List of meteor air bursts

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Many explosions recorded in Earth's atmosphere are likely caused by the air burst that results from a meteor exploding as it hits the thicker part of the atmosphere. These types of meteors are also known as fireballs or bolides with the brightest known as superbolides. Before entering Earth's atmosphere, these larger meteors were originally asteroids and comets of a few to several tens of meters in diameter, contrasting with the much smaller and much more common "shooting stars".

The most powerful recorded air burst is the 1908 Tunguska event. Extremely bright fireballs traveling across the sky are often witnessed from a distance, such as the 1947 Sikhote-Alin meteor and the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, both in Russia. If the bolide is large enough, fragments may survive such as the Chelyabinsk meteorite. Modern developments in infrasound detection by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization and infrared Defense Support Program satellite technology have increased the likelihood of detecting airbursts.

Frequency[edit]

The table from Earth Impact Effects Program (EIEP) estimates the average frequency of airbursts and their energy yield in kilotons (kt) or megatons (Mt) of TNT equivalent.

World map of bolide events (1994–2013)[1]
Stony asteroid impacts that generate an airburst[2]
Impactor
diameter
Kinetic energy at Airburst
altitude
Average
frequency
(years)
atmospheric
entry
airburst
m (13 ft) 3 kt 0.75 kt 42.5 km (139,000 ft) 1.3
7 m (23 ft) 16 kt 5 kt 36.3 km (119,000 ft) 4.6
10 m (33 ft) 47 kt 19 kt 31.9 km (105,000 ft) 10
15 m (49 ft) 159 kt 82 kt 26.4 km (87,000 ft) 27
20 m (66 ft) 376 kt 230 kt 22.4 km (73,000 ft) 60
30 m (98 ft) 1.3 Mt 930 kt 16.5 km (54,000 ft) 185
50 m (160 ft) 5.9 Mt 5.2 Mt 8.7 km (29,000 ft) 764
70 m (230 ft) 16 Mt 15.2 Mt 3.6 km (12,000 ft) 1,900
Based on density of 2600 kg/m3, speed of 17 km/s, and an impact angle of 45°

Events[edit]

While airbursts undoubtedly happened prior to the 20th century, reliable reports of such are quite scanty. A proposed example is the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, which had an unknown energy yield but was reportedly powerful enough to cause 10,000 deaths.[3] Modern researchers are skeptical about the figure, but had the Tunguska event occurred over a highly populous district, it may have caused a similar level of destruction.[3]

Depending on the estimate, there were only 3–4 known airbursts in the years 1901-2000 with energy yield greater than 80 kilotons (in 1908, 1930?, 1932?, and 1963), roughly consistent with the estimate of the EIEP table. Most values for the 1930 Curuçá River event put it well below 1 megaton.[4][5][6]

The first airburst of the 21st century with yield greater than 100 kilotons came from the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, which had an estimated diameter of 20 meters.

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization and modern technology has improved multiple detection of airbursts with energy yield 1–2 kilotons every year within the last decade.[7]

