List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet

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Alphabet logo

Google is a computer software and a web search engine company that acquired, on average, more than one company per week in 2010 and 2011.[1] The table below is an incomplete list of acquisitions, with each acquisition listed being for the respective company in its entirety, unless otherwise specified. The acquisition date listed is the date of the agreement between Google and the acquisition subject. As Google is headquartered in the United States, acquisition is listed in US dollars. If the price of an acquisition is unlisted, then it is undisclosed. If the Google service that is derived from the acquired company is known, then it is also listed here. Google itself was re-organized into a subsidiary of a larger holding company known as Alphabet Inc. in 2015.

Timeline of Google products, services, and acquisitions

As of December 2016, Alphabet has acquired over 200 companies, with its largest acquisition being the purchase of Motorola Mobility, a mobile device manufacturing company, for $12.5 billion. Most of the firms acquired by Google are based in the United States, and, in turn, most of these are based in or around the San Francisco Bay Area. To date, Alphabet has divested itself of four[2] business units: Frommers, which was sold back to Arthur Frommer in April 2012;[3] SketchUp, which was sold to Trimble in April 2012,[4] Boston Dynamics in early 2016 and Google Radio Automation, which was sold to WideOrbit in 2009.[5]

Many Google products originated as services provided by companies that Google has since acquired. For example, Google's first acquisition was the Usenet company Deja News, and its services became Google Groups. Similarly, Google acquired Dodgeball, a social networking service company, and eventually replaced it with Google Latitude. Other acquisitions include web application company JotSpot, which became Google Sites; Voice over IP company GrandCentral, which became Google Voice; and video hosting service company Next New Networks, which became YouTube Next Lab and Audience Development Group. CEO Larry Page has explained that potential acquisition candidates must pass a sort of "toothbrush test": Are their products potentially useful once or twice a day, and do they improve your life?[6]

Following the acquisition of Israel-based startup Waze in June 2013, Google submitted a 10-Q filing with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) that revealed that the corporation spent $1.3 billion on acquisitions during the first half of 2013, with $966 million of that total going to Waze.[7]

Key acquisitions[edit]

In October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,[8][9] and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[10][11]

On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.[12] The deal was approved despite anti-trust concerns raised by competitors Microsoft and AT&T.[13]

On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest-ever acquisition to date when it announced that it would acquire Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion[14][15] subject to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies,[16] mainly Apple and Microsoft,[17] and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android.[18] The merger was completed on May 22, 2012, after the approval of China.[19]

In June 2013, Google acquired Waze, a $966 million deal.[20] While Waze would remain an independent entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced location platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and Google Maps, Google's own mapping service.[21]

On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. DeepMind describes itself as having the ability to combine the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build general-purpose learning algorithms. DeepMind's first commercial applications were used in simulations, e-commerce and games. As of December 2013, it was reported that DeepMind had roughly 75 employees.[22] Technology news website Recode reported that the company was purchased for $400 million though it was not disclosed where the information came from. A Google spokesman would not comment of the price.[23][24] The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google's recent growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics community.[25]

Acquisitions[edit]

