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel Seattle, Washington Completed $3,100,000,000 South-End Viaduct replacement started in 2008 and was completed in 2014. The SR 99 Tunnel started work in 2011, and is set for completion in 2021. Mitigation Projects started work in 2008, and are set for completion in 2019. Other miscellaneous projects started in 2007 and are set for completion in 2023.
The Puget Sound Gateway Program Washington Under Construction $1,960,000,000 This project has been in planning phases since 1990, and includes the completion of SR 167 between Puyallup and Tacoma, as well as completion of SR 509 from I-5 to Burien.
Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (2016) Seattle, Washington Completed $4,560,000,000 This 2,350 m (7,710 ft) long floating bridge is the longest of its type in the world. The new SR 520 bridge replaced the previous record-holder, the original Evergreen Point Floating Bridge across Lake Washington, connecting Seattle to points east. The new structure, rising 6.1 m (20 ft) above the water, opened to traffic in spring 2016.
Sound Transit 3 Seattle, Washington Under Construction $50,000,000,000 This project is to expand the current Light Rail and Bus system currently in use in Seattle, which is to be completed in stages from 2020 until 2041.
Silver Line (Washington Metro) Washington, D.C. Under Construction $6,800,000,000 Phase 1 on the project was planned to link the Capital to Dulles International Airport and to four edge cities: Tysons, Reston, Herndon, and Ashburn. This phase completed and was opened to the general public on 26 July 2014. Phase 2 is set to help with urban development of Tysons and reduce overall reliance on highway traffic in the business district, Virginia's largest and 12th-largest in the country. This project is set to be completed by 2023.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Project City/Province Status Cost Notes
Cross River Rail Brisbane, Queensland Under Construction $5,400,000,000 To be completed in 2024. The crossing will be a tunnel under the river, and the first rail-only Brisbane River crossing since the completion of the Merivale Bridge in 1978.[128]
OneSKY Canberra, ACT Under Development $2,000,000,000 To be completed in 2024. National Air Traffic Control System Australia.[129]
Metro Tunnel Melbourne, Victoria Under Construction $11,000,000,000 To be completed late 2025. The railway line will run from South Kensington, underground via North Melbourne, Parkville, CBD, Domain and South Yarra. It will include a tunnel under the Yarra River.
North East Link Melbourne, Victoria Under Development $15,800,000,000 To be completed late 2027. This road project will connect the M80 Ring Road to the Eastern Freeway.
Suburban Rail Loop Melbourne, Victoria Proposed $50,000,000,000 To be completed in 2050. The railway line will run from Cheltenham to Werribee in an orbital loop circling the suburbs of Melbourne. Proposed to be completed in 4 stages[130]
Central Station to Eveleigh Redevelopment Sydney, New South Wales Proposed $10,000,000,000 Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.[131]
Sydney Metro City & Southwest Sydney, New South Wales Under Construction $12,000,000,000 30 km (19 mi) rapid transit railway line. Planned to open by 2024.[132]

Planned cities and urban renewal projects[edit]

Africa[edit]

Eastern Africa[edit]

Kenya[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Konza Technology City Konza Under Construction $14,500,000,000

Northern Africa[edit]

Egypt[edit]
Project City/Governorate Status Cost Notes
Madinaty Cairo Governorate Under Construction $10,000,000,000 Housing project.[133]
Proposed new capital of Egypt Cairo Governorate Under Construction $250,000,000,000 Construction began in 2015 and is spread out into three phases with Phase 1 expected to be completed sometime in 2022. The full project is expected to be fully Completed by 2050, housing a population of 6,500,000 people.
New Mansoura City Cairo Governorate Under Construction $3,700,000,000 Construction began in 2017.
New Alamein City Matrouh Governorate Under Construction $60,000,000,000 Construction began in 2015 spread out over 3 phases.
Galala City Suez Governorate Under Construction $63,000,000,000 Construction began in March–April 2018 spread out in phases with the 1st phase set for completion in June 2020.[134]

Southern Africa[edit]

South Africa[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Modderfontein New CityNew Gauteng City South Africa Abandoned[135] $7,800,000,000 Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later.[136][137]

Western Africa[edit]