Date General:Specific Location Coordinates Energy
(TNT equivalent)
Height of explosion Notes
1908, Jun 30 Russia: 60 kilometres (37 mi) W-NW of Vanavara[8] near Tunguska River 60°53′09″N 101°53′40″E / 60.88583°N 101.89444°E / 60.88583; 101.89444 15,000 kilotonnes of TNT (63,000 TJ) 8.5 km (5.3 mi) Tunguska event (Largest witnessed meteor airburst to date)
1919, Nov 26 United States: southern Michigan and northern Indiana 42°N 86°W / 42°N 86°W / 42; -86 A gigantic meteor was seen approaching from the east. A brilliant flash of light, thunder, & an earthquake lasting 3 minutes were reported. Damage to property over a large area as well as to telegraph, telephone and electrical systems.[9]
1927, Jul 13 United States: Illinois 38°12′N 89°41′W / 38.200°N 89.683°W / 38.200; -89.683 20 km (12 mi) Tilden meteor. From more than a hundred miles it appeared like "a piece falling off the sun." Then it exploded.[10]
1930, Aug 13 South America: Curuçá River, Brazil 5°11′S 71°38′W / 5.183°S 71.633°W / -5.183; -71.633 100 kilotonnes of TNT (420 TJ) ? Also known as the 1930 Curuçá River event or "Brazilian Tunguska".[11] Hypothesised to be generated by three meteor fragments. An astrobleme of 1 km was found on the ground, but may be related to an older feature.[11][12][13][14][15]
1932, Dec 8 Europe: Arroyomolinos de León, Spain 38°01′00″N 6°25′00″W / 38.01667°N 6.41667°W / 38.01667; -6.41667 190 kilotonnes of TNT (790 TJ) ? 15.7 km (9.8 mi) Assumed to be produced by an 18-meter object and connected to the December delta-Arietids meteor shower.[16]
1941, Apr 9 Russia: Ural mountains, Katav-Ivanovo district of Chelyabinsk ru:Катавский болид (Katavsky bolide). Residents saw a fireball flying at a high speed in the dark sky, followed by roaring like the sound of a speeding steam locomotive. Fragments were left as a result of the event.[citation needed]
1947, Feb 12 Russia: Sikhote-Alin Mountains in eastern Siberia 46°09′36″N 134°39′12″E / 46.16000°N 134.65333°E / 46.16000; 134.65333 10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ) Sikhote-Alin bolide. The largest meteorite fall of recent times with total mass of fragments at 23 tons.[17] A bright flash and a deafening sound were observed for 300 km. Estimated explosive yield of 10 kt equivalent.[18]
1948, Feb 18 United States: Norton County, Kansas 39°41′N 99°52′W / 39.683°N 99.867°W / 39.683; -99.867 Norton County bolide. One of the 5 largest meteorite falls of the 20th century, with more than 1 ton of fragments collected.[19] A brilliant fireball appeared in the sky. Then there was a loud explosion as the meteor broke apart.[20]
1959, Nov 24 Asia: Azerbaijan 38°56′N 48°15′E / 38.933°N 48.250°E / 38.933; 48.250 Yardymly bolide. A bright object that illuminated the area for almost 3,000 square km before it shattered into pieces with a thunderous noise.[21][22]
1963, Aug 3 Indian Ocean: about 1100 km west of the Prince Edward Islands 51°S 24°E / 51°S 24°E / -51; 24 260 ± 90 kilotonnes of TNT (1,090 ± 380 TJ) The Prince Edward Islands bolide was detected infrasonically about 1,100 km (680 mi) W-SW from the Prince Edward Islands off the coast of South Africa by a U.S. govt instrument network for detecting atmospheric explosions.[23]
1965, Mar 31 Canada: Revelstoke, British Columbia 0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) Revelstoke bolide. It exploded brilliantly and detonations were heard up to 130 km away.[24] About 1 g of meteorite found. Sometimes placed in SE Canada on May 31.[25]