Number Company Country Acquired on Acquired for (USD) Used as or integrated with References
1 Dejavue  United States February 12, 2001 Google Groups [26][27][28][29]
2 Outride  United States September 20, 2001 Google Personalized Search [30]
3 Pyra Labs  United States February 2003 Blogger [31]
4 Neotonic Software  United States April 2003 Google Groups, Gmail [32]
5 Applied Semantics  United States April 2003 $102,000,000 AdSense, AdWords [33][34][35][36][37]
6 Kaltix  United States September 30, 2003 iGoogle [38]
7 Sprinks  United States October 2003 AdSense, AdWords [39]
8 Genius Labs  United States October 2003 Blogger [40]
9 Ignite Logic  United States May 10, 2004 Google Sites [41]
10 Picasa  United States July 13, 2004 Picasa, Blogger [42]
11 ZipDash  United States September 2004 Google Maps [43]
12 Where2  Australia October 2004 Google Maps [44]
13 Keyhole  United States October 27, 2004 Google Maps, Google Earth [45]
14 Urchin Software Corporation  United States March 28, 2005 Google Analytics [46]
15 Dodgeball  United States May 12, 2005 Google Latitude [47]
16 Akwan Information Technologies  Brazil July 19, 2005 Internet backbone [48]
17 Reqwireless  Canada July 2005 Google Mobile [49]
18 Android  United States August 17, 2005 $50,000,000 Android [50][51]
19 Skia  United States November 2005 Skia [52]
20 Phatbits  United States December 27, 2005 Google Desktop [53]
21 allPAY  Germany December 31, 2005 Google Mobile [54]
22 bruNET  Germany December 31, 2005 Google Mobile [54]
23 dMarc Broadcasting  United States January 17, 2006 $102,000,000 AdSense [55]
24 Measure Map  United States February 14, 2006 Google Analytics [56]
25 Upstartle  United States March 9, 2006 Google Docs [57]
26 @Last Software  United States March 14, 2006 Google Sketchup [58]
27 Orion  Australia April 9, 2006 Google Search [59]
28 2Web Technologies  United States June 1, 2006 Google Spreadsheet [60][61]
29 Neven Vision Germany  Germany August 15, 2006 Picasa, Google Goggles [62]
30 YouTube  United States October 9, 2006 $1,650,000,000 YouTube [63][64]
31 JotSpot  United States October 31, 2006 Google Sites [65]
32 Endoxon   Switzerland December 18, 2006 $28,000,000 Google Maps [66]
33 Adscape  United States February 16, 2007 $23,000,000 AdSense [67]
34 Trendalyzer  Sweden March 16, 2007 Google Analytics [68]
35 Crusix  United States May 28, 2007 YouTube
36 Tonic Systems  United States April 17, 2007 Google Docs [69]
37 Marratech  Sweden April 19, 2007 $15,000,000 Google Talk, Google Hangouts [70]
38 DoubleClick  United States April 13, 2007 $3,100,000,000 AdSense [71][72][73]
39 GreenBorder  United States May 11, 2007 Google Chrome [74]
40 Panoramio  Spain June 1, 2007 Panoramio [75]
41 FeedBurner  United States June 3, 2007 $100,000,000 FeedBurner [76]
42 PeakStream  United States June 5, 2007 Android [77]
43 Zenter  United States June 19, 2007 Google Docs [78]
44 GrandCentral  United States July 2, 2007 $45,000,000 Google Voice [79][80]
45 ImageAmerica  United States July 20, 2007 Google Maps [81]
46 Postini  United States July 9, 2007 $625,000,000 Gmail [82]
47 Zingku  United States September 27, 2007 Google Mobile [83]
48 Jaiku  Finland October 9, 2007 Google Mobile [84]
49 Omnisio  United States July 30, 2008 $15,000,000 YouTube [85]
50 TNC  South Korea September 12, 2008 Blogger [86]
51 On2  United States August 5, 2009 $133,000,000 WebM, YouTube [87]
52 reCAPTCHA  United States September 16, 2009 Google Books [88]
53 AdMob  United States November 9, 2009 DoubleClick, Invite Media [89][90][91]
54 Gizmo5  United States November 9, 2009 $30,000,000 Google Talk, Google Hangouts [92]
55 Teracent  United States November 23, 2009 AdSense [93]
56 AppJet  United States December 4, 2009 Google Wave, Google Docs [94]
57 Aardvark  United States February 12, 2010 $50,000,000 Aardvark [95]
58 reMail  United States February 17, 2010 Gmail [96]
59 Picnik  United States March 1, 2010 Picasa [97][98]
60 DocVerse  United States March 5, 2010 $25,000,000 Google Docs [99]
61 Episodic  United States April 2, 2010 YouTube [100]
62 Plink  United Kingdom April 12, 2010 Google Goggles [101]
