List of metropolitan areas in Europe

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Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia; is the largest metropolitan area in Europe.
Europe and some parts of Africa and Asia by night. Lights reveal the urbanized areas of Europe. It also shows Blue Banana megalopolis from north-west England to northern Italy, and Golden Banana urbanized area between Genoa and Valencia.

This list ranks metropolitan areas in Europe by their population according to three different sources; it includes metropolitan areas that have a population of over 1 million.

Sources[edit]

List includes metropolitan areas according only studies of ESPON, Eurostat, and OECD. For this reason some metropolitan areas, like Italian Genoa Metropolitan Area (population is over 1.510.000 as of 2012 according "CityRailway" Official Report), aren't included in this list, with data by other statistic survey institutes.

Figures in the first column come from the ESPON project, "Study on Urban Functions", which defines cities according to the concept of a functional urban area (core urban area defined morphologically on the basis of population density, plus the surrounding labour pool defined on the basis of commuting). Figures in the second column come from Eurostat's Urban Audit and correspond to Larger Urban Zones (LUZ). Figures in the fourth column come from the OECD Territorial Reviews and correspond to "metropolitan regions". Further information on how the areas are defined can be found in the source documents. These figures should be seen as an interpretation, not as conclusive fact.

Metropolitan areas[edit]

  Areas within the European Union
Metropolitan area name Country OECD
Metropolitan areas
(2020)[1]
City Population
Urban Agglomeration
(2020)[2]
Eurostat
Metropolitan region
(2019)[3]
Eurostat
Metropolitan region
(2018)[3]
ESPON
Functional Urban Area
(2006)[4]
Amsterdam metropolitan area  Netherlands 2,890,428 2,475,000 3,269,905 3,242,852 2,497,000[a]
Antwerp  Belgium 1,146,565 1,120,000 985,332 1,047,030 1,406,000[b]
Athens  Greece 3,526,887 3,350,000 3,561,750 3,576,590 3,761,000
Barcelona metropolitan area  Spain 5,105,991 5,185,905 5,575,204 5,514,881 4,082,000[c]
Belgrade  Serbia 1,420,000
Berlin  Germany 5,342,958 4,725,000 5,303,846 5,259,363 4,016,000
Bilbao  Spain 1,014,366 <1,000,000 1,137,191 1,134,848 947,000
Birmingham (West Midlands)  United Kingdom 3,122,915 3,150,000 3,558,916 2,545,475 3,683,000
Bordeaux  France 1,290,068
Bremen  Germany 1,274,429 1,000,000 1,277,609 1,274,611 1,077,000
Bristol  United Kingdom 969,256 <1,000,000 1,157,937 1,147,017 1,041,000
Brussels  Belgium 3,310,251 2,700,000 2,548,941 2,528,996 2,639,000[b]
Bucharest metropolitan area  Romania 2,219,341 2,200,000 2,315,173 2,301,255 2,064,000
Budapest metropolitan area  Hungary 3,012,001 2,625,000 3,031,160 3,011,598 2,523,000
Cardiff  United Kingdom 928,101 <1,000,000 1,140,165 1,135,795 1,097,000
Copenhagen  Denmark 1,945,157 1,680,000 2,045,259 2,030,718 2,350,000[5][6][d]
Donetsk  Ukraine 1,440,000
Dnipro  Ukraine 1,390,000
Dresden  Germany 1,343,747
Dublin Metropolitan Area  Ireland 2,002,018 1,390,000 2,107,749 2,069,386 1,477,000
Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Region  Germany 2,729,936 3,250,000 2,710,127 2,693,115 2,764,000[e]
Gdańsk (Tricity)  Poland 1,170,990 <1,000,000 1,317,517 993,000
Gothenburg  Sweden 1,051,345 1,041,850 1,021,831 1,015,974 759,000
Greater Glasgow  United Kingdom 1,847,200 1,680,000 1,861,315 1,854,866 1,395,000
The Hague  Netherlands 1,116,798 3,250,000 [f] 1,103,368 1,093,212 1,404,000[a]
Hamburg Metropolitan Region  Germany 3,328,679 2,875,000 3,327,940 3,309,215 2,983,000
Hannover  Germany 1,316,006
Helsinki Metropolitan Area  Finland 1,526,778 1,520,000 1,671,024 1,655,624 1,285,000
Istanbul[g]  Turkey 13,719,061 16,000,000
Katowice metropolitan area  Poland 2,486,510 2,350,000 2,695,148 2,705,106 3,029,000[h]
Kazan  Russia 1,260,000