Abuja, FCT in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and still expanding rapidly.[138]
Nigeria[edit]
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Abuja FCT Completed The planned capital city of Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s. It officially became Nigeria's capital on 12 December 1991, replacing Lagos, and has since witnessed a huge influx of people into the city. As at 2006, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria, with an estimated metropolitan population of well over three million. Abuja is currently amongst the four largest urban areas in Nigeria.[139]
Asokoro Island[140] Abuja, FCT Under Construction $1,000,000,000 A peninsula development located in Asokoro district, in Abuja. The mixed-use development is approximately 60 hectares of land, located at the shores of Pendam Lake. Its residential development ranges from apartment buildings to villas. They are majorly luxury properties with private balconies, mezzanines, floor-to-ceiling windows, swimming pool and sun terrace etc. The commercial and work section presents hotels, offices, shopping malls, business and primary schools.[141]
Centenary City Abuja, FCT Under Construction $18,000,000,000 Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria PLC to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on 19 June 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion. The city, which is located in the Federal Capital Territory, anticipates over 400,000 residents.[142]
Eko Atlantic Lagos State Under Construction $6,000,000,000 A planned city of Lagos State, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. The project broke ground in 2007 and is being spearheaded by South Energyx Nigeria Ltd. Upon completion the project anticipates at least 250,000 residents and an additional daily flow of 150,000 commuters.[143]
FESTAC Phase 2 Lagos, Lagos State Under Development $2,400,000,000 In 2014, The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development signed deal with the New Festac Property Development Company, to develop the second phase of Festac Town. Since the award, the company has been carrying out extensive preliminary project development activities including surveys, field studies, site investigation, environmental impact assessment, and town planning for the project.[144]
Lekki Lagos State Under Construction A peninsula city which is 755 square kilometres. Lekki Phase 1 has been completed and it currently houses several Estates and gated residential developments; other phases of the project include, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, with an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate well over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million.[145]

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]
TODTOWN under Construction in July 2019.
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Todtown Shanghai Under Construction $1,500,000,000 A mixed-use development. Started construction in 2014 and is set for completion in 2022.
Japan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost (Japanese Yen ¥) Cost (US $) Notes
Roppongi Hills Tokyo Completed $4,000,000,000 One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.
Sky Mile Tower Tokyo Proposed If built, completion would probably be in the year 2045 and stand at 1.7 km in height with a capacity of around 55,000 people.

South Asia[edit]

