Page semi-protected

List of micronations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of micronation currencies)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which are of more geopolitical significance because they exercise clear control of actual territory to the exclusion of widely recognized countries.

Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.[1]: 4 

The following is a list of notable micronations.

Antarctica

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Flandrensis.svg 2008–present Grand Duchy of Flandrensis An Antarctic micronation that seeks to draw attention to environmental concerns,[2] founded by Niels Vermeersch.[3]
Flag of Westarctica.png 2001–present Protectorate of Westarctica The Grand Duchy of Westarctica is an Antarctic micronation established in 2001 that claims the territory known as Marie Byrd Land.[4]
GAMA vlag.jpg 2008–present Antarctic Micronational Union AMU is an intermicronational organization that aims to regulate micronational claims in Antarctica.[5][6][7] The purpose of the AMU is to protect the claims of its members against other claimants.

Antigua and Barbuda

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Kingdom of Redonda.svg 1865–present Kingdom of Redonda A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.[1]: 108 

Australia

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Aeterna Lucina.svg 1978–1996 Sovereign State of Aeterna Lucina An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.[8]
Bandera d'Atlantium.svg 1981–present Empire of Atlantium Based in Australia, it advocates for global governance: specifically, no borders and freedom of movement.[9]
None
1980s–present Grand Duchy of Avram A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke, John Rudge, who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.[1]: 144 
Flag of Bumbunga.svg 1976–1999 Province of Bumbunga An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga, South Australia from 1976.[10] As of 2018, founder Alec Brackstone was still claiming to be Governor-General of the province.[11]
Gay Pride Flag.svg 2004–2017 Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands The kingdom was created by a group of gay rights activists. The kingdom collapsed on November 17, 2017, after same-sex marriage was legalized in Australia.
Hutt River Flag.svg 1970–2020 Principality of Hutt River A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.[1]: 22 [12] In August 2020, after 50 years of existence, the micronation has announced it will be dissolved and the land sold to pay back taxes to the Australian Tax Office.[13][14]
Flag of Australia.svgRoyal Banner of Scotland.svgAustralian Aboriginal Flag.svgFlag of the United Nations.svg 1993 Principality of Marlborough A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.[15]
Flag of Murrawarri Republic.svg 2013–present Murrawarri Republic A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.
Link to file 1979–1980s Independent State of Rainbow Creek Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.[1]: 145 
Principality of Snake Hill flag.jpg 2003–present Principality of Snake Hill A family of Australian residents could no longer afford to pay taxes, and after litigation over a mortgage and being inspired by the Principality of Hutt River, they did legal research and came to the conclusion that forming a country would be completely legal under Australian law, and thus they declared independence on 2 September 2003.[16]
Link to file 2004–present Principality of Wy Established by Paul Delprat during a dispute with the local council of Mosman municipality in Sydney over the construction of a driveway to his property.[17]
None
2004–present Sovereign Yidindji Government A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.

Austria

Flag Date Name Description
Link to file 1984–2015 Republic of Kugelmugel A ball-shaped house, located in the Vienna Prater and formed after a dispute with authorities over building permits.[1]: 82–83 

Bahamas

Flag Date Name Description
None
1968–1973 Operation Atlantis A project started by Werner Stiefel in 1968 aiming to establish a new, libertarian nation in international waters.[18][19]

Bank of the Danube

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Liberland.svg 2015–present Free Republic of Liberland Claims an uninhabited parcel of disputed land on the western bank of the Danube known as Siga, between Croatia and Serbia. It was created by Czech politician and activist Vít Jedlička.

Belize

Flag Date Name Description
Islandia-2.png 2018–present Principality of Islandia The Principality of Islandia is an incipient micronation that claims the small Belizean island Coffee Caye as its territory. It is a crowdfunded effort.[20]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Flag Date Name Description
None
2002–present Hajdučka Republika Mijata Tomića A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.[21]

Brazil

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Principality of Trinidad.svg 1893–1895 Principality of Trinidad The Principality of Trinidad was declared in 1893, when the American James Harden-Hickey claimed the uninhabited island Trindade and Martim Vaz in the South Atlantic and declared himself James I, Prince of Trinidad.[citation needed] In July 1895, the United Kingdom tried to take possession of this strategic position in the Atlantic, basing their claim on a 1700 visit by English astronomer Edmund Halley, but Brazil pressed a successful claim to the island based on its discovery in 1502 by Portuguese navigators. Harden-Hickey fell into deep depression and committed suicide on 9 February 1898.[citation needed]

