A meteor air burst is a type of air burst in which a meteoroid explodes after entering a planetary body's atmosphere. This fate leads them to be called fireballs or bolides, with the brightest air bursts known as superbolides. Such meteoroids were originally asteroids and comets of a few to several tens of meters in diameter. This separates them from the much smaller and far more common "shooting stars", that usually burn up quickly upon atmospheric entry.
The most powerful meteor air burst in the modern era was the 1908 Tunguska event. During this event a stony meteoroid about 50–60 m (160–200 ft) in size: p. 178 exploded at an altitude of 5–10 km (16,000–33,000 ft) over a sparsely populated forest in Siberia. The resulting shock wave flattened an estimated 80 million trees over a 2,150 km2 (830 sq mi) area.
Extremely bright fireballs traveling across the sky are often witnessed from a distance, such as the 1947 Sikhote-Alin meteor and the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, both over Russia. If the bolide is large enough fragments may survive, as from both such meteorites. Modern developments in infrasound detection by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization and infrared Defense Support Program satellite technology have increased the likelihood of detecting airbursts.
Meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere from outer space traveling at speeds of at least 11 km/s (7 mi/s) and often much faster. Despite moving through the rarified upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere the immense speed at which a meteor travels rapidly compresses the air in its path. The meteoroid then experiences what is known as ram pressure. As the air in front of the meteoroid is compressed its temperature quickly rises. This is not due to friction, rather it is an adiabatic process, a consequence of many molecules and atoms being forced to occupy a smaller space. Ram pressure and the very high temperatures it causes are the reasons few meteors make it all the way to the ground. Most simply burn up or are ablated into tiny fragments. Larger or more solid meteorites may explode instead.
The use of the term explosion is somewhat loose in this context, and can be confusing. This confusion is exacerbated by the tendency for airburst energies to be expressed in terms of nuclear weapon yields, as when the Tunguska airburst is given a rating in megatons of TNT. Large meteoroids do not explode in the sense of chemical or nuclear explosives. Rather, at a critical moment in its atmospheric entry the enormous ram pressure experienced by the leading face of the meteoroid converts the body's immense momentum into a force blowing it apart over a nearly instantaneous span of time. That is, the mass of the meteoroid suddenly ceases to move at orbital speeds when it breaks up. Conservation of energy implies much of this orbital velocity is converted into heat.
In essence, the meteoroid is ripped apart by its own speed. This occurs when fine tendrils of superheated air force their way into cracks and faults in the leading face's surface. Once this high pressure plasma gains entry to the meteoroid's interior it exerts tremendous force on the body's internal structure. This occurs because the superheated air now exerts its force over a much larger surface area, as when the wind suddenly fills a sail. This sudden rise in the force exerted on the meteoroid overwhelms the body's structural integrity and it begins to break up. The breakup of the meteoroid yields an even larger total surface area for the superheated air to act upon and a cycle of amplification rapidly occurs. This is the explosion, and it causes the meteoroid to disintegrate with hypersonic velocity, a speed comparable to that of explosive detonation.
The table from Earth Impact Effects Program (EIEP) estimates the average frequency of airbursts and their energy yield in kilotons (kt) or megatons (Mt) of TNT equivalent.
|Kinetic energy at||Airburst
|4 m (13 ft)||3 kt||0.75 kt||42.5 km (139,000 ft)||1.3|
|7 m (23 ft)||16 kt||5 kt||36.3 km (119,000 ft)||4.6|
|10 m (33 ft)||47 kt||19 kt||31.9 km (105,000 ft)||10|
|15 m (49 ft)||159 kt||82 kt||26.4 km (87,000 ft)||27|
|20 m (66 ft)||376 kt||230 kt||22.4 km (73,000 ft)||60|
|30 m (98 ft)||1.3 Mt||930 kt||16.5 km (54,000 ft)||185|
|50 m (160 ft)||5.9 Mt||5.2 Mt||8.7 km (29,000 ft)||764|
|70 m (230 ft)||16 Mt||15.2 Mt||3.6 km (12,000 ft)||1,900|
|Based on density of 2600 kg/m3, speed of 17 km/s, and an impact angle of 45°|
Before the 20th century
While airbursts undoubtedly happened prior to the 20th century, reliable reports of such are sparse. A possible example is the Qingyang event of 1490, which had an unknown energy yield but was reportedly powerful enough to cause 10,000 deaths. Modern researchers are sceptical about the figure, but had the Tunguska event occurred over a highly populous district, it might have caused a similar level of destruction. There has also been unofficial speculations that the mysterious 1626 Wanggongchang Explosion in the Ming dynasty capital Beijing, which reportedly killed 20,000 people and was long blamed onto potential mishandling of black gunpowder stored at the local armoury, might actually be a Tunguska-like impact event/air burst that coincidentally happened over a gunpowder factory.