Navi Mumbai, the world's largest planned city.
India[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Corridor Area from Amritsar to Kolkata, India Proposed
Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor Area from Bangalore to Mumbai, India Proposed
Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor Area from Chennai to Bangalore, India Proposed
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India Under Construction $90,000,000,000 Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai. Completion of the Corridor is expected for 2037.
Navi Mumbai India Under Construction $13,346,000,000 World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.[146]
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City India Operational $20,000,000,000 The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow.[147] It aims to outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect.[148]
Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor Area from Vizag to Chennai, India Proposed
Dholera SIR Gujarat Under Construction A part of India's Smart Cities Mission; planned to be completed before 2040.
Pakistan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost (Rupee ₨) Cost (US $) Notes
Islamabad Islamabad Completed ₨24,000,000,000 The new capital city of Pakistan. A planned city located on north of Rawalpindi. The city has population of 2.2 million.[149]
Bahria Town Karachi Under Development $1,000,000,000 Bahria Town Karachi is a planned community near Pakistan's largest port city Karachi.[150]
DHA City, Karachi (DCK) Karachi Under Development To be built on a 4,700 hectares piece of land located several kilometres northeast of Karachi.[151] Upon completion, the new city which is still under development is anticipating at least 250,000 residents and a daily flow of 50,000 commuters.[152]
Crescent Bay Karachi Under Development $2,400,000,000 Covering 440,000 meters, Crescent Bay is one of the biggest projects in Pakistan. It is a mixed-use oceanfront development in Karachi. It features multiple high rise buildings, shopping malls, 5-star hotels, and mosques. The project is managed by Emaar properties who built the Burj Khalifa complex in Dubai. This project is one of the most modern projects ever built in Pakistan.
Gwadar Port City Gwadar Under Development $62,000,000,000 A future mega city which is in progress under CPEC.It is located in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Port Tower Complex Karachi Under Development $350,000,000 A 593m tall skyscraper situated at Karachi Port Trust. The building will be located on a man-made island with other skyscrapers. It will be located along the Mai Kolachi Bypass. Once completed, it will be the tallest building in South Asia.
Bahria Paradise Karachi Under Development A part of Bahria Town Karachi.
Ravi Riverfront Urban Development Project Lahore Under Development $41,040,000,000 Sprawling over an area of 70,000 acres, the RRUDP entails high-quality residential, commercial, institutional, cultural and recreational zones along both sides of the river at a stretch of 33 km.[153] The riverfront will be dotted with highrise condominiums, modern piers, boardwalks and 70 percent area dedicated to trees to make it environment friendly.[154] Around 25,000 acres of riverfront would be sold to investors for business, cultural and lifestyle activities.[155]
LDA City Lahore Under Development LDA City is the biggest housing society project ever undertaken by LDA,[156] and is the largest housing society in Punjab, Pakistan. The city is to be built on a 3,059 hectares (7560 acres) piece of virgin land located several kilometers south of Lahore.
Bundel Island City Karachi Proposed $50,000,000,000 Bundel Island is an island that is directly on the coast of Karachi, near DHA Karachi. While the projects has been long proposed, it has never materialised due to environmental concerns and the objections of the Sindh Governemt. The new Central government again proposed the development of an island city on Bundel Island, with high rise buildings as well as business spaces. The reason is to reduce congestion in the city of Karachi whose infrastructure is increasingly collapsing with its ever growing population. The new government said that with and investment of over $50,000,000,000 (50 Billion USD), the city would eclipse Dubai, and would become a regional business and tourism destination. It will also significantly reduce stress on the infrastructure of Karachi. However, the Sindh government again became a hurdle, saying that since Bundle Island is part of karachi, the Sindh government has all rights over it. Environmental concerns, especially the threat to mangroves, also was cited. None the less, the city remains on the table, and if the central government ever win elections in Sindh, this new city would emerge as the new financial hub of Karachi.
Capital Smart City Islamabad Under Development In view of growing housing demand in the twin cities, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, FDHL intends to build a quality housing project on M2 Motorway near New Islamabad International Airport falling on the eastern route of CPEC. Capital Smart City aims to become another smart city in Pakistan and a model for sustainable development. Recently as part of their marketing campaign, they hired Pakistan famed Turkish actress, Esra Bilgic.
Sri Lanka[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Colombo Port City Colombo Under Construction $15,000,000,000 A planned offshore city in Colombo, Sri Lanka which is to be built on reclaimed land adjacent to the Galle Face Green. The city will use construction resources from the Colombo Harbour Expansion Project, currently under construction near the site of this proposed city.[157] Set for Completion in 2041.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Indonesia[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
BSD City Greater Jakarta Completed An area half the size of Paris, BSD City encompasses an area of about 6000 hectares.
Lippo Cikarang Greater Jakarta Completed $18,750,000,000 Lippo Cikarang is an industrial park with an area of 332 hectares, which also has apartment, hotel, office, shopping center, retail, school and university, hospital, convention center and other supporting facilities.
Pantai Indah Kapuk Jakarta Completed Pantai Indah Kapuk (PIK) is a well-planned model town in North Jakarta, spreading over 1200 hectares of land.
Ancol Dreamland Jakarta Completed Ancol Dreamland is an integrated tourism area in South East Asia with an area of about 600 hectares.
Malaysia[edit]
Project City/District Status Cost Notes
KL River City Kuala Lumpur In Development $11,638,736,500 Rehabilitation project along the Gombak River.[158]
Forest City Johor Bahru Under Construction $100,000,000,000 To Be Completed in 2035.
Iskandar Malaysia Johor Bahru Under Construction $100,000,000,000
Putrajaya Putrajaya, Sepang District Completed $8,100,000,000 In 1999 most of the seats of government moved from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya.
Melaka Gateway Malacca City Under Construction $40,000,000,000
Philippines[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Lancaster New City Zone 1 and Zone 2 Cavite Under Construction

2,000 hectare planned community in Cavite

Nuvali Laguna Under Construction 2,290 hectare planned community in Santa Rosa, Laguna.
Entertainment City Manila Bay Under Development $15,000,000,000 An entertainment complex which is intended to be the Philippine counterpart of Macau and Las Vegas. It is built upon reclaimed land along Manila Bay.
Eastwood City Quezon City Completed A high-density mixed-use development.
Bonifacio Global City Taguig Completed Previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters, it is currently one of Metro Manila's main central business districts.
New Clark City Tarlac and Pampanga Under Construction $59,288,000,000 A 9,450-hectare planned city modeled after South Korea's Songdo City. Singapore's SSR C-Solar power plant will provide the city's power supply.