Canada

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Aerica.svg 1987–present Aerican Empire An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories.[1]: 102 
Link to file 1997–present Le Royaume de L'Anse-Saint-Jean It achieved a certain notoriety when its citizens held a referendum on 21 January 1997 to turn the village into Le Royaume de L'Anse-Saint-Jean (The Kingdom of L'Anse Saint Jean), the continent's first "municipal monarchy".[22]
Flag of Outer Baldonia.svg 1949-1973 Principality of Outer Baldonia A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.[citation needed]
None
1967–present Republic of Rathnelly A Toronto neighbourhood declared itself an independent republic during the celebration of Canada's centennial on July 1, 1967.[23][24] The "Republic of Rathnelly" elected a queen and celebrates "Rathnelly Day" biennially.[25]
NewFlagVikesland.png 2005–2018 Kingdom of Vikesland A former micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claimed two properties in and near the City of Brandon.[1]: 90–93 

Chile

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia.svg 1873–present Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia After the fall of the kingdom and death of Orélie-Antoine, the title of King of Patagonia passed between various French citizens. The current "king" is Frédéric Luz.
Glacier Republic Flag.svg 2014–present Glacier Republic Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.[26][27]

Czech Republic

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Other World Kingdom.svg 1996–2008 Other World Kingdom An absolute monarchy/matriarchy which had strong BDSM themes, in which women ruled over all men. It was located in the Czech Republic.[citation needed]
Flag of the Kingdom of Wallachia.svg 1997–present Kingdom of Wallachia A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic.

Denmark

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Christiania.svg 1971–present Freetown Christiania Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania, is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood in the Danish capital of Copenhagen. The commune occupies the site of an old barracks and is home to almost 1,000 residents.[28]
Flag of Elleore.svg 1944–present Kingdom of Elleore A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.[1]: 42 

Germany

Flag Date Name Description
None
1990–1993 Bunte Republik Neustadt A micronation in the Äußere Neustadt quarter of Dresden now celebrated as an annual street festival.[29]
Flagge Rueterberg.svg 1989–2004 Rüterberg After the fall of the Berlin Wall, a village in the former GDR declares its independence in protest against isolation.
None
1980 Free Republic of Wendland A protest camp established in Gorleben, West Germany, on 3 May 1980 to protest against the establishment of a nuclear waste dump there. On 4 June 1980, the police moved in and evicted the camp.

France

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Principality of Aigues-Mortes.svg 2010–present Principality of Aigues-Mortes A micronation that claims the French city of Aigues-Mortes.[30] Together with local merchants and the touristic office of Aigues-Mortes they created the BPAM (Bourse princière d'Aigues-Mortes) to handle currency exchange with the local currency, the flamant.[31][32]
Flag of the Principality of Laàs.svg 2015–present Principality of Laàs Micronation promoting tourism.
Reunionfl.gif 1997–present Holy Empire of Reunion A micronation founded by Brazilian law students as a political simulation. Reunion has a very active political system. It has issued passports, minted coins and is considered one of the most important Lusophone micronations. The micronation has been portrayed by the media of dozens of countries, and has been the star of a front-page article of Reunion Island newspaper, which used It to trace a parallel between its independence and the idea of having independence from France.[33][34][35][36]
Flag of Saugeais.svg 1947–present Republic of Saugeais An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.[1]: 122–124 

Indonesia

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Majapahit Empire.svg 2018–2020 Keraton Agung Sejagat The Keraton Agung Sejagat (English: Universal Grand Throne) was a hybrid mystical movement and micronation based out of Purworejo Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Hadiningrat claimed he was granted the authority to found a successor state to the Majapahit Empire in 2018.
Sunda Empire Flag Vector.svg 2020 Sunda Empire - Earth Empire Sunda Empire is an association based on historical romanticism. They claim to be a great empire between the earth and the sun.