63 Agnilux  United States April 20, 2010 Android [102]
64 LabPixies  Israel April 27, 2010 iGoogle, Android [103]
65 BumpTop  Canada April 30, 2010 $30,000,000 Android [104]
66 Global IP Solutions  United States May 18, 2010 $68,200,000 WebRTC [105][106]
67 Simplify Media  United States May 20, 2010 Android [107]
68 Ruba.com  United States May 21, 2010 iGoogle [108]
69 Invite Media  United States June 3, 2010 $81,000,000 DoubleClick [109]
70 Metaweb  United States July 16, 2010 Google Search [110]
71 Zetawire  Canada August 2010 Android, Google Wallet, Google Checkout [111]
72 Instantiations  United States August 4, 2010 Google Web Toolkit [112][113]
73 Slide.com  United States August 5, 2010 $228,000,000 Google+, Orkut, Google Play [114]
74 Jambool  United States August 10, 2010 $70,000,000 Google+, Orkut [115]
75 Like.com  United States August 15, 2010 $100,000,000 Google Shopping [116][117]
76 Angstro  United States August 30, 2010 Google, Google Alert [118]
77 SocialDeck  Canada August 30, 2010 Google, Google+ [119]
78 Quiksee  Israel September 13, 2010 $10,000,000 Google Maps [120]
79 Plannr  United States September 28, 2010 Google+ [121][122]
80 BlindType  Greece October 1, 2010 Android [123][124]
81 Phonetic Arts  United Kingdom December 3, 2010 Google Voice, Google Translate [125]
82 Widevine Technologies  United States December 3, 2010 Google TV [126]
83 eBook Technologies  United States January 13, 2011 Google Books [127]
84 SayNow  United States January 25, 2011 Google Voice [128]
85 Zynamics  Germany March 1, 2011 Project Zero (Google) [129][130]
86 BeatThatQuote.com  United Kingdom March 7, 2011 $65,000,000 Google Shopping [131][132]
87 Next New Networks  United States March 7, 2011 YouTube [133]
88 Green Parrot Pictures  Ireland March 16, 2011 YouTube [134]
89 PushLife  Canada April 8, 2011 $25,000,000 Google Play [135]
90 ITA Software  United States April 12, 2011[136] $676,000,000 Google Flights [137]
91 TalkBin  United States April 26, 2011 Android [138]
92 Sparkbuy  United States May 23, 2011 Google Shopping [139]
93 PostRank  Canada June 3, 2011 Google+ Google Analytics [140]
94 Admeld  United States June 9, 2011 $400,000,000 DoubleClick, Invite Media [141][142]
95 SageTV  United States June 18, 2011 Google TV, Google Fiber, Android TV [143]
96 Punchd  United States July 8, 2011 Google Offers [144][145]
97 Fridge  United States July 21, 2011 Google+ [146]
98 PittPatt  United States July 23, 2011 Android [147][148]
99 Dealmap  United States August 1, 2011 Google Offers [149]
100 Motorola Mobility  United States August 15, 2011 $12,500,000,000 Android, Google TV, Android TV, Patent portfolio [150]
101 Zave Networks  United States September 7, 2011 Google Offers [151]
102 Zagat  United States September 8, 2011 $151,000,000 Google Places, Google Maps [152][153][154]
103 DailyDeal  Germany September 19, 2011 $114,000,000 Google Offers [155]
104 SocialGrapple  Canada October 11, 2011 Google+ Google Analytics [156]
105 Apture  United States November 10, 2011 Google Search [157]
106 Katango  United States November 14, 2011 Google+ [158]
107 RightsFlow  United States December 9, 2011 YouTube [159]
108 Clever Sense  United States December 13, 2011 Google Maps [160][161]
109 Milk  United States March 16, 2012 Google+ [162]
110 TxVia  United States April 2, 2012 Google Wallet, Google Checkout [163]
111 Meebo  United States June 4, 2012 $100,000,000 Google+ [164]
112 Quickoffice  United States June 5, 2012 Google Docs [165]
113 Sparrow  France July 20, 2012 $25,000,000 Gmail [166][167][168]
114 WIMM Labs  United States 2012 Android Wear [169]
115 Wildfire Interactive  United States August 1, 2012 $450,000,000 Google, Google+ [170]
116 VirusTotal.com  Spain September 7, 2012 Chronicle [171][172]
117 Nik Software  United States September 17, 2012 Google, Android [173][174][175]
118 Viewdle  Ukraine October 1, 2012 $45,000,000 Android [176][177]
119 Incentive Targeting  United States November 28, 2012 Google Offers [178][179]
120 BufferBox  Canada November 30, 2012 $17,000,000 Google Shopping, Android [180][181]