A study published in 2020 claimed that on 22 August 1888, a meteorite killed a man and left another paralyzed in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, as reported by the local governor to Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.
Depending on the estimate, there were only 3–4 known airbursts in the years 1901–2000 with energy yield greater than 80 kilotons (in 1908, 1930?, 1932?, and 1963), roughly consistent with the estimate of the EIEP table. However, the 1963 event may have not been a meteor, but instead a nuclear test. Most values for the 1930 Curuçá River event put it well below 1 megaton, comparable to the Chelyabinsk meteor and Kamchatka superbolide. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization and modern technology has improved multiple detection of airbursts with energy yield 1–2 kilotons every year within the last decade.
The first airburst of the 21st century with yield greater than 100 kilotons came from the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, which had an estimated diameter of 20 metres.
|Height of explosion||Notes|
|1908, Jun 30||Russia: 60 kilometres (37 mi) W-NW of Vanavara near Tunguska River||15,000 kilotonnes of TNT (63,000 TJ)||8.5 km (5.3 mi)||Tunguska event (Largest witnessed meteor airburst to date)|
|1919, Nov 26||United States: southern Michigan and northern Indiana||Known as the 1919 Michigan Event. A gigantic meteor was seen approaching from the east. A brilliant flash of light, thunder, and an earthquake lasting three minutes were reported. Damage to property over a large area as well as to telegraph, telephone and electrical systems.|
|1927, Jul 13||United States: Illinois||20 km (12 mi)||Tilden meteor. From more than a hundred miles it appeared like "a piece falling off the sun." Then it exploded.|
|1930, Aug 13||South America: Curuçá River, Brazil||100 kilotonnes of TNT (420 TJ) ?||Also known as the 1930 Curuçá River event or "Brazilian Tunguska". Hypothesised to be generated by three meteor fragments. An astrobleme of 1 km was found on the ground, but may be related to an older feature.|
|1932, Dec 8||Europe: Arroyomolinos de León, Spain||190 kilotonnes of TNT (790 TJ) ?||15.7 km (9.8 mi)||Assumed to be produced by an 18-meter object and connected to the December delta-Arietids meteor shower.|
|1935, Dec 12||Guyana: near Maumauktpautau which is 24 km south of Marudi Mountain, south of the Rupununi region.||An exceptionally large meteor fall woke witnesses with a terrific roar, concussion and brilliant illumination. Shortly after a region of devastated forest perhaps ten miles by five was located, where trees large and small had been pushed over. The view must have been obtained from the top of Maumauktpautau. Other reports say that trees had been broken or twisted off 25 ft above their bases. An elongated damaged area more than 20 miles in extent was reported seen from an aircraft. A 1937 report says a 30-mile Path Cut By Meteor in Jungle and that the meteor fell, some ten miles from a place named Camshock. The only place near there was Davidson's cottage high on the side of Marudi Mountain.|
|1941, Apr 9||Russia: Ural mountains, Katav-Ivanovo district of Chelyabinsk||ru:Катавский болид (Katavsky bolide). Residents saw a fireball flying at a high speed in the dark sky, followed by roaring like the sound of a speeding steam locomotive. Fragments were left as a result of the event.|
|1947, Feb 12||Russia: Sikhote-Alin Mountains in eastern Siberia||10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ)||Sikhote-Alin bolide. The largest meteorite fall of recent times with total mass of fragments at 23 tons. A bright flash and a deafening sound were observed for 300 km. Estimated explosive yield of 10 kt equivalent.|
|1948, Feb 18||United States: Norton County, Kansas||Norton County bolide. One of the 5 largest meteorite falls of the 20th century, with more than 1 ton of fragments collected. A brilliant fireball appeared in the sky. Then there was a loud explosion as the meteor broke apart.|
|1959, Nov 24||Asia: Azerbaijan||Yardymly bolide. A bright object that illuminated the area for almost 3,000 square km before it shattered into pieces with a thunderous noise.|