Israel

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Akhzivland.svg 1971–present Akhzivland A micronation founded as a protest to the Israeli government for demolishing an illegally inhabited house. Founded by an Iranian-born Israeli named Eli Avivi and his wife. It was leased to him by the Israeli government for 99 years.[37][38] Its name is derived from the nearby ancient city ruin of Achziv. He died of pneumonia in 2018.[39]

Italy

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Principality of Filettino.png 2011–present Principality of Filettino Created by the mayor of Filettino in protest at the Italian government's austerity measure that reorganised the local government of towns with less than 1,000 residents.[40]
Rose Island Flag.svg 1968–1969 Republic of Rose Island An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.[1]
Flag of the Principality of Seborga -v.svg 1963–present Principality of Seborga A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.[1]: 55 

Jamaica

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of New Atlantis (1964-1966).png 1964–1966 New Atlantis Floating barge created by Leicester Hemingway and claimed as a sovereign republic. It was destroyed by storms shortly after establishment.[41]

Lithuania

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of the Republic of Uzupis.gif 1997–present Republic of Užupis Užupis is a neighborhood largely located in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.[42]

New Zealand

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Aramoana.png 1980–1981 Independent State of Aramoana A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.[43]
Whangamomona 01.png 1989–present Republic of Whangamōmona Declared in protest of the township of Whangamōmona switching regions after New Zealand's regional council boundaries were redrawn in 1989.

Nigeria

Flag Date Name Description
None
1970–1978 Kalakuta Republic Musician Fela Kuti announces his home in Lagos as independent. In 1978, an assault by the Nigerian army burned and razed the republic.

North Macedonia

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Vevčani Municipality, North Macedonia.svg 2000–present Republic of Vevčani During the war in Yugoslavia, an independent committee was established in the village of Vevčani, which was threatened by ethnic conflict, in what was then communist Macedonia. After the situation had calmed down, the committee joined independent Macedonia and in 2000 the inhabitants again declared independence as a micronation to promote tourism.

Slovenia

Flag Date Name Description
None
1991–present Neue Slowenische Kunst Since 1991, the NSK has claimed to be a sovereign state of sorts, a claim similar to that of micronations. 2017 saw NSK set up a pavilion at the Venice Biennale where Slavoj Žižek stated that "The uniqueness of NSK is this idea of the stateless state."

Spratly Islands

Flag Date Name Description
None
1956–1974 Free Territory of Freedomland Micronation established by Tomás Cloma covering the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea.[44]
Flag of the Kingdom of Humanity.svg 1878–1963 Kingdom of Humanity A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.[45][46]
Flag of Morac-Songhrati-Meads.svg 1877–1969 Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.[45]

Sweden

Flag Date Name Description
Elgaland-Vargaland flag.png 1992–present Elgaland-Vargaland A conceptual art project by two Swedish artists, Carl Michael von Hausswolff and Leif Elggren, which defines itself as the borders of all nations.
Unofficial Flag of Jamtland.svg 1963–present Republic of Jamtland The region of Jamtland was self-governing from the 10th to 12th century. The micronation/movement (The United Republics of Jamtland, Herjeådalen and Ravund) was founded in 1963 in order to preserve and promote the Jamtlandic culture, language and way of life.[47] It has had three presidents,[48] hosts festivals, and boasts its own national anthem.[49]
Flag of Ladonia with contours.svg 1980–present Ladonia A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.[1]: 136 [50]

Tanganyika

Flag Date Name Description
Sultanate of M'Simbati flag.svg 1959–1980[51] Sultanate of M'Simbati An eccentric Englishman attempted to declare independent a square mile of territory he inhabited on the coast of Tanganyika which he had purchased in 1924. The flag consisted of red, blue and yellow vertical stripes with a small Union Flag in the canton.[52]

Tonga

Flag Date Name Description
Flag Minerva.svg 1973–1982 Republic of Minerva An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.[1]: 14 