121 Channel Intelligence  United States February 6, 2013 $125,000,000 Google Shopping [182]
122 DNNresearch  Canada March 12, 2013 Google, X [183]
123 Talaria Technologies  United States March 15, 2013 Google Cloud [184]
124 Behavio  United States April 12, 2013 Google Now [185]
125 Wavii  United States April 23, 2013 $30,000,000 Google Knowledge Graph [186]
126 Makani Power  United States May 23, 2013 X [187]
127 Waze  Israel June 11, 2013 $966,000,000 Google Maps , Waze [7]
128 Bump  United States September 16, 2013 Google Photos [188]
129 Flutter  United States October 2, 2013 $40,000,000 Google, Android, X [189]
130 FlexyCore  France October 22, 2013 $23,000,000 Android [190]
131 Schaft  Japan December 2, 2013 X [191]
132 Industrial Perception  United States December 3, 2013 X [191]
133 Redwood Robotics  United States December 4, 2013 X [191]
134 Meka Robotics  United States December 5, 2013 X [191]
135 Holomni  United States December 6, 2013 X [191]
136 Bot & Dolly  United States December 7, 2013 X [191]
137 Autofuss  United States December 8, 2013 X [191]
138 Bitspin   Switzerland January 4, 2014 Android [192]
139 Nest Labs  United States January 13, 2014 $3,200,000,000 Google Nest [193][194]
140 Impermium  United States January 15, 2014 Project Zero (Google) [195]
141 DeepMind Technologies  United Kingdom January 26, 2014 $625,000,000 Google DeepMind [196][197]
142 SlickLogin  Israel February 16, 2014 Project Zero (Google) [198]
143 spider.io  United Kingdom February 21, 2014 DoubleClick, Adsense [199]
144 GreenThrottle  United States March 12, 2014 Android [200][201]
145 Titan Aerospace  United States April 14, 2014 Project Loon [202][203][204]
146 Rangespan  United Kingdom May 2, 2014 Google Shopping [205]
147 Adometry  United States May 6, 2014 Google Analytics AdSense [206]
148 Appetas  United States May 7, 2014 Google My Business [207]
149 Stackdriver  United States May 7, 2014 Google Cloud Platform [208]
150 MyEnergy  United States May 7, 2014 Nest Labs [209]
151 Quest Visual  United States May 16, 2014 Google Translate [210]
152 Divide  United States May 19, 2014 Android for Work [211]
153 Skybox Imaging  United States June 10, 2014 $500,000,000 Google Maps, Project Loon [212]
154 mDialog  Canada June 19, 2014 DoubleClick [213]
155 Alpental Technologies  United States June 19, 2014 Google [213]
156 Dropcam  United States June 20, 2014 $555,000,000 Nest Labs [214]
157 Appurify  United States June 25, 2014 Android [215]
158 Songza  United States July 1, 2014 Google Play, Android TV [216]
159 drawElements  Finland July 23, 2014 Android [217]
160 Emu  United States August 6, 2014 Google Hangouts, Google Now [218]
161 Director  United States August 6, 2014 YouTube, Android [219]
162 Jetpac  United States August 17, 2014 Picasa [220]
163 Gecko Design  United States August 23, 2014 X [221]
164 Zync Render  United States August 26, 2014 Google Cloud Platform [222]
165 Lift Labs  United States September 10, 2014 Verily [223]
166 Polar  United States September 11, 2014 Google+ [224]
167 Firebase  United States October 21, 2014 Google Cloud Platform [225]
168 Dark Blue Labs & Vision Factory  United Kingdom October 23, 2014 $10,000,000 Google DeepMind [226]
169 Revolv  United States October 24, 2014 Nest Labs [227]
170 RelativeWave  United States November 19, 2014 Android [228]
171 Vidmaker  United States December 17, 2014 YouTube [229]
172 Launchpad Toys  United States February 4, 2015 YouTube for Kids [230][231]
173 Odysee  United States February 8, 2015 Google+ [232]
174 Softcard  United States February 23, 2015 Android Pay [233][234]
175 Red Hot Labs  United States February 24, 2015 Google Play [235]
176 Thrive Audio  Ireland April 16, 2015 Google Cardboard [236]
177 Skillman & Hackett  United States April 16, 2015 Tilt Brush [236]
178 Timeful  United States May 4, 2015 Google Inbox, Google Calendar [237]
179 Pulse.io  United States May 28, 2015 Android [238]
180 Pixate  United States July 21, 2015 Android [239]
181 Oyster  United States September 21, 2015 Google Play Books [240]
182 Jibe Mobile  United States September 30, 2015 Android [241]