|1963, Aug 3||Indian Ocean: about 1100 km west of the Prince Edward Islands||540–1,990 kilotonnes of TNT (2,300–8,300 TJ)||The Prince Edward Islands bolide was detected infrasonically about 1,100 km (680 mi) W-SW from the Prince Edward Islands off the coast of South Africa by a U.S. Government instrument network for detecting atmospheric explosions. The event "did not have independent confirmation from other techniques. It remains possible that this event was not a bolide but rather another source.". Washington DC Nov 1963 "Despite those earlier denials, the Defense Department now concedes that a mysterious explosion in the Antarctic last August could have been a secret nuclear blast."|
|1965, Mar 31||Canada: Revelstoke, British Columbia||40–140 kilotonnes of TNT (170–590 TJ)||13 km (8 mi)||Revelstoke bolide. It exploded brilliantly and detonations were heard up to 130 km away. About 1 g of meteorite found. Sometimes placed in SE Canada on May 31.|
|1966, Sep 17||Canada: Lake Huron, Michigan, Ontario||0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ)||13 km (8 mi)||The Kincardine fireball. A brilliant meteor illuminated the whole of SW Ontario.|
|1967, Feb 5||Canada: Vilna, Alberta||0.6 kilotonnes of TNT (2.5 TJ)||13 km (8 mi)||Vilna bolide. Photographed. Its detonation was also clearly recorded by the seismograph of the Univ. of Alberta. Two very small fragments < 1 g found and stored by the university.|
|1969, Feb 8||Mexico: Chihuahua||Allende bolide. The 3rd largest meteorite fall of the 20th century. A huge, brilliant fireball lit the sky and ground for hundreds of miles. It exploded and broke up. About 2 tons of fragments were later found.|
|1972, Apr 14||Indian Ocean||14 kilotonnes of TNT (59 TJ)||Infrasound detection.|
|1976, Mar 8||Asia: Jilin Province in China||Jilin bolide. The 2nd largest meteorite fall of the 20th century (after the Sikhote-Alin event). A fireball larger than the full moon was seen. There were several explosions then a violent breakup. It yielded a piece at 1770 kg, more than twice the Chelyabinsk meteorite (654 kg), and total fragments collected was about 4 tons.|
|1984, Feb 26||Russia: Chulym, Krasnoyarsk region||11 kilotonnes of TNT (46 TJ)||Chulym bolide explosion |
|1984, Apr 3||Africa: Nigeria||Gujba bolide. A bright object was witnessed then an explosion was heard. More than 100 kg of fragments were found.|
|1988, Apr 15||Southeast Asia: Banda Sea||14 kilotonnes of TNT (59 TJ)|
|1993, Jan 19||Europe: Lugo, Italy||10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ)||30 km||Superbolide airburst caused by the breakup of a low density meteoroid traveling at approximately 26 km/s.|
|1994, Jan 18||Europe: Cando, Spain||Much less than 1 kilotonne of TNT (4.2 TJ)||Cando event. An unexplained ground explosion at 7:15 UTC. Topsoil and large trees were thrown tens of metres away. No fragments found and there are problems with the trajectory. It might not be an impact event.|
|1994, Feb 1||Pacific Ocean: near the Marshall Islands||11 kilotonnes of TNT (46 TJ)||21–34 km (13–21 mi)||Marshall Islands fireball (about 9 ± 5 meters in diameter). Two fragments exploded at 34 km and 21 km of altitude. This impact was observed by space-based sensors both in infrared (by the DOD) and visible wavelength (by the DOE).|
|1997, Oct 10||United States: Las Cruces, New Mexico; El Paso, Texas||0.3 kilotonnes of TNT (1.3 TJ)||16–24 km (10–15 mi)||An airburst detected in El Paso and Las Cruces. The fireball traveled S-SE before disintegrating 10–15 miles above the surface with a loud explosion, traveling around 30,000 MPH. Luminosity is described only as "a very bright flash of light, bright orange-red, similar to a distant sunset".|
|1997, Dec 9||Europe: 150 km south of Nuuk, Greenland||0.1 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ)||25 km (16 mi)||One airburst at 46 km, three more breakups detected between 25 and 30 km. No remains found so far. Yield only based on luminosity, i.e. the total energy might have been considerably larger.|
|1998, June 20||Asia: Kunya-Urgench in Turkmenistan||Kunya-Urgench bolide. One of the 5 largest meteorite falls of the 20th century, with more than 1 ton of fragments collected. A large bolide brightened the sky, and a loud whistling then a crashing noise was heard.|