United Kingdom

Flag Date Name Description
Flag of Austenasia.svg 2008–present Austenasia A self-declared sovereign state based in the United Kingdom.[53]
Flag of Forvik.gif 2008–present Sovereign State of Forvik An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared a Crown dependency by Stuart Hill as part of a Shetland secessionist agenda.[54]
Flag of Frestonia.svg 1977–1980s Frestonia Residents of Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. The residents were squatters, many of whom eventually set up a housing co-op in negotiation with Notting Hill Housing Trust, and included artists, musicians, writers, actors and activists.
None
1977–2005 Kingdom of Hay-on-Wye Founded in 1977 by Richard Booth in what he describes as "a sincere attempt to "shake off the bureaucratic grip of a central government which showed little or no practical interest in re-vitalizing the clearly decaying market town". This declaration was regarded as a means of strengthening internal power, emphasizing support for local produce and local employment.[55][56]
None
2022–present Lamb Island Lamb is a small uninhabited island measuring approximately 100 by 50 metres (330 ft × 160 ft) in the Firth of Forth, off the east coast of Scotland. It was purchased by Uri Geller in 2009. In 2022, Geller declared the island a micronation. Geller offers citizenship, with proceeds going to Save a Child's Heart, an Israeli charity.[57]
Flag of the Free Borough of Llanrwst.svg 1947–present Free Borough of Llanrwst The Free Borough of Llanrwst was a special privilege granted to the Welsh town of Llanrwst by the Prince of Wales. Llanrwst is now a small town and community on the River Conwy in Conwy County Borough, Wales. The town consequently has its own coat of arms and flag, and this is the origin of the old local motto "Cymru, Lloegr a Llanrwst" (Wales, England and Llanrwst).
Flag of Lovely.svg 2004–present Kingdom of Lovely A nation created by comedian Danny Wallace as part of his BBC series, How to Start Your Own Country.
Lundy Flag.gif 1925-1969 Lundy After Martin Coles Harman, a British businessman, purchased the island of Lundy off the coast of Devon in 1925, he proclaimed himself the island's king, and had an 'official' currency minted for use on the island, the Lundy puffin, in 1929. After the currency began being used among coins and banknotes of the Pound sterling on the island, Harman was visited by the Devon County Constabulary and fined a total of £5. Nevertheless, in spite of their limited use, Lundy's currency is an unusual example of a micronation issuing currency that entered ordinary circulation, rather than merely being issued as commemorative coins.[58] A surviving element of the micronation continues to exist to this day, being postage stamps introduced during the same year as the coins, again in denominations of Lundy puffin. This private postal service remains in operation; approximately 350 stamp issues from the island have been produced to date, some of which are of considerable interest to philatelic collectors.[59]
Flag of the Islands of Refreshment.svg 1811–1816 Islands of Refreshment A micronation created by the first permanent inhabitants of Tristan da Cunha, including Jonathan Lambert, who established himself as monarch. Tristan da Cunha was officially annexed by the United Kingdom on August 14, 1816.[60][61]
Flag of Sealand.svg 1967–present Principality of Sealand A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.[1]: 8–13 
Waveland flag.gif 1997 Global State of Waveland Greenpeace took the island of Rockall in protest against the oil research activities organized under British rule. On June 15, the island was declared independent as the "Global State of Waveland". The occupation will last 42 days in total.

United States

Flag Date Name Description
DBWF Flag.svg 2005–present Dominion of British West Florida A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.[1]: 139 
Flag of Key West, Florida.svg 1982–present Conch Republic Founded by then-Mayor of Key West, Florida, Dennis Wardlow, it claims tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States in protest at a checkpoint established by the US Border Patrol.[1]: 130 
None
1998–present Maritime Republic of Eastport The Maritime Republic of Eastport, commonly known as simply "Eastport", is a seaside neighborhood community and tongue-in-cheek micronation located in Annapolis, Maryland in the US.[62][63]
Flag of EnenKio.svg 1994–present Kingdom of EnenKio Claims Wake Atoll,[64] a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been widely deemed a scam.[65]
Flag of Freedonia.svg 1997–2004 Principality of Freedonia The Principality of Freedonia was a micronation based on libertarian principles.
None
1974–1977 Ganienkeh The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Lakotas' standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.[66][67]
Flag of the Republic of Molossia.svg 1999–present Republic of Molossia A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana republic.[68]
None
1986–present Kingdom of North Dumpling An island in Fishers Island, Southold, New York declared independent after its owner Dean Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island.
US flag 34 stars.svg 1865-1986 State of Scott A remnant of the American Civil War, it was a unionist enclave within the state of Tennessee. The State of Scott was formed to protest against Tennessee joining the confederacy. The resolution to establish Scott was rescinded 125 years later.
Flag of the Kingdom of Talossa.svg 1979/2005–present Talossa A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1][1]: 101 
Link to file 2005–present Zaqistan A small tract of land in Box Elder County, a remote part of Utah, on which its owner, Zaq Landsberg, has built monuments. It has also issued passports.[69]