183 Agawi  United States June 18, 2015 Android, Google Play [242]
184 Digisfera  Portugal October 17, 2015 Street View [243]
185 Fly Labs  United States November 11, 2015 Google Photos [244]
186 bebop  United States November 11, 2015 $380,000,000 Google Cloud Platform [245]
187 BandPage  United States February 12, 2016 YouTube [246]
188 Pie  Singapore February 18, 2016 Spaces (app) [247]
189 Synergyse  Canada May 2, 2016 Google Docs [248]
190 Webpass  United States June 22, 2016 Google Fiber [249]
191 Moodstocks  France July 6, 2016 Google Photos [250]
192 Anvato  United States July 8, 2016 Google Cloud Platform [251]
193 Kifi  United States July 12, 2016 Spaces (app) [252]
194 LaunchKit  United States July 27, 2016 Firebase [253]
195 Orbitera  United States August 8, 2016 $100,000,000 Google Cloud Platform [254]
196 Apigee  United States September 8, 2016 $625,000,000 Google Cloud Platform [255]
197 Urban Engines  United States September 15, 2016 Google Maps [256][257]
198 API.AI  United States September 19, 2016 Google Assistant [258][259]
199 FameBit October 11, 2016 YouTube [260]
200 Eyefluence October 24, 2016 Google VR [261][262]
201 LeapDroid  United States November 5, 2016 Android [263]
202 Qwiklabs November 21, 2016 Google Cloud Platform [264]
203 Cronologics  United States December 13, 2016 Android Wear [265]
204 Limes Audio  Sweden January 5, 2017 Google Duo, Google Hangouts [266]
205 Fabric  United States January 19, 2017 Firebase [267]
206 Kaggle  United States March 8, 2017 Google Cloud Platform [268]
207 AppBridge  United States March 9, 2017 Google Docs [269]
208 Owlchemy Labs  United States May 10, 2017 Google VR [270]
209 Halli Labs  India July 12, 2017 [271]
210 AIMatter  Belarus August 16, 2017 YouTube [272][273][274]
211 HTC (portions)  Taiwan September 21, 2017 $1,100,000,000 Google Pixel [275][276][277]
212 Bitium  United States September 26, 2017 Google Cloud Platform [278]
213 Relay Media  United States October 9, 2017 Accelerated Mobile Pages [279]
214 60db  United States October 11, 2017 Google Play Music, Google Podcasts [280]
215 Redux  United Kingdom January 11, 2018 [281][282]
216 Tenor  United States March 27, 2018 Google Images [283]
217 Velostrata  Israel May 9, 2018 Google Cloud Platform [284]
218 Cask  United States May 14, 2018 Google Cloud Platform [285]
219 GraphicsFuzz  United Kingdom August 6, 2018 Android [286][287]
220 Senosis  United States September 19, 2018 Nest Labs [288]
221 Onward  United States October 2, 2018 [289][290]
222 Workbench  United States November 28, 2018 Google Classroom [291]
223 Sigmoid Labs  India December 10, 2018 $40,000,000 [292][293]
224 Superpod  United States January 3, 2019 $60,000,000 Google Assistant [294][295]
225 Alooma  Israel February 19, 2019 Google Cloud Platform [296][297]
226 Nightcorn  Germany March 31, 2019 YouTube [298]
227 Looker  United States June 6, 2019 $2,600,000,000 Google Cloud Platform [299]
228 Elastifile  United States July 9, 2019 Google Cloud Platform [300]
229 Socratic  United States October 16, 2019 [301]
230 CloudSimple  United States November 18, 2019 Google Cloud Platform [302]
231 Fitbit  United States Pending approval $2,100,000,000 [303][304]

Divestitures[edit]

On December 10, 2012, Google sold the manufacturing operations of Motorola Mobility to Flextronics for $75 million.[305] As a part of the agreement, Flextronics will manufacture undisclosed Android and other mobile devices.[306] On December 19, 2012, Google sold the Motorola Home business division of Motorola Mobility to Arris Group for $2.35 billion in a cash-and-stock transaction. As a part of this deal, Google acquired a 15.7% stake in Arris Group valued at $300 million.[307][308]

On January 29, 2014, Google announced that it would divest Motorola Mobility to Lenovo for $2.91 billion, a fraction of the original $12.5 billion price paid by Google to acquire the company. Google retained all but 2000 of Motorola's patents and entered into cross-licensing deals.[309]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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