1966, Sep 17 Canada: Lake Huron, Michigan, Ontario 0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) The Kincardine fireball.[23] A brilliant meteor illuminated the whole of SW Ontario.[26]
1967, Feb 5 Canada: Vilna, Alberta 0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ) 13 km (8 mi) Vilna bolide. Photographed.[27] Its detonation was also clearly recorded by the seismograph of the Univ. of Alberta.[28] Two very small fragments < 1 g found and stored by the university.[29]
1969, Feb 8 Mexico: Chihuahua 26°58′N 110°19′W / 26.967°N 110.317°W / 26.967; -110.317 Allende bolide. The 3rd largest meteorite fall of the 20th century. A huge, brilliant fireball lit the sky and ground for hundreds of miles. It exploded and broke up. About 2 tons of fragments were later found.[30]
1976, Mar 8 Asia: Jilin Province in China 43°42′N 126°12′E / 43.700°N 126.200°E / 43.700; 126.200 Jilin bolide. The 2nd largest meteorite fall of the 20th century (after the Sikhote-Alin event). A fireball larger than the full moon was seen. There were several explosions then a violent breakup.[31] It yielded a piece at 1770 kg, more than twice the Chelyabinsk meteorite (654 kg), and total fragments collected was about 4 tons.[32]
1984, Apr 3 Africa: Nigeria 11°29′N 11°39′E / 11.483°N 11.650°E / 11.483; 11.650 Gujba bolide. A bright object was witnessed then an explosion was heard. More than 100 kg of fragments were found.[33]
1993, Jan 19 Europe: Lugo, Italy 10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ) 30 km Superbolide airburst caused by the breakup of a low density meteoroid traveling at approximately 26 km/s.[34]
1994, Jan 18 Europe: Cando, Spain 42°50′34.8″N 8°51′40.4″W / 42.843000°N 8.861222°W / 42.843000; -8.861222 Much less than 1 kilotonne of TNT (4.2 TJ) Cando event. An unexplained ground explosion at 7:15 UTC. Topsoil and large trees were thrown tens of meters away. No fragments found and there are problems with the trajectory. It might not be an impact event.[35]
1994, Feb 1 Pacific Ocean: near the Marshall Islands 2°36′N 164°06′E / 2.6°N 164.1°E / 2.6; 164.1 11 kilotonnes of TNT (46 TJ) 21–34 km (13–21 mi) Marshall Islands fireball (about 9 ± 5 meters in diameter). Two fragments exploded at 34 km and 21 km of altitude. This impact was observed by space-based sensors both in infrared (by the DOD) and visible wavelength (by the DOE).[36]
1997, Oct 10 United States: Las Cruces, New Mexico; El Paso, Texas 31°59′N 106°50′W / 31.983°N 106.833°W / 31.983; -106.833 0.3 kilotonnes of TNT (1.3 TJ) 16–24 km (10–15 mi) An airburst detected in El Paso and Las Cruces. The fireball traveled S-SE before disintegrating 10–15 miles above the surface with a loud explosion, traveling around 30,000 MPH. Luminosity is described only as "a very bright flash of light, bright orange-red, similar to a distant sunset".[37]
1997, Dec 9 Europe: 150 km south of Nuuk, Greenland 62°54′N 50°06′W / 62.900°N 50.100°W / 62.900; -50.100 0.1 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ) 25 km (16 mi) One airburst at 46 km, three more breakups detected between 25 and 30 km. No remains found so far. Yield only based on luminosity, i.e. the total energy might have been considerably larger.[38]