Uruguay

Flag Date Name Description
Bandera Parva Domus.svg 1878–present Parva Domus A self-declared centenary micronation surrounded by Uruguay that has functioned, since 1878, as a social and recreational association that mimics the functioning of a real country. Since its foundation it has had over 800,000 different naturalized citizens.

It is one of the first micronations in history and the oldest still functioning.

Global states or no territory

Flag Date Name Description
Asgardia flag.jpg 2016–present Asgardia A micronation founded by Igor Ashurbeyli that aims to launch satellites into space in order to found a real nation recognised by the UN. The ultimate aim is to avoid the restrictions of the current space law framework.[70]
Flag of Celestia.svg 1949–present Nation of Celestial Space A micronation that comprises the entirety of the universe besides Earth. It was founded on 1 January 1949 by James T. Mangan to stop other countries from claiming outer space land.
Link to file 2000–present Global Country of World Peace GCWP is a non-profit organization that claims to promote Transcendental Meditation, education, and the construction of "buildings for peace" in the world's major cities.[71][72] The organization made several attempts to create its own state in different parts of the world.
1986–present Dominion of Melchizedek The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.[73]
Flag of New Utopia.gif 1990s New Utopia A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.[1]: 15 
Nova Roma Flag.svg 1998–present Nova Roma An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they are not a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.[74]
White flag of surrender.svg 1973–present Nutopia Introduced as a "conceptual nation" by John Lennon and Yoko Ono on April Fools' Day, Nutopia has no land, no borders and no passports or visas; anyone declaring their awareness of Nutopia's existence was allowed to join. It was founded partly as a way to satirize Lennon's immigration troubles at the time.[75][76]
Naval Ensign of Russia.svg 2011–present Romanov Empire The Imperial Throne was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov as the "Russian Empire". By its constitution, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I.[77][78]
Wirtland flag.svg 2008–present Wirtland Wirtland is an experiment into the legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.[79]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Ryan, John; Dunford, George; Sellars, Simon (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-730-1.
  2. ^ Hobbs, Harry; Williams, George (2022). Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty. Cambridge Studies in Constitutional Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-009-15012-5.
  3. ^ "New micronation faces birthing pains". USA Today. 20 May 2015. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  4. ^ Raj Aditya Chaudhuri (27 October 2018). "After running a country for 15 years, he hopes to see it someday". Conde Nast Traveller. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Kids (2015). You Rule!: Create Your Own Country (Lonely Planet Kids). Lonely Planet. p. 13. ISBN 978-1743607848.
  6. ^ Mamchitz, Roman (28 August 2010). "Родезийская война в Антарктиде" [The Rhodesian War in Antarctica]. Chaskor.ru. Частный Корреспондент. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  7. ^ Sharukho I. N., Soroka A. V. (2017). Геополитика и современная политическая карта мира [Geopolitics and the contemporary world map] (in Russian). МГУ имени А. А. Кулешова. p. 71. ISBN 978-985-568-358-3.
  8. ^ Dean, Anabel (20 June 1989). "Bleyer's Honours Outlined". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 7.
  9. ^ "Empire of Atlantium: Take a glimpse into Australia's smallest micronation". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 18 October 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Danny Robins' Indie Travel Guide – The World Smallest Countries". BBC. 16 September 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  11. ^ Sunday Mail, Craig Cook (30 June 2018). "Bumbunga Governor Alec Brackstone's relentless will to secede". Sunday Mail. [...] after more than 40 years as the Governor of Bumbunga, Alec Brackstone, is still stirring up trouble for the government. The 93-year-old, former paratrooper, circus trainer, croc shooter and uranium prospector, in no mood to abdicate his title, has been keeping a low profile for the past 20 years.
  12. ^ Bicudo de Castro, Vicente; Kober, Ralph (18 April 2018). "The Principality Of Hutt River: A Territory Marooned in the Western Australian Outback". Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. 12 (1). doi:10.21463/shima.12.1.13.
  13. ^ Hedley, Kate (3 August 2020). "End of an empire: Hutt River to rejoin Australia after 50 years". WA Today. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  14. ^ Stanley, Michelle (3 August 2020). "Hutt River Province to rejoin Commonwealth after 50-year stand-off". ABC News mid-west and wheatbelt. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  15. ^ "Defiant Graziers Under Arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. 14 June 1993.