Kharkiv  Ukraine 1,640,000
Kyiv metropolitan area  Ukraine 3,475,000
Kraków metropolitan area  Poland 1,423,235 <1,000,000 1,491,811 1,480,803 1,236,000
West Yorkshire (Leeds - Bradford)  United Kingdom 2,655,815 2,175,000 1,750,276 1,741,298 2,302,000
Leipzig  Germany 1,049,342
Lille  France 1,505,093 1,290,000 2,594,456 2,597,774 1,379,000[i]
Lisbon metropolitan area  Portugal 2,998,487 2,475,000 2,846,332 2,833,679 2,591,000
Liverpool/Birkenhead  United Kingdom 1,548,752 1,880,000 1,784,475 2,042,955 2,241,000
Łódź  Poland 903,719 <1,000,000 1,070,544 1,074,374 1,165,000
Wrocław  Poland 883,468 <1,000,000 638,659 636,050 861,000
London metropolitan area  United Kingdom 12,451,423 14,800,000 14,372,596 14,257,962 11,203,000
Lyon  France 2,129,101 1,980,000 1,865,534 1,867,275 1,669,000
Madrid metropolitan area  Spain 7,005,286 6,550,000 6,641,649 6,549,520 5,263,000
Greater Manchester  United Kingdom 3,399,018 3,350,000 3,712,997 3,695,071 2,556,000
Mannheim-Ludwigshafen  Germany 1,191,766
Marseille  France 1,278,124 [j] 1,660,000 3,100,329 3,100,110 1,530,000
Milan metropolitan area  Italy 4,985,668 6,200,000 4,354,448 4,336,121 7,636,000[k]
Minsk  Belarus 2,000,000
Moscow metropolitan area  Russia 17,300,000
Munich  Germany 2,926,802 2,250,000 2,908,664 2,883,373 2,665,000[l]
Nantes  France 1,003,395
Naples metropolitan area  Italy 3,349,233 4,225,000 3,084,890 3,101,002 3,714,000[7]
Nice  France 1,020,879 <1,000,000 1,080,815 1,082,139 1,082,000
Nizhny Novgorod  Russia 1,730,000
Nottingham-Derby  United Kingdom 935,049[m] 1,380,000 331,297 329,448[n] 1,534,000
Nuremberg Metropolitan Region  Germany 1,352,002 1,200,000 1,349,848 1,340,886 1,443,000
Odessa  Ukraine 1,110,000
Greater Oslo  Norway 1,420,926 1,190,000 1,305,122 1,287,495 1,037,000
Paris metropolitan area  France 12,997,058 11,400,000 12,244,807 12,183,893 11,175,000
Perm  Russia 1,110,000
Porto Metropolitan Area  Portugal 1,285,248 1,540,000 1,722,374 1,719,702 1,245,000[o]
Portsmouth-Southampton  United Kingdom 542,048[p] 1,160,000 806,001 802,162 1,547,000
Poznań  Poland 993,656 <1,000,000 1,186,164 919,000
Prague  Czech Republic 2,267,817 1,440,000 2,677,964 2,647,308 1,669,000
Rhein-Nord[q] (Düsseldorf - Neuss)  Germany 1,557,269 See Rhein-Sud 1,555,985 1,552,097 3,073,000[r]
Rhein-Süd[q] (Cologne - Bonn)  Germany 2,004,984 5,000,000 2,003,046 1,994,524 3,070,000[r]
Riga  Latvia 927,924 <1,000,000 1,003,203 1,005,237 1,195,000
Rome metropolitan area  Italy 4,325,591 3,575,000 4,342,212 4,355,725 5,190,000
Rostov-on-Don  Russia 1,300,000
Rotterdam  Netherlands 1,876,165 3,250,000 [s] 1,846,933 1,835,354 1,904,000[a]
Ruhr area  Germany 5,115,617 5,700,000 5,111,530 5,113,487 5,376,000[r]
Saarbrücken - Forbach  Germany/
 France
797,110 802,664 1,102,000
Saint Petersburg  Russia 5,650,000
Samara  Russia 1,300,000
Saratov  Russia 1,090,000
Seville  Spain 1,558,006 1,290,000 1,949,640 1,945,236 1,180,000[t]
Sofia  Bulgaria 1,551,056 1,300,000 1,678,041 1,679,413 1,174,000
Metropolitan Stockholm  Sweden 2,377,081 2,225,000 2,344,124 2,308,143 2,171,000
South Yorkshire (Sheffield)  United Kingdom 1,204,485 1,570,000 584,028 580,108 1,869,000
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region  Germany 2,794,283 2,400,000 2,787,724 2,778,591 2,289,000
Thessaloniki metropolitan area  Greece 1,049,937 <1,000,000 1,104,690 1,105,663 1,052,000
Toulouse  France 1,445,789
Turin metropolitan area  Italy 1,728,714 1,640,000 2,259,523 2,269,120 1,601,000[u]
Newcastle-Sunderland  United Kingdom 1,192,598 1,480,000 1,177,704 1,172,580 1,599,000
Ufa  Russia 1,130,000
Valencia  Spain 1,768,205 2,000,000 2,540,588 2,531,187 1,398,000[v]
Vienna  Austria 3,004,660 2,250,000 2,853,903 2,838,558 2,584,000
Volgograd  Russia 1,410,000
Warsaw metropolitan area  Poland 3,209,784 2,375,000 3,053,104 3,025,034 2,785,000
Zagreb  Croatia 1,219,858 <1,000,000 1,240,433 1,240,310
Zürich metropolitan area   Switzerland 1,401,783 1,430,000 1,520,968 1,504,346 1,615,000