1998, June 20 Asia: Kunya-Urgench in Turkmenistan 42°15′N 59°12′E / 42.250°N 59.200°E / 42.250; 59.200 Kunya-Urgench bolide. One of the 5 largest meteorite falls of the 20th century, with more than 1 ton of fragments collected.[39] A large bolide brightened the sky, and a loud whistling then a crashing noise was heard.[40][41]
1999, Nov 8 Europe: Northern Germany 1.5 kilotonnes of TNT (6.3 TJ) Detected by the Deelen Infrasound Array in the Netherlands[42]
2000, Jan 18 Canada: Yukon, BC 60°43′N 135°03′W / 60.717°N 135.050°W / 60.717; -135.050 1.7 kilotonnes of TNT (7.1 TJ)[43] 30 km Tagish Lake bolide. One airburst at ~08:00, fragments recovered.[44]
2001, Apr 23 Pacific Ocean; west of California 28°00′N 133°36′W / 28°N 133.6°W / 28; -133.6 2–9 kilotonnes of TNT (8.4–37.7 TJ) 29 km Infrasound detection.[45] Meteor estimated to be 2–3 meters in diameter.[46] Occurred 1,800 km west from the Scripps detector in San Diego.
2002, Jun 6 Mediterranean Sea: 230 km N-NE of Benghazi, Libya 34°N 21°E / 34°N 21°E / 34; 21 12–26 kilotonnes of TNT (50–109 TJ)[43][47][48] 2002 Eastern Mediterranean event
2002, Sep 25 Russia: Vitim River, near Bodaybo, Irkutsk Oblast 58°16′N 113°27′E / 58.27°N 113.45°E / 58.27; 113.45 0.2–2 kilotonnes of TNT (0.84–8.37 TJ) 30 km Vitim event or Bodaybo event[49]
2003, Mar 26 United States: Park Forest, Illinois 41°29′N 87°41′W / 41.483°N 87.683°W / 41.483; -87.683 0.5 kilotonnes of TNT (2.1 TJ)[23] Park Forest bolide. Residents in Illinois and neighboring states witnessed a bright meteor exploding overhead.[50]
2003, Sep 27[7] Asia: Kendrapara in India 21°00′N 86°36′E / 21°N 86.6°E / 21; 86.6 4.6 kilotonnes of TNT (19 TJ) 26 km (16 mi) The Kendrapara bolide is notable as it may have caused injuries.[51][52] A bright light then a loud noise that shattered windows. One part of the fireball fell in a village and may have set a hut on fire, injuring two people.[53]
2004, Sep 3 Antarctic Ocean: north of Queen Maud Land 69°S 27°E / 69°S 27°E / -69; 27 12 kilotonnes of TNT (50 TJ) 28–30 km (17–19 mi) Asteroid 7–10 meters in diameter. Coordinates are for dust trail observed after event by NASA's Aqua satellite and LIDAR in Davis Station. Event was also observed by military satellites and infrasound stations.[54]
2004, Oct 7 Indian Ocean 10–20 kilotonnes of TNT (42–84 TJ) Infrasound detection[45]
2005 Start of JPL Fireball and Bolide Reports.[7] (Dates in yellow are not in the JPL reports.)
2005, Jan 1[7] Africa: Libya 32°42′N 12°24′E / 32.7°N 12.4°E / 32.7; 12.4 1.2 kilotonnes of TNT (5.0 TJ) 31.8 km (19.8 mi) Largest for 2005.
2006, Apr 4[7] Atlantic Ocean 26°36′N 26°36′W / 26.6°N 26.6°W / 26.6; -26.6 5 kilotonnes of TNT (21 TJ) 25 km (16 mi)
2006, Dec 9[7] Africa: Egypt 26°12′N 26°00′E / 26.2°N 26.0°E / 26.2; 26.0 10–20 kilotonnes of TNT (42–84 TJ) 26.5 km (16.5 mi) Infrasound detection[45]
2007, Sep 28 Europe: Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland 40 km (25 mi) Bolide that was observed as far as northern Lapland.[55] Meteoritic material was suspected to have landed southeast of Oulu but none has been found.[citation needed]
2008, Oct 7[7] Africa: Nubian Desert, Sudan 20°48′00″N 32°12′00″E / 20.80000°N 32.20000°E / 20.80000; 32.20000 1–2.1 kilotonnes of TNT (4.2–8.8 TJ) 37 km (23 mi) 2008 TC3, the first asteroid detected before impacting Earth. Fragment has been named as Almahata Sitta meteorite.[56] In JPL as 1 kt.[7]