  16. ^ Matt Siegel, The Royal Me Archived 3 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine. April 2012 issue. The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  17. ^ "Prince of Wy Paul Delprat loses driveway court battle". Daily Telegraph. 17 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  18. ^ Baker, Chris. "Live Free or Drown: Floating Utopias on the Cheap =". Wired. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  19. ^ Simpson, Isabelle (2016). "Operation Atlantis: A case-study in libertarian island micronationality". Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. 10 (2): 22, 27. doi:10.21463/shima.10.2.05. ISSN 1834-6057.
  20. ^ Collett, Richard (10 March 2022). "They bought a Caribbean island to start their own country". CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  21. ^ "Hajduci na Vranu ljude samo po očima pamte" (in Croatian). Nezavisne. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  22. ^ Gardinetti, Georges; Vézina, Valérie (2021). "Anachronistic Progressivism: Advancing Sovereignty through Monarchy – The story of the Kingdom of L'Anse-Saint-Jean" (PDF). Transformations. 35: 52–64. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  23. ^ Zekas, Rita (6 August 2010). "Author Katherine Govier reigns over eclectic house". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  24. ^ Lalani, Azzura (12 June 2017). "Rebellious 'Republic of Rathnelly' celebrates 50 years". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Rathnelly Day". Republic of Rathnelly. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  26. ^ "Chile: Activists 'create nation' to protect glaciers". BBC News. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  27. ^ "Greenpeace Chile plants flag in Andes to create new 'Glacier Republic'". Santiago Times. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  28. ^ "Christiania, one of Europe's most famous communes, faces last stand". The Guardian. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  29. ^ www.mdr.de: Dresdner feiern die Bunte Republik Neustadt
  30. ^ Lessen, Julia van; Petermann, Sandra (31 October 2021). "Peripheries. Playgrounds of Society". img journal (5): 216–237. doi:10.6092/issn.2724-2463/12863. ISSN 2724-2463.
  31. ^ "Les partenaires du réseau bpam". bpam (in French). Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  32. ^ Midi Libre (19 November 2015). "Aigues-Mortes : Le Flamant, nouvelle monnaie locale". Midi Libre. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020..
  33. ^ (in Portuguese)(5 August 1998). Micronação sai do quarto para a Internet Archived 28 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Folha de S.Paulo; accessed 30 November 2015.
  34. ^ Taglioni, François. "INSULARITY, POLITICAL STATUS AND SMALL INSULAR SPACES" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  35. ^ "Człowiek-wódka patrzy na lepszy świat" (in Polish). Kurier. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  36. ^ Iolis, Andrea. "Teoria delle Micronazioni" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  37. ^ "A World of His Own: Eli Avivi". Go World Travel Magazine. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  38. ^ Hayward, Philip (2019). "Under the Mermaid Flag: Achzivland and the performance of micronationality on ancestral Palestinian land". Coolabah. 27: 72–89. doi:10.1344/co20192772-89.
  39. ^ "President of fancied hippie micro-state Achzivland in northern Israel dies at 88". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  40. ^ "Italian town Filettino declares independence". BBC News. 3 September 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  41. ^ "Leicester Hemingway: An Inventory of His New Atlantis Collection in the Manuscript Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". norman.hrc.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  42. ^ "It's Good to Be King". Wired. March 2000. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  43. ^ "Aramoana: pathway to the sea". Otago Daily Times. 13 December 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
  44. ^ Shicun Wu; Keyuan Zou (2016). Arbitration Concerning the South China Sea: Philippines Versus China. Routledge. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-317-17989-4. Archived from the original on 25 September 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  45. ^ a b Marwyn S. Samuels, Contest for the South China Sea (1982)