|1999, Nov 8||Europe: Northern Germany||1.5 kilotonnes of TNT (6.3 TJ)||Detected by the Deelen Infrasound Array in the Netherlands|
|2000, Jan 18||Canada: Yukon, BC||1.7 kilotonnes of TNT (7.1 TJ)||30 km||Tagish Lake bolide. One airburst at ~08:00, fragments recovered.|
|2001, Apr 23||Pacific Ocean; west of California||2–9 kilotonnes of TNT (8.4–37.7 TJ)||29 km||Infrasound detection. Meteor estimated to be 2–3 metres in diameter. Occurred 1,800 km west from the Scripps detector in San Diego.|
|2002, Jun 6||Mediterranean Sea: 230 km N-NE of Benghazi, Libya||12–26 kilotonnes of TNT (50–109 TJ)||2002 Eastern Mediterranean event|
|2002, Sep 25||Russia: Vitim River, near Bodaybo, Irkutsk Oblast||0.2–2 kilotonnes of TNT (0.84–8.37 TJ)||30 km||Vitim event or Bodaybo event|
|2003, Mar 26||United States: Park Forest, Illinois||0.5 kilotonnes of TNT (2.1 TJ)||Park Forest bolide. Residents in Illinois and neighboring states witnessed a bright meteor exploding overhead.|
|2003, Sep 27||Asia: Kendrapara in India||4.6 kilotonnes of TNT (19 TJ)||26 km (16 mi)||The Kendrapara bolide is notable as it may have caused injuries. A bright light then a loud noise that shattered windows. One part of the fireball fell in a village and may have set a hut on fire, injuring two people.|
|2004, Sep 3||Antarctic Ocean: north of Queen Maud Land||12 kilotonnes of TNT (50 TJ)||28–30 km (17–19 mi)||Asteroid 7–10 meters in diameter. Coordinates are for dust trail observed after event by NASA's Aqua satellite and LIDAR in Davis Station. Event was also observed by military satellites and infrasound stations.|
|2004, Oct 7||Indian Ocean||10–20 kilotonnes of TNT (42–84 TJ)||Infrasound detection|
|2005||Start of JPL Fireball and Bolide Reports. (Dates in yellow are not in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory reports.)|
|2005, Jan 1||Africa: Libya||1.2 kilotonnes of TNT (5.0 TJ)||31.8 km (19.8 mi)||Largest for 2005.|
|2006, Apr 4||Atlantic Ocean||5 kilotonnes of TNT (21 TJ)||25 km (16 mi)|
|2006, Dec 9||Africa: Egypt||10–20 kilotonnes of TNT (42–84 TJ)||26.5 km (16.5 mi)||Infrasound detection|
|2007, Sep 28||Europe: Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland||40 km (25 mi)||Bolide that was observed as far as northern Lapland. Meteoritic material was suspected to have landed southeast of Oulu but none has been found.|
|2008, Oct 7||Africa: Nubian Desert, Sudan||1–2.1 kilotonnes of TNT (4.2–8.8 TJ)||37 km (23 mi)||2008 TC3, the first asteroid detected before impacting Earth. Fragment has been named as Almahata Sitta meteorite. In JPL as 1 kt.|
|2008, Nov 20||Canada: Saskatchewan||0.4 kilotonnes of TNT (1.7 TJ)||28.2 km (17.5 mi)||Buzzard Coulee bolide. Five times as bright as the full moon and broke apart before impact. Over 41 kg of fragments collected.|
|2009, Feb 7||Russia: Tyumen Oblast||3.5 kilotonnes of TNT (15 TJ)||40 km (25 mi)|
|2009, Oct 8||Asia: coastal region in South Sulawesi, Indonesia||31–50 kilotonnes of TNT (130–210 TJ)||25 km (16 mi)||2009 Sulawesi superbolide. No meteoritic material found (most likely fell into the ocean). Occurred ~03:00 UTC; ~11:00 local time.|
|2009, Nov 21||Africa: South Africa / Zimbabwe||18 kilotonnes of TNT (75 TJ)||38 km (24 mi)||Impacted going 32.1 km/s (19.9 mi/s). There were 56 witnesses of the bolide and two seismic recorder detections.|
|2010, July 6||Pacific Ocean: NE of New Zealand||14 kilotonnes of TNT (59 TJ)||26 km (16 mi)|
|2010, Sep 3||Pacific Ocean||3.8 kilotonnes of TNT (16 TJ)||33.3 km (20.7 mi)|
|2010, Dec 25||Pacific Ocean: east of Japan||33 kilotonnes of TNT (140 TJ)||26 km (16 mi)|
|2011, May 25||Africa: Cameroon||4.8 kilotonnes of TNT (20 TJ)||59 km (37 mi)|
|2012, Apr 22||United States: California and Nevada||4 kilotonnes of TNT (17 TJ)||30–47 km ||Sutter's Mill meteorite. Numerous fragments from object recovered. (Not in JPL reports.)|
|2013, Jan 25||Canada: Quebec||6.9 kilotonnes of TNT (29 TJ)||–|
|2013, Feb 15||Russia: Chebarkul||500 kilotonnes of TNT (2,100 TJ) ||Estimated 30–50 km ||Chelyabinsk meteor, about ~20 meters in diameter. Largest meteor airburst known since Tunguska in 1908. More than a ton of fragments found, one large piece called the Chelyabinsk meteorite.|