Middle East[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Khazar Islands Azerbaijan Under Construction $100,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.
Iran[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost (Rial ﷼) Cost (US $) Notes
Iran Mall Tehran, Iran Under Construction ﷼220,000,000,000,000 (thus far) $7,600,000,000 (thus far) The project spans more than 1.6 million square meters that includes shopping mall, two tower, two 5 star hotels, and a lake.[159]
Iraq[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
The Bride of the Gulf Basra Proposed Basra is in the midst of rebuilding and is in need of something that will return it to its pre-Hussein period.
Jordan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Abdali Project[160][161] Amman, Jordan Under Construction $5,000,000,000 Project is being developed on 384,000 square metres (0.148 sq mi) of land, intending to create a total built-up area of over 1,700,000 square metres (0.66 sq mi) consisting of hotels, apartments, offices, commercial outlets and entertainment.[160][161]
Kuwait[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Madinat al-Hareer Kuwait Under Development 150-$632,000,000,000 Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait an area just opposite Kuwait City across Kuwait Bay.
Qatar[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Lusail Al Daayen Municipality Under Development $45,000,000,000 Planned to be a host city of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, planned population of 260,000 people
Saudi Arabia[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Jeddah Economic City Jeddah Under Construction $20,000,000,000 Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be the $1.2 Billion Jeddah Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.
Masjid Al-Haram Mecca Under Construction $100,000,000,000 The Saudi government is reportedly paying as high as 500,000 Saudi riyals (around $133,000) per square meter to the owners of the buildings close to the mosque in return for the expropriation. This brings the total figure to around $100 billion. Slated to Completed by 2020.
Neom (Neo-Mustaqbal) Neom In Development $500,000,000,000 Saudi Arabia's most ambitious mega-city project ever, which is to build a new city in northwestern Saudi Arabia.[162] At the core of this new city will be Artificial Intelligence.[163]
King Abdullah Financial District Riyadh Under Construction $78,000,000,000 About a fifth (Phase 1) of the project is completed.
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Under Construction $100,000,000,000 Currently in various stages of Construction and Completion stages.
The Burj Khalifa in October 2012.
United Arab Emirates[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Masdar City Abu Dhabi Under Construction $22,000,000,000 The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.
Yas Island Abu Dhabi Under Development $36,000,000,000 It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.
Burj Al Arab Dubai Completed $1,000,000,000 Completed and Opened in 1999, it is the 3rd tallest hotel in the World.
Burj Khalifa Dubai Completed $1,500,000,000 Originally call the Burj Dubai, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the World and has held that title since its Completion and Grand Opening on 4 January 2010.
Dubai Meydan City Dubai Under Construction $2,200,000,000 Expected Completion date about 2020.
Falconcity of Wonders Dubai Under Development $36,500,000,000
Business Bay Dubai Under Development $30,000,000,000 Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.
The World Dubai Under Development $14,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map. Development has slowly restarted.
Palm Jumeirah Dubai Completed $12,300,000,000 It is the world's largest man-made island.
Dubai Marina Dubai Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Palm Jebel Ali Dubai On-Hold $4,000,000,000 Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.
Palm Deira Dubai On-Hold Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.
Dubai International City Dubai Under Construction $95,000,000,000 A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.
Jumeirah Garden City Dubai On-Hold $95,000,000,000 Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai On-Hold Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.
Dubailand Dubai Under Construction $64,300,000,000 Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development. Expected Completion Date about 2025.
The Universe Dubai On-Hold A planned artificial archipelago in the shape of the Milky Way and Solar System.
The Tower Dubai On-Hold $1,000,000,000 Located at Dubai Creek Harbour, The Tower will be a mixed-use skyscraper that will be a notch taller than the Burj Khalifa when Completed in 2020.
Mall of the World Dubai Under Construction $6,806,425,500 To be located along the Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Road and set to Open in 2029.

Eurasia[edit]

Republic of Turkey (Europe West and Asia East of the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles)[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
İstanbul Finance Center İstanbul Under Development $5,000,000,000 Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir
Turkey Urban Renewal Project Turkey Under Development $400,000,000,000[164][165] Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul[166] as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey).[167] Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.[168] Construction started in 2012 and is expected to take 20 years to complete setting for 2032.

Russia (Europe West and Asia East of the Ural Mountains)[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Moscow International Business Center Moscow Under Construction $12,000,000,000 Construction on Plots 1, 2–3, 4 (Tower 1) & (Tower 2), 6–8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17-18, and 19 is completed. Construction on Plots 1 and 15 is in progress.
Lakhta Center Lakhta, Saint Petersburg Completed $2,500,000,000 Replaces the Okhta Center, which was cancelled due to official objections of UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
Okhta Center Saint Petersburg Cancelled $2,500,000,000 Never built, replaced by the new project Lakhta Center

Europe[edit]

France[edit]

Project Commune Status Cost Notes
La Défense (1958–2014) Courbevoie
Nanterre
Puteaux
Completed $10,000,000,000+ The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.
La Défense (2016–Present) Courbevoie
Nanterre
Puteaux
Under Construction $1,000,000,000+ The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character. This current round of the project includes modernize, refurbish and green the area.
Europa City Gonesse Cancelled $3,400,000,000 Construction began on the 8.6-million-square foot mixed-use development north of downtown in 2016 but was cancelled on 8 November 2019.