2008, Nov 20[7] Canada: Saskatchewan 53°06′N 109°54′W / 53.1°N 109.9°W / 53.1; -109.9 0.4 kilotonnes of TNT (1.7 TJ) 28.2 km (17.5 mi) Buzzard Coulee bolide. Five times as bright as the full moon and broke apart before impact.[57] Over 41 kg of fragments collected.[58]
2009, Feb 7[7] Russia: Tyumen Oblast 56°36′N 69°48′E / 56.6°N 69.8°E / 56.6; 69.8 3.5 kilotonnes of TNT (15 TJ) 40 km (25 mi)
2009, Oct 8[7] Asia: coastal region in South Sulawesi, Indonesia 04°30′00″S 120°00′00″E / 4.50000°S 120.00000°E / -4.50000; 120.00000 31–50 kilotonnes of TNT (130–210 TJ) 25 km (16 mi) 2009 Sulawesi superbolide. No meteoritic material found (most likely fell into the ocean).[59] Occurred ~03:00 UTC; ~11:00 local time.[59]
2009, Nov 21[7] Africa: South Africa / Zimbabwe 22°00′S 29°12′E / 22.0°S 29.2°E / -22.0; 29.2 18 kilotonnes of TNT (75 TJ) 38 km (24 mi) Impacted going 32.1 km/s (19.9 mi/s).[7] There were 56 witnesses of the bolide and two seismic recorder detections.[60][61]
2010, July 10[7] Pacific Ocean: NE of New Zealand 34°06′S 174°30′W / 34.1°S 174.5°W / -34.1; -174.5 14 kilotonnes of TNT (59 TJ) 26 km (16 mi)
2010, Sep 3[7] Pacific Ocean 61°00′S 146°42′E / 61.0°S 146.7°E / -61.0; 146.7 3.8 kilotonnes of TNT (16 TJ) 33.3 km (20.7 mi)
2010, Dec 25[7] Pacific Ocean: east of Japan 38°00′N 158°00′E / 38.0°N 158.0°E / 38.0; 158.0 33 kilotonnes of TNT (140 TJ) 26 km (16 mi)
2011, May 25[7] Africa: Cameroon 4°06′N 14°00′E / 4.1°N 14.0°E / 4.1; 14.0 4.8 kilotonnes of TNT (20 TJ) 59 km (37 mi)
2012, Apr 22 United States: California and Nevada[62] 37°6′N 120°5′W / 37.100°N 120.083°W / 37.100; -120.083 4 kilotonnes of TNT (17 TJ)[63][64][citation needed] 30–47 km [63] Sutter's Mill meteorite. Numerous fragments from object recovered. (Not in JPL reports.)
2013, Jan 25[7] Canada: Quebec 60°18′N 64°36′W / 60.3°N 64.6°W / 60.3; -64.6 6.9 kilotonnes of TNT (29 TJ)
2013, Feb 15[7] Russia: near Chelyabinsk 54°30′N 61°30′E / 54.500°N 61.500°E / 54.500; 61.500 500 kilotonnes of TNT (2,100 TJ) [65] Estimated 30–50 km [66] Chelyabinsk meteor, about ~20 meters in diameter.[67] Largest meteor airburst known since Tunguska in 1908. More than a ton of fragments found, one large piece called the Chelyabinsk meteorite.
2013, Apr 21[7] South America: Argentina 28°06′S 64°36′W / 28.1°S 64.6°W / -28.1; -64.6 2.5 kilotonnes of TNT (10 TJ) 40.7 km (25.3 mi) The bolide was captured on video at a Los Tekis rock concert.[68]
2013, Apr 30[7] Atlantic Ocean: SW of the Azores 35°30′N 30°42′W / 35.5°N 30.7°W / 35.5; -30.7 10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ) 21.2 km (13.2 mi)
2013, Oct 12[7] Atlantic Ocean 19°06′S 25°00′W / 19.1°S 25.0°W / -19.1; -25.0 3.5 kilotonnes of TNT (15 TJ) 22 km (14 mi)
2013, Nov 26 Canada: heard in Montreal, Ottawa, and New York 0.10 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ)[69] Montreal bolide.[70][71][72][73]
2014, Jan 8[7] Pacific Ocean; north of Papua New Guinea 1°18′S 147°36′E / 1.3°S 147.6°E / -1.3; 147.6 0.11 kilotonnes of TNT (0.46 TJ) 18.7 km Potentially interstellar originating from an unbound hyperbolic orbit based on an eccentricity of 2.4, an inclination of 10°, and a speed of 43.8 km/s when outside of the Solar System.[74] This would make it notably faster than ʻOumuamua which was 26.3 km/s when outside the Solar System. The meteor is estimated to have been 0.9 meters in diameter.