|2013, Apr 21||South America: Argentina||2.5 kilotonnes of TNT (10 TJ)||40.7 km (25.3 mi)||The bolide was captured on video at a Los Tekis rock concert.|
|2013, Apr 30||Atlantic Ocean: SW of the Azores||10 kilotonnes of TNT (42 TJ)||21.2 km (13.2 mi)||Asteroid impact at a low 12.1 km/s|
|2013, Oct 12||Atlantic Ocean||3.5 kilotonnes of TNT (15 TJ)||22 km (14 mi)|
|2013, Nov 26||Canada: heard in Montreal, Ottawa, and New York||0.10 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ)||Montreal bolide.|
|2014, Jan 8||Pacific Ocean; north of Papua New Guinea||0.11 kilotonnes of TNT (0.46 TJ)||18.7 km||Potentially interstellar originating from an unbound hyperbolic orbit based on an eccentricity of 2.4, an inclination of 10°, and a speed of 43.8 km/s when outside of the Solar System. This would make it notably faster than ʻOumuamua which was 26.3 km/s when outside the Solar System. The meteor is estimated to have been 0.9 meters in diameter.|
|2014, Feb 18||South America: Argentina||0.1 kilotonnes of TNT (0.42 TJ)||–||Even though this was a low-energy event, there were reports of windows and buildings shaking.|
|2014, Aug 23||Antarctic Ocean||7.6 kilotonnes of TNT (32 TJ)||22.2 km (13.8 mi)|
|2015, Jul 4||China||0.18 kilotonnes of TNT (0.75 TJ)||46.3 km (28.8 mi)||Head-on collision at 49 km/s (180,000 km/h). Fastest collision in the CNEOS Fireball and Bolide database.|
|2015, Sep 7||Asia: Bangkok, Thailand||3.9 kilotonnes of TNT (16 TJ)||29.3 km (18.2 mi)||The 2015 Thailand meteor daylight bolide around 08:40 local time (UTC+7). Caught on at least 9 videos of dash and helmet cams online|
|2015, Nov 13||Asia: India||0.3 kilotonnes of TNT (1.3 TJ)||28.0 km (17.4 mi)||Komar Gaon bolide. A daylight meteor accompanied by almost a minute of sonic booms.|
|2015, Dec 12||Asia: eastern Turkey||0.13 kilotonnes of TNT (0.54 TJ)||39.8 km (24.7 mi)||Sariçiçek meteorite. A bright fireball was seen and then heard as it exploded over a Turkish village. More than 15 kg of fragments were found and villagers made an est. $300,000 selling the space rocks.|
|2016, Feb 6||Atlantic Ocean: NW of Tristan da Cunha island||13 kilotonnes of TNT (54 TJ)||31 km (19 mi)||Largest fireball for 2016.|
|2016, May 17||United States: NE coast||Many eyewitnesses, and some heard a sonic boom.|
|2017, Nov 16||Europe: Inari, Finland||20–91 km||A meteoroid weighing a few hundred kg exploded in an airburst and dropped tens of kg of meteorites into a remote area of Finnish Lapland. The resulting shockwave was felt on the surface. The event was detected by 7 infrasound stations.|
|2017, Dec 15||Russia: Kamchatka||6.4 kilotonnes of TNT (27 TJ)||20 km (12 mi)||The asteroid likely had a diameter of 2–5 meters prior to impact. But because it happened in a remote area in Kamchatka, there were likely no eyewitnesses. The event was detected at 11 CTBTO infrasound stations.|
|2018, Jan 22||Atlantic Ocean: off Senegal's coast||0.11 kilotonnes of TNT (0.46 TJ)||Not related to ATLAS detected object A106fgF that had an impact track well south of Senegal.|
|2018, Jun 21||Russia: Kursk Oblast||2.8 kilotonnes of TNT (12 TJ)||27.2 km (16.9 mi)||Loud sonic booms were reported as well as fragments found.|
|2018, Dec 18||Bering Sea, near Kamchatka, Russia||173 kilotonnes of TNT (720 TJ)||25.6 km (15.9 mi)||Kamchatka superbolide asteroid (~10 meters in diameter) impacting at a fast 32 km/s. Largest airburst since Chelyabinsk.|
|2019, Feb 18||Africa: Zambia||4.2 kilotonnes of TNT (18 TJ)||26 km (16 mi)|
|2019, June 22||Caribbean Sea||6 kilotonnes of TNT (25 TJ)||25 km (16 mi)||2019 MO (~3 meters in diameter) seen by ATLAS 12 hours before impact.|
|2020, December 22||Qinghai province, China||9.5 kilotonnes of TNT (40 TJ)||35.5 km (22.1 mi)||Asteroid (~8 meters in diameter) impacting at a relatively slow 13.6 km/s. Largest known impact since 2018 December 18.|
Note: For sorting purposes, location is given in "general:specific" format. For example, "Europe: Spain". This table contains a chronological list of events with a large yield at least 3 kilotons since 2005, with earlier or smaller events included if widely covered in the media.