Germany[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment Berlin Completed Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.
HafenCity Hamburg Under Development Completion expected in 2020–2030

Romania[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Esplanada City Center Bucharest Cancelled $4,200,000,000

Spain[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Bilbao Renovation Project Bilbao Completed In the 1990s, the city began a de-industrialisation process, which radically changed its image. After closing several factories and decontaminating the city's river, several mega projects were built. A whole new airport, designed by Spanish world-famous architect Santiago Calatrava, a metro system designed by British Lord Norman Foster, a recovery of the city's old fashioned tram network changed the city's public transport system. The Iberdrola Tower, which is Bilbao's tallest building, the Alhondiga, the Zubizuri bridge and several other significant buildings changed the city center's polluted past. The whole renovation process started because of the construction of The Guggenheim Museum Of Bilbao, the city's landmark and main museum.
CTBA – Madrid Financial District Madrid Completed est. $1,000,000,000 A complex of four skyscrapers, each about 240 metres high, located on one of Madrid's most expensive avenue, La Castellana. The towers were built on Real Madrid's former Ciudad Deportiva, and were completed in 2008. The tallest building is Torre Cepsa, designed by world-famous architect Norman Foster, and has a height of 249 meters, making it Spain's tallest structure.
Madrid New North Madrid Approved $10,550,000,000 Expansion of the existing Paseo de la Castellana. If completed as planned, it will include a business complex, 10,500 homes, and multiple skyscrapers.
Southeast developments Madrid Under construction +$3,500,000,000 A strategy that aims to expand the city in the southeast of the city with the creation of six neighborhoods (Los cerros, Ensanche de Vallecas, Valdecarros, el Cañaveral, los Berrocales, los Ahijones) At the moment one of the neighborhoods is already built, another one is under construction, two other neighborhoods already have the ground ready, while the two remaining neighborhoods have nothing built.

This strategy aims to create some 145,637 homes in the south of Madrid, of which 30,000 have been built so far. These developments would extend the surface of Madrid by 8.2% and could house more than 350,000 inhabitants. The entire strategy is not expected to be completed until 2040/2050.

Sweden[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost (kr) Cost (US $) Notes
Million Programme All of the country Completed neighborhood of $5 bn 1965–1975
Movement of Kiruna Centrum Kiruna Under Development $2,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed between 2020 and 2021.[169]
Northvolt Gigafactory Skellefteå & Västerås Under Development $4,700,000,000 Lithium ion battery factory.[170]
Redevelopment of the Slussenområdet Stockholm Under Development kr12,000,000,000 "The construction of the New Slussen is one of the largest urban transformation projects in Sweden".[171]

United Kingdom[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost (£) Cost (US $) Notes
Big City Plan Birmingham, England Under Construction £12,750,000,000 Entire project to be completed sometime in the 2030s.
Battersea Power Station London, England Under Construction £13,250,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2025.
Embassy Gardens London, England Completed £2,100,000,000 Completed in Spring to Summer 2019.
Greenwich Peninsula London, England Under Construction £8,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by the 2030s.
Pilgrim Street East Newcastle upon Tyne, England Under Construction +£400,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2025.
Royal Wharf London, England Under Construction £3,100,000,000 To be Completed sometime in 2020.
Stratford City London, England Under Construction £3,500,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Wembley Park London, England Under Construction £1,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2024, the project has garnered $1.1 billion in funding so far.

North America[edit]

Verclaire Gate South in Downtown Markham.

Canada[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Downtown Markham Markham, Ontario Under Construction $4,000,000,000 One of the many city center projects in York Region. Scheduled for Completion in 2025.
Oakridge Centre redevelopment Vancouver, British Columbia
$5,000,000,000 Project will turn Oakridge Centre into the second largest shopping mall in British Columbia. First phase expected to be complete by 2024. Second phase expected to be complete in 2028.[172]

Mexico[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Cancún Quintana Roo Completed One of the largest tourist destinations in North America
Santa Fe, Mexico City Mexico City Completed
Brickell Key in Miami.
Las Vegas CityCenter, the largest set of resorts in the largest gambling center in the world.