Polycentric metropolitan areas in the European Union[edit]

Rank Area State Population[8]
1 Rhine-Ruhr  Germany 12,190,000
2 Randstad  Netherlands 8,219,380
3 Upper Silesian metropolitan area  Poland/  Czech Republic 5,294,000
4 Flemish Diamond  Belgium 5,103,000
5 Vienna-Bratislava metropolitan region  Austria/  Slovakia 4,600,000

See also[edit]

Regional and country-specific lists[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Part of the Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 7,100,000.
  2. ^ a b The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
  3. ^ Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of Mataro (169,000) is included.
  4. ^ Part of the wider Öresund region, which includes the Swedish metropolitan area of Malmö (961,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
  5. ^ Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Darmstadt (501,000), Wiesbaden (453,000), and Mainz (431,000).
  6. ^ Including Rotterdam
  7. ^ 65% of the population lives on the European part
  8. ^ Part of the polycentric Upper Silesian urban region with a total population of 5,294,000. The region additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Ostrava (1,046,000), Bielsko-Biala (584,000) and Rybnik (526,000).
  9. ^ Part of the wider Lille-Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
  10. ^ Does not include Aix-en-Provence, which OECD, unlike INSEE, considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 352,097 in 2020.
  11. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 8,311,000.
  12. ^ When combined with the Augsburg metropolitan area (606,000), the region has a total population of 3,271,000.
  13. ^ Does not include Derby, which OECD considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 495,159 in 2020.
  14. ^ just Nottingham (Derby 257,101)
  15. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
  16. ^ Does not include Southampton, which OECD considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 695,204 in 2020.
  17. ^ a b Polycentric metropolitan area
  18. ^ a b c Part of the polycentric urban region of Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
  19. ^ Including The Hague
  20. ^ Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of Utrera (82,000) is included.
  21. ^ Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan of Pinerolo is included.
  22. ^ Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of Sagunto is included.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "OECD - Metropolitan areas - Population, all ages". OECD. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  2. ^ "Major Agglomerations of The World". citypopulation.de. 1 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Database". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 20 Jun 2020. click General and regional statistics / Regional statistics by typology / Metropolitan regions / Demography statistics by metropolitan regions / Population on 1 January by broad age group, sex and metropolitan regions (met_pjanaggr3)
  4. ^ "Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3)]" (PDF). European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015., Final Report, Chapter 3
  5. ^ OECD: Territorial Review Copenhagen, 2009, p. 34, ISBN 9789264060029
  6. ^ also obtainable through
  7. ^ "Principal Agglomerations of the World". Citypopulation. January 2017.
  8. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3) Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine, Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007) page 241-243

External links[edit]

  • Geopolis: research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France - Population of urban areas of 10,000 or more