2014, Feb 18[7] South America: Argentina 32°48′S 61°30′W / 32.8°S 61.5°W / -32.8; -61.5 0.1 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ) Even though this was a low-energy event, there were reports of windows and buildings shaking.[75]
2014, Aug 23[7] Antarctic Ocean 61°42′S 132°36′E / 61.7°S 132.6°E / -61.7; 132.6 7.6 kilotonnes of TNT (32 TJ) 22.2 km (13.8 mi)
2015, Jul 4[7] China 38°36′N 103°06′E / 38.6°N 103.1°E / 38.6; 103.1 0.18 kilotonnes of TNT (0.75 TJ) 46.3 km (28.8 mi) Head-on collision at 49 km/s (180,000 km/h). Fastest collision in the CNEOS Fireball and Bolide database.
2015, Sep 7[7] Asia: Bangkok, Thailand 14°30′N 98°54′E / 14.5°N 98.9°E / 14.5; 98.9 3.9 kilotonnes of TNT (16 TJ) 29.3 km (18.2 mi) The 2015 Thailand meteor daylight bolide around 08:40 local time (UTC+7). Caught on at least 9 videos of dash and helmet cams online[76][77]
2015, Nov 13[7] Asia: India 16°00′N 124°18′E / 16.0°N 124.3°E / 16.0; 124.3 0.3 kilotonnes of TNT (1.3 TJ) 28.0 km (17.4 mi) Komar Gaon bolide. A daylight meteor accompanied by almost a minute of sonic booms.[78]
2015, Dec 12[7] Asia: eastern Turkey 39°06′N 40°12′E / 39.1°N 40.2°E / 39.1; 40.2 0.13 kilotonnes of TNT (0.54 TJ) 39.8 km (24.7 mi) Sariçiçek meteorite. A bright fireball was seen and then heard as it exploded over a Turkish village.[79] More than 15 kg of fragments were found and villagers made an est. $300,000 selling the space rocks.[80]
2016, Feb 6[7] Atlantic Ocean: NW of Tristan da Cunha island 30°24′S 25°30′W / 30.4°S 25.5°W / -30.4; -25.5 13 kilotonnes of TNT (54 TJ) 31 km (19 mi) Largest fireball for 2016.[81]
2016, May 16[7] United States: NE coast 3°12′N 6°36′E / 3.2°N 6.6°E / 3.2; 6.6 1.3 kilotonnes of TNT (5.4 TJ) 42 km (26 mi) Many eyewitnesses, and some heard a sonic boom.[82]
2017, Nov 16 Europe: Inari, Finland 69°06′N 28°36′E / 69.1°N 28.6°E / 69.1; 28.6 20–91 km A meteoroid weighing a few hundred kg exploded in an airburst and dropped tens of kg of meteorites into a remote area of Finnish Lapland.[83] The resulting shockwave was felt on the surface.[84] The event was detected by 7 infrasound stations.[85]
2017, Dec 15[7] Russia: Kamchatka 60°12′N 170°00′E / 60.2°N 170.0°E / 60.2; 170.0 6.4 kilotonnes of TNT (27 TJ) 20 km (12 mi) The asteroid likely had a diameter of 2–5 meters prior to impact. But because it happened in a remote area in Kamchatka, there were likely no eyewitnesses. The event was detected at 11 CTBTO infrasound stations.[86]
2018, Jan 22[7] Atlantic Ocean: off Senegal's coast 14°00′N 17°24′W / 14.0°N 17.4°W / 14.0; -17.4 0.11 kilotonnes of TNT (0.46 TJ) Not related to ATLAS detected object A106fgF that had an impact track well south of Senegal.
2018, Jun 21[7] Russia: Kursk Oblast 52°48′N 38°06′E / 52.8°N 38.1°E / 52.8; 38.1 2.8 kilotonnes of TNT (12 TJ) 27.2 km (16.9 mi) Loud sonic booms were reported[87] as well as fragments found.[88]
2018, Dec 18[7] Bering Sea, near Kamchatka, Russia 56°54′N 172°24′E / 56.9°N 172.4°E / 56.9; 172.4 173 kilotonnes of TNT (720 TJ) 25.6 km (15.9 mi) Kamchatka superbolide asteroid ~10 meters in diameter. Largest airburst since Chelyabinsk.[89]
2019, Feb 18[7] Africa: Zambia 15°30′S 25°18′E / 15.5°S 25.3°E / -15.5; 25.3 4.2 kilotonnes of TNT (18 TJ) 26 km (16 mi)
2019, June 22[7] Caribbean Sea 14°54′N 66°12′W / 14.9°N 66.2°W / 14.9; -66.2 6 kilotonnes of TNT (25 TJ) 25 km (16 mi) 2019 MO seen by ATLAS 12 hours before impact.
  After 2005, but not in JPL reports.