United States[edit]

Project Borough/County/City/State Status Cost Notes
Port Covington Baltimore, Maryland Under Construction $5,500,000,000 Groundbreaking began June 2019. Expected to be Completed by 2040.
Pacific Park Brooklyn, New York City, New York Under Construction $8,000,000,000 The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center, opened in September 2012. The project name Atlantic Yards has been renamed Pacific Park, Brooklyn. The Project is expected to be Completed by 2025 at the earliest.
Lincoln Yards Project Chicago, Illinois Approved $6,000,000,000 The development of 55 acres of riverfront land in Chicago.
Vista Tower Project Chicago, Illinois Completed $1,000,000,000 Completed in 2020. Tallest structure designed by a woman.[173]
Brickell Key Claughton Island, Miami, Florida Completed $2,000,000,000+ A man-made island called Claughton Island[174] off the mainland Brickell neighborhood of Miami, Florida.
Apple Park Cupertino, California Completed $3,000,000,000+ The "spaceship", as it is nicknamed, is Apple's new flagship headquarters (formally named Apple Campus 2). Taking the shape of a giant ring, it is expected to house over 14,000 employees. It was completed and opened in April 2017.
Encore Boston Harbor Everett, Massachusetts Completed $2,500,000,000 Opened in 2019, the casino resort property is the largest single private development in Massachusetts history.
BlueOval SK Battery Park Glendale, Kentucky Announced $5,800,000,000 Large-scale battery plant scheduled to start production in 2025. Includes two plants operated by the Ford–SK joint venture that will produce batteries for Ford and Lincoln electric vehicles.[175]
Generation Park Houston, Texas Under Construction $10,000,000,000+ A 4,200 acre privately owned and master-planned commercial development 20-minutes from Downtown Houston. The project broke ground in 2014 with TechnipFMC's 173-acre corporate campus.[176] Generation Park is owned and developed by McCord.
CityCenter Las Vegas, Nevada Completed $11,000,000,000 The largest privately financed development in the United States.
Wilshire Grand Center Los Angeles, California Completed $1,200,000,000 Opened on 23 June 2017. It is the tallest building in Los Angeles, the tallest building in California, and the tallest building west of the Mississippi at a height of 1,100 feet.
Riverside South Manhattan, New York City, New York Under Construction $3,000,000,000 An urban development project in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City.
Battery Park City Manhattan, New York City, New York Completed $1,400,000,000+ Mainly a residential 92-acre (37 ha) planned community at the southwestern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City, New York, United States, more than  1⁄3 of which is parkland.[177]
Cornell Tech Campus Manhattan, New York City, New York Under Construction $2,000,000,000 Construction began in 2014 on the South end of Roosevelt Island. The first of three phases is set to be completed in stages between 2017 and 2019 and Phase 2 to be Completed sometime later.
Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project Manhattan, New York City, New York Under Construction $20,000,000,000 A mixed-use real estate development currently being built over the 28-acre West Side Rail Yard.
Rebuilding of the World Trade Center Manhattan, New York City, New York Re-Construction In Progress $32,000,000,000[178] Recovery from the September 11 attacks. One, Three, Four, and Seven World Trade Center Towers completed 2006–2018. Two, Five, and Six World Trade Center Towers are either in development, currently on hold, or will never be rebuilt.
53W53 Manhattan, New York City, New York Completed $1,200,000,000 Formerly the Tower Verre is a Supertall Skyscraper with a Museum and Residential Condominiums. Completed in 2019[179]
Brickell City Centre Miami, Florida Construction in Progress $1,050,000,000 A shopping and mixed-use project that will span up to give blocks in the Brickell district of Downtown Miami. Currently consists of three towers each just over 500 feet and is proposed to add One Brickell City Centre, an 80-story, 1049 ft skyscraper.
Miami Worldcenter Miami, Florida Construction in Progress $4,000,000,000 A large mixed-use development of over 25 acres of land on the north side of Downtown Miami. Eventually will include lots of shopping, apartment buildings, hotels, office buildings, and even a convention center. Though not much has been built as of yet, one notable building is Paramount Miami Worldcenter, which stands at 700 ft tall.
Hollywoodland Ohio Middletown, Ohio Announced $1,300,000,000 A massive mixed-use development along a local riverfront will establish a more than $1 billion destination entertainment district and theme park. The project is set to be completed by 2024.[citation needed]
Comcast Technology Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Completed $1,500,000,000 Ninth-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere as well as the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere outside of Manhattan and Chicago at a height of 1,121 feet, which opened in 2018.
Shell Pennsylvania Petrochemicals Complex Potter Township, Beaver County, Pennsylvania Under Construction $6,000,000,000 Commencing in 2017, the cracker plant currently holds over 3,000 construction jobs, and will have 600 permanent jobs when the plant is completed. It will produce over 1.6 million tonnes of ethylene per year.
Gigafactory 1 Reno, Nevada Under Construction $5,000,000,000 6.3 Blocks (30%) of the total 21 Blocks of the factory Completed and the remaining 14.7 Blocks to be completed by 2020.
The Transbay Redevelopment Area San Francisco, California Under Construction $4,500,000,000 The redevelopment of began in June 2005 and is expected to be fully Completed around 2030, includes a new Transbay Transit Center and the newly opened Salesforce Tower. The Salesforce Tower is a 1,070-foot Supertall Office Skyscraper just completed in the South of Market district of downtown San Francisco at a cost of $1,100,000,000.
San Francisco Shipyard and Candlestick Redevelopment San Francisco, California Under Construction $8,000,000,000 Set to be Completed sometime after 2028.
SDSU Mission Valley San Diego, California Under Construction $3,500,000,000 A non-contiguous expansion parcel of the San Diego State University campus occupying the former site of San Diego Stadium. While the complex will include housing, educational infrastructure, office and retail space, hotels, and parks, the centerpiece will be Aztec Stadium, scheduled to open in 2022 as the new home of SDSU football. The entire project is planned to be completed some time in the early 2030s.
Treasure Island Redevelopment San Francisco, California In Development $6,000,000,000 Set to be completed by 2028.
The Mission Bay Redevelopment San Francisco, California Under Construction $1,000,000,000
Parkmerced San Francisco, California Under Construction $1,350,000,000 Expected to be Completed by 2035.
Washington State Convention Center Seattle, Washington Under Construction $1,600,000,000 This expansion project is expected to be Completed in 2020.
Blue Oval City Stanton, Tennessee Announced $5,600,000,000 Large-scale Ford electric vehicle complex in West Tennessee scheduled to begin production in 2025. The planned complex will include a vehicle assembly plant for electric Ford F-Series trucks, a battery plant operated by a joint venture between Ford and SK Group, supplier facilities, and battery recycling operations.[175]
Sasol Ethane Cracker Complex Project Westlake-Mossville-Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana Under Construction $8,900,000,000 Large-scale petrochemical complex in Southwestern Louisiana.