  46. ^ "The History of the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads". angelfire.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  47. ^ Jamtlandsbladet 1:2008 Archived 2014-05-12 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "Presidenten" [President] (in Swedish). 3 September 2019. Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  49. ^ "JÄMTLANDSSÅNGEN". Archived from the original on 5 February 2004. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  50. ^ Bicudo de Castro, Vicente; Kober, Ralph (15 April 2019). "The Royal Republic of Ladonia: A Micronation built of Driftwood, Concrete and Bytes" (PDF). Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. doi:10.21463/shima.13.1.10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  51. ^ Bakker, Jarig (22 February 2003). "M'Simbati (1959-1961) (Tanzania)". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  52. ^ Farrow, OBE, Malcolm; Prothero, David (15 January 2015). THE COLOURS OF THE FLEET (PDF). London, UK: Flag Institute. p. 120. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  53. ^ "Carshalton home declares itself independent state". Sutton Guardian. 22 January 2009. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  54. ^ "Captain Calamity leads breakaway of Shetland islet from UK". The Guardian. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  55. ^ http://www.richardkingofhay.com/history-of-the-hay-peerage.html Archived 7 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine | History of the Hay Peerage
  56. ^ "Richard Booth". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  57. ^ Berg, Raffi (6 August 2022). "The mysteries that gave birth to the world's newest micronation". BBC News. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  58. ^ Matthews, David (May 1999). "Eccentric Issues". Coin News: 41. ISSN 0958-1391.
  59. ^ "Lundy Postal Service - Lundy's stamps and coins". Landmark Trust. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  60. ^ Boston Gazette, July 18, 1811
  61. ^ "Tristan d'Acunha, etc.: Jonathan Lambert, late Sovereign thereof". Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 4 (21): 280–285. December 1818. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  62. ^ Dufner, Connie (26 August 2020) Eastport: No pier pressure in this eclectic corner of Annapolis. The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  63. ^ Eastport: A Different Side of Annapolis. visitANNAPOLIS. Visit Annapolis & Anne Arundel County. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  64. ^ "Wake Island Claimed By Marshall Islanders". The Cameron Herald. 8 February 1973. p. 2. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  65. ^ "The Kingdom of Enen Kio". Quatloos!. Archived from the original on 11 October 2002. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  66. ^ "Footnotes to History- G to J". buckyogi.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  67. ^ "Information from the People of Ganienkeh". ganienkeh.net. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  68. ^ "Republic of Molossia - Official Website". Republic of Molossia. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  69. ^ "New Yorker Zaq Landsberg Creates His Own Country Called Zaqistan in Remote Utah Desert – But He Doesn't Live There". People. 27 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Space oddity: Group claims to have created nation in space". ScienceInsider. 12 October 2016. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  71. ^ O'Brien, Elizabeth (14 March 2005). "New York: Mission Evaluation?". The Bond Buyer. via HighBeam (subscription required). Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  72. ^ Kelley, Debbie (2 December 2006). "Bonds will back holistic care centers ; State authority weighs granting funds to build them nationwide". The Gazette (Colorado Springs, CO). via HighBeam (subscription required). Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  73. ^ "Fantasy Island". CBS News. CBS Worldwide Inc. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  74. ^ "Interactive Corporative Services Information on Nova Roma". Maine Department of the Secretary of State, Bureau of Corporations, Elections, and Commission. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  75. ^ "On the Day of the Birth of Nutopia - 1 April 2015 Archived 3 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine (statement from Yoko Ono)". Imagine Peace. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
  76. ^ Bannister, Matthew (2021). ""And the world will be as one" – John Lennon, Yoko Ono and Nutopia" (PDF). Transformations. 35: 89–103. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  77. ^ Imperial Throne (Sovereign Nation) Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, gazeta.babr.ru; accessed 30 November 2015.(in Russian)
  78. ^ Imperial Throne (Sovereign Nation) Archived 10 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine; accessed 30 November 2015.(in Russian)
  79. ^ Fox 45 Morning News, Wirtland on FOX News Archived 3 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Fox 45 Morning News, 20 January 2009.

Informational notes

  1. ^ Prior to Madison's departure in 2005 the group split into a separate "Kingdom of Talossa" Archived 29 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine and "Republic of Talossa" Archived 28 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.

Citations