Note: For sorting purposes, location is given in "general:specific" format. For example, "Europe: Spain". This table contains a chronological list of events with a large yield at least 3 kilotons since 2005, with earlier or smaller events included if widely covered in the media.

Airbursts per year[edit]

As of January 2019, the number of airbursts each year since 2005, as reported in the JPL Fireball and Bolide Reports are:[7]

Year Number of
airbursts
2018 39
2017 26
2016 29
2015 43
2014 33
2013 20
2012 31
2011 23
2010 32
2009 25
2008 27
2007 21
2006 32
2005 38

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "We are not Alone: Government Sensors Shed New Light on Asteroid Hazards". Universe Today. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  2. ^ Robert Marcus; H. Jay Melosh & Gareth Collins (2010). "Earth Impact Effects Program". Imperial College London / Purdue University. Retrieved 2013-02-04. (solution using 2600kg/m^3, 17km/s, 45 degrees)
  3. ^ a b Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald (1994). "Meteorite Falls in China and Some Related Human Casualty Events". Meteoritics. 29 (6): 864. Bibcode:1994Metic..29..864Y. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1994.tb01101.x.
  4. ^ McFarland, John. The Day the Earth Trembled Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine, Armagh, Northern Ireland: Armagh Observatory website, last revised on November 10, 2009.
  5. ^ Lienhard, John H. Meteorite at Curuçá, The Engines of Our Ingenuity, University of Houston with KUHF-FM Houston.
  6. ^ Corderoa, Guadalupe; Poveda, Arcadio (2011). "Curuça 1930: A probable mini-Tunguska?". Planetary and Space Science. 59 (1): 10–16. Bibcode:2011P&SS...59...10C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Fireball and Bolide Reports (JPL)
  8. ^ Traynor, Chris (1997). "The Tunguska Event". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 107 (3).
  9. ^ Earth quivers as sky phenomenon descends, The Washington Times (Washington, D.C.) 1919 Nov 27 page 1b
  10. ^ Wylie, C. C. (1927). "The Tilden Meteor, an Illinois Daylight Fall". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 21: 338. Bibcode:1927JRASC..21..338W.
  11. ^ a b THE EVENT NEAR THE CURUÇÁ RIVER. 67th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting (2004)
  12. ^ Cordero, Guadalupe; Poveda, Arcadio (2011). "Curuça 1930: A probable mini-Tunguska?". Planetary and Space Science. 59 (1): 10–16. Bibcode:2011P&SS...59...10C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.012.
  13. ^ No. 1102: METEORITE AT CURUÇA By John H. Lienhard The Engines of Our Ingenuity
  14. ^ The Day the Earth Trembled by John McFarland Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine Armagh Observatory
  15. ^ "O Homem no Espaço: Conhecimento e incerteza".
  16. ^ Historical Records of δ-Arietids Superfireballs Over Spain by J.M.Madiedo and J. M. Trigo-Rodríguez 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2011)
  17. ^ Sikhote-Alin at LPIArchived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Leonard David (2013). Russia Meteor Blast Is Biggest in 100 Years
  19. ^ Norton County at LPI
  20. ^ Meteorite Recon entry for Norton County
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]