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Queen's Wharf, Brisbane Brisbane, Queensland Under Construction $3,000,000,000 Integrated Resort Development located on the north bank of the Brisbane River in the Brisbane central business district. Entire project to be completed by 2024.[180]
Barangaroo Sydney, New South Wales Under Construction $6,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2023
Victorian Desalination Plant Williamsons Beach, Dalyston-Wonthaggi, Bass Coast Shire, Victoria Completed $4,000,000,000 Built to provide more drinking water to Melbourne because in the mid-2000s the city's water reserves were at 28% of capacity.

New Zealand[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Rebuilding of Christchurch New Zealand Re-Construction In Progress $17,000,000,000 Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Brasília Brasília Completed $21,900,000,000 At the close of the 20th century, Brasília was the largest city in the world which had not existed at the beginning of the century.[181] Construction cost for Brasília in 1957 was about $2.5 Billion.[182]

Colombia[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Bogota Urban Renewal Bogota Under Development $50,000,000,000 Includes building over 60 skyscrapers, 500 highrises, 3 new CBDs, a subway system, and a smart city near Usaquén.[citation needed]

Water-related[edit]

Ports, waterways, canals, and locks for Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships carrying passengers and cargo from country to country and islands nations are built as megaprojects

Africa[edit]

Eastern Africa[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Benishangul-Gumuz Region Under Construction $4,800,000,000 The dam is located on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia. Construction began in 2011 and is expected to be completed sometime between 2020 and 2022.
Kenya[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
LAPSSET Corridor Program Lamu Under Construction $13,000,000,000
Tanzania[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Bagamoyo Port Bagamoyo Under Construction $10,000,000,000

Northern Africa[edit]

Old and New Suez Canal
Egypt[edit]
Project Province(s) Status Cost Notes
New Suez Canal Ismailia and Suez Completed $8,400,000,000 In August 2014, work started on expanding the Suez Canal, dubbed the "New Suez Canal" was completed and opened on 6 August 2015.
Suez Canal Ismailia and Suez Completed $1,725,950,238.22 A man-made canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea cost $100 million in 1869.