Airbursts per year
As of January 2020, the number of airbursts each year since 2005, as reported in the JPL Fireball and Bolide Reports are:
- 1972 Great Daylight Fireball – assumed to be still in an Earth-crossing orbit
- 2007 Carancas impact event – mostly intact until object hit the ground
- Impact event
- Asteroid impact prediction
- Meteorite fall
- List of bolides
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- No. 1102: METEORITE AT CURUÇA By John H. Lienhard The Engines of Our Ingenuity
- The Day the Earth Trembled by John McFarland Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine Armagh Observatory
- "O Homem no Espaço: Conhecimento e incerteza".
- Historical Records of δ-Arietids Superfireballs Over Spain by J.M.Madiedo and J. M. Trigo-Rodríguez 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2011)
- Korff, Serge A.; Holden, William H.; Holdridge, Desmond (1939). "Tornado or Meteor Crash?". The Sky. 3 (11): 8–10 + 24.
- anon (1937). "30-mile Path Cut By Meteor in Jungle". The New York Sun (Nov 18): 12 column b.
- Sikhote-Alin at LPIArchived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
- Leonard David (2013). Russia Meteor Blast Is Biggest in 100 Years
- Norton County at LPI
- "Norton County – Meteorite Recon".
- Soviet Azerbaijan Encyclopedia (Baku, 1981), vol. 5, p. 80
- Yardymly at LPI
- Edwards, Wayne N.; Brown, Peter G.; Revelle, Douglas O. (2006). "Estimates of meteoroid kinetic energies from observations of infrasonic airwaves" (PDF). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. 68 (10): 1136–1160. Bibcode:2006JASTP..68.1136E. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2006.02.010.
- Silber, Elizabeth A.; Revelle, Douglas O.; Brown, Peter G.; Edwards, Wayne N. (2009). "An estimate of the terrestrial influx of large meteoroids from infrasonic measurements". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (E8). Bibcode:2009JGRE..114.8006S. doi:10.1029/2009JE003334.
- Allen, Robert S. (1963). "Antarctic Explosion Could Have Been Nuclear Detonation". The San Bernardino Sun (Dec 4): 40 column f.
- Revelstoke at LPI
- Kusky, Timothy M.; Katherine E. Cullen (2010). Encyclopedia of Earth and space science. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 147. ISBN 978-1438128597.
- Halliday, Ian (December 1966). "The Bolide of September 17, 1966". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 60: 257. Bibcode:1966JRASC..60..257H.
- Folinsbee, R. E.; Bayrock, L. A.; Cumming, G. L.; Smith, D. G. W. (1969). "Vilna Meteorite-Camera, Visual, Seismic and Analytic Records". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 63: 61. Bibcode:1969JRASC..63...61F.
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- Asteroid Impacts on Earth More Powerful than Nuclear Bomb (YouTube)
- Asteroid impacts larger than 1 kiloton of TNT
- New Map Shows Frequency of Small Asteroid Impacts, Provides Clues on Larger Asteroid Population (Bolide events from 1994 to 2013 for asteroids ~1+ meter in diameter)
- Fireball and Bolide Reports (JPL)
- Newspaper archives drop hints about the Chelyabinsk event and other superbolides