List of mentally ill monarchs
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2010)|
This is a list of monarchs who have been described as mentally ill in some way by historians past or present.
In many cases, it is difficult to ascertain whether a given historical monarch did in fact possess a genuine mental illness of some sort, whether he or she was merely eccentric or suffering symptoms of a physical illness, or whether he or she was just disliked by chroniclers.
- Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon (now Babylon, Iraq) (reigned c. 605 BC-562 BC), became insane for a period of seven years.
- Hantili I, who had paranoia
- Tiberius, a paranoid sexual deviant.
- Caligula, nephew of Tiberius, suffered from paranoia and narcissism, believing that he was a god and that the god of the sea was plotting against him. Was an alcoholic, made his horse a senator, ordered political prisoners decapitated over dinner, married his sister and ordered political assassinations. (12–41; ruled 37–41) According to multiple classical sources, his mental health deteriorated suddenly after a severe fever that nearly killed him. This suggests that organic brain damage from high body temperature or encephalitis (possibly malarial) may have played a causative role instead of or alongside a preexisting mental illness.
- Justin II (520–578; ruled 565–578) 
- Nero, nephew of Caligula, suffered from the same disorders as his uncle along with Histrionic personality disorder. Ordered the deaths of his mother and step-brother, had Christians crucified and burned, declared himself a god, allegedly played the lyre during the Fire of Rome.
- Commodus, suffered from narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders, respectively, renamed Rome, the Empire, the Praetorian Guard and various streets after himself, believed himself to be the reincarnation of Hercules and had a servant burned to death for making his bath too cold.
- Elagabalus catapulted venomous snakes at the people of Rome, invited guests to dinner only to give them inedible bread and leave lions in their bedrooms, used children's entrails for Divination, held lotteries for which the prizes consisted of wooden boxes containing bees, dead dogs and flies. Turned the Royal Palace into a public brothel.
- Fatamid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (985-1021; ruled from 13 October 996 to 13 February 1021), known in Europe as the Mad Caliph
- Ottoman Caliph Ibrahim I (1615–1648; ruled 1640–1648), known as Deli Ibrahim (Mad Ibrahim)
- Ottoman Caliph Murad V (1840-1904; ruled from 30 May to 31 August 1876)
- King Charles VI of France (1368–1422; ruled 1380–1422), known as Charles le Fou (Charles the Mad)
- King Henry VI of England (1421–1471; ruled 1422–1461 and 1470–1471)
- Queen Joanna of Castile (1479–1555; ruled 1504–1555), known as Juana La Loca (Joanna the Mad)
- King Eric XIV of Sweden (1533–1577; ruled 1560–1568), he suffered from alcoholism, explosive rage attacks, serious mental instability and paranoia. Ordered mass executions and murdered his own son. His madness was likely the result of mercury poisoning
- Tsar Feodor I of Russia (1557–1598; ruled 1584–1598), son of Ivan IV. Known as Feodor the Bellringer (he was reputedly mentally disabled)
- Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552–1612; ruled 1576–1611).
- Tsar Ivan V of Russia (1666–1696; ruled 1682–1696) 11th child of Tsar Alexei, joint ruler with Peter the Great, he had serious mental and physical disabilities.
- Queen Maria I of Portugal (1734–1816; ruled 1777–1816), known as Maria a Louca (Maria the Mad) 
- King Christian VII of Denmark (1749–1808; ruled 1767–1808)
- King George III of the United Kingdom, suffered from Porphyria which gave him explosive rage attacks, panic attacks, delusions and visual and auditory hallucinations. (1738–1820; ruled 1760–1820)
- King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845–1886; ruled 1864–1886), known as Mad King Ludwig 
- King Otto of Bavaria (1848–1916; ruled 1886–1913) 
- Former Deposed Emperor of Liu Song (449–465; ruled 464–466)
- Daniel 4.33
- Josephus, l.c. x. 10, § 6)
- Kendall K. Down, Daniel: Hostage in Babylon, p.30
- John of Ephesus, Ecclesiastical History, Part 3, Book 3
- Tuchman, Barbara (1978). A Distant Mirror. New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 514–516. ISBN 0-345-30145-5.
- Tuchman, Barbara (1978). A Distant Mirror. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 586. ISBN 0-345-30145-5.
- Roberts, Jenifer (2009). The Madness of Queen Maria. Templeton Press. ISBN 978-0-9545589-1-8.
- "King George III: Mad or misunderstood?". BBC News. July 13, 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- King, Greg (1996). The Mad King ( A Biography of Ludwig II of Bavaria ). London: Aurum Press. pp. 252–255. ISBN 978-1-55972-362-6.