Western Africa[edit]

Nigeria[edit]
Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Badagry Deep Sea Port Badagry, Lagos State Under Construction $2,300,000,000 Construction started in January 2016, and the project is expected to have a "soft Launch" in 2018.[183][184]
Lekki Port Lekki, Lagos State Under Construction $1,650,000,000 The Port at Lekki is a new seaport in Lekki, and construction commenced in 2015. The port is planned to be developed in phases to meet the growing demand; phase one opened in 2018.[185] The port is financed by private investors and a consortium of banks who have funded the project with $1.65 billion so far.[186]

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]
Project City/District/Province Status Cost Notes
Three Gorges Dam Sandouping, Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei Province Completed $59,000,000,000 The Yangtze River Project began in 1994 and was Completed in 2003.
South–North Water Transfer Project South to North China Under Construction $79,000,000,000[187] No timeline to indicate a completion date of this project and no telling how much more the project will cost.
Japan[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Kamaishi Tsunami Protection Breakwater Kamaishi, Iwate Completed $1,500,000,000 Completed in March 2009, it soon became the tsunami barrier that failed to protect Kamaishi during the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

South Asia[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Colombo Harbour Expansion Project Colombo Completed $1,200,000,000 Construction began in 2008 and completely finished on 8 August 2013.
India[edit]

Sagarmala Project- The Sagarmala Programme is an initiative by the government of India to enhance the performance of the country's logistics sector. The programme envisages unlocking the potential of waterways and the coastline to minimize infrastructural investments required to meet these targets.[1][2] It entails investing Rs. 8.5 trillion (2018) to set up new mega ports, modernizing India's existing ports, developing of 14 Coastal Economic Zones (CEZs) and Coastal Economic Units, enhancing port connectivity via road, rail, multi-modal logistics parks, pipelines & waterways and promoting coastal community development, with the aim of boosting merchandise exports by US$110 billion and generating around 10,000,000 direct and indirect jobs. Six megaports are planned in Sagarmala project.[188]

S.No. Location State Status
1. Sagar Island West Bengal DPR under preparation
2. Paradip Outer Harbour Odisha DPR under preparation.
3. Sirkazhi Tamil Nadu Techno Economic Feasibility Report(TEFR) prepared.
4. Kanniyakumari Tamil Nadu Major Transhipment Port at Kanniyakumari. SPV formed for the purpose - March 2019.
5. Belikeri Karnataka Techno Economic Feasibility Report (TEFR) prepared.
6. Vadhavan Maharashtra DPR under preparation.

Middle East[edit]

Israel[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
National Water Carrier of Israel Completed ~$1,100,000,000 Completed in 1956
United Arab Emirates[edit]
Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Dubai Marina Dubai Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai Suspended Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.

Caribbean[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Project City/Province(s) Status Cost Notes
New Port of Mariel Development Project Mariel, Artemisa Completed $900,000,000[189]

Central America[edit]

Nicaragua[edit]

Project City/Province(s) Status Cost Notes
Nicaragua Canal Proposed est. $100,000,000,000 Formally the Nicaraguan Canal and Development Project (also referred to as the Nicaragua Grand Canal, or the Grand Interoceanic Canal) is a planned shipping route through Nicaragua to connect the Caribbean Sea (and therefore the Atlantic Ocean) with the Pacific Ocean. Its viability has been questioned by shipping experts and engineers[190]
New Panama Canal expansion project. July 2015

Panama[edit]

Project Province(s) Status Cost Notes
Panama Canal Colón Province and Panamá Province Completed $8,961,664,698.46 Originally constructed by the United States for about $360 million. Opened on 15 August 1914 with a series of locks, canals, and lakes which connect ships traveling between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Panama Canal Expansion Colón Province and Panamá Province Completed $5,250,000,000 The Expansion Opened 26 June 2016.

Europe[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Zuiderzee Works Central Completed A man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century.
Delta Works Southwest Middelburg to Dordrecht Completed $13,000,000,000 A series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea. The project was proposed after the North Sea Flood of 1953.

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Project City/Province Status Cost (£) Cost (US $) Notes
Rideau Canal Kingston to Ottawa Completed £822,804 (January 1834) A 202 km waterway opened in 1832 to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal and the British naval base in Kingston.

Mexico[edit]

Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Port of Veracruz Expansion Veracruz Under Construction $5,000,000,000
Dos Bocas Refinery Tabasco Under Construction

United States[edit]

Project City/State Status Cost Notes
Intracoastal Waterway Boston, Massachusetts to Brownsville, Texas Completed A 3,000-mile (4,800 km) inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Project City/Country Status Cost Notes
Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro Completed $35,700,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2015.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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