List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation

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This is an incomplete list of bacteria and microscopic fungi that are used in preparing food.

List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation[edit]

Microorganism Type Of Microorganism Food or Beverage
Acetobacter aceti bacterium chocolate [1]
Acetobacter aceti bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter cerevisiae bacterium Beer [3]
Acetobacter fabarum bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter fabarum bacterium coffee [2]
Acetobacter lovaniensis bacterium vegetables [2]
Acetobacter malorum bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter orientalis bacterium vegetables [2]
Acetobacter pasteurianus bacterium chocolate [1][2]
Acetobacter pasteurianus bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter pomorum bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter syzygii bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter syzygii bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter tropicalis bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter tropicalis bacterium coffee [2]
Arthrobacter arilaitensis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4]
Arthrobacter bergerei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2]
Arthrobacter globiformis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4]
Arthrobacter nicotianae bacterium surface-ripened cheese [2][4]
Arthrobacter nicotianae bacterium Tilsit cheese [4]
Arthrobacter variabilis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [4]
Aspergillus acidus fungus tea [2]
Aspergillus niger fungus awamori [2]
Aspergillus fumigatus fungus chocolate [1]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus miso [2][5]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus sake [2]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus soy sauce [2][5][6]
Aspergillus sojae fungus miso [2]
Aspergillus sojae fungus soy sauce [2][6]
Bacillus cereus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus coagulans bacterium chocolate [7]
Bacillus licheniformis bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus pumilus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus sphaericus bacterium stinky tofu
Bacillus stearothermophilus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus subtilis bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus subtilis bacterium natto [2]
Bifidobacterium adolescentis bacterium yogurt [2][8]
Bifidobacterium animalis bacterium dairy [2]
Bifidobacterium bifidum bacterium dairy [2][8]
Bifidobacterium breve bacterium dairy [2][8]
Bifidobacterium breve bacterium soy [2]
Bifidobacterium infantis bacterium dairy [8]
Bifidobacterium lactis bacterium dairy [8]
Bifidobacterium longum bacterium dairy [2][8]
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum bacterium dairy [2]
Bifidobacterium thermophilum bacterium dairy [2]
Brachybacterium alimentarium bacterium Beaufort cheese [9]
Brachybacterium alimentarium bacterium Gruyère cheese [9]
Brachybacterium tyrofermentans bacterium Beaufort cheese [9]
Brachybacterium tyrofermentans bacterium Gruyère cheese [9]
Brevibacterium aurantiacum bacterium cheese [2]
Brevibacterium casei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4]
Brevibacterium linens bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][5][6]
Candida colliculosa fungus cheese [2][4]
Candida colliculosa fungus kefir [2]
Candida exiguus fungus sourdough bread
Candida humicola fungus chocolate [1]
Candida kefyr fungus surface-ripened cheese [4]
Candida krusei fungus surface-ripened cheese [4]
Candida milleri fungus sourdough bread [6]
Candida mycoderma[10] fungus Limburger cheese [11]
Candida pelliculosa fungus chocolate [1]
Candida rugosa fungus chocolate [7]
Candida tropicalis fungus chocolate [1]
Candida utilis fungus cheese [4]
Candida valida[10] fungus sourdough [6]
Candida vini[10] fungus Reblochon cheese, wine [4]
Candida zeylanoides fungus Reblochon cheese [4]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium cheese [2]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium fish [2]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium meat [2]
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum bacterium dairy [2]
Carnobacterium piscicola bacterium meat [2]
Corynebacterium ammoniagenes bacterium cheese [2]
Corynebacterium casei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4]
Corynebacterium flavescens bacterium cheese [2]
Corynebacterium mooreparkense bacterium smear-ripened cheese
Corynebacterium variabile bacterium cheese [2]
Cyberlindnera mrakii fungus wine [2]
Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum fungus cheese [2]
Debaryomyces hansenii fungus smear-ripened cheese [4]
Debaryomyces hansenii fungus Reblochon cheese [4]
Debaryomyces kloeckeri fungus Limburger cheese [11]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium cheese [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium cream
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium ham [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium miso [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium pickle [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium sausage
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium soy sauce [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium Manchego cheese [12]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium ham [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium miso [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium pickle [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium soy sauce [2]
Fusarium domesticum fungus cheese [2]
Geotrichum candidum fungus cheese [2][6]
Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter entanii bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter europaeus bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter hansenii bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter johannae bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter johannae bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter oboediens bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter xylinus bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconobacter oxydans bacterium chocolate [1]
Hafnia alvei bacterium cheese [2]
Halomonas elongata bacterium meat [2]
Issatchenkia orientalis fungus kefir [2]
Kazachstania exigua fungus kefir [2]
Kazachstania unispora fungus kefir [2]
Kloeckera africana fungus chocolate [1]
Kloeckera apis fungus chocolate .[1]
Kloeckera javanica fungus chocolate [1]
Kluyveromyces lactis fungus cheese [2][4]
Kluyveromyces marxianus fungus cheese [2][4]
Kluyveromyces marxianus fungus chocolate [7]
Kocuria rhizophila bacterium cheese [2]
Kocuria rhizophila bacterium meat [2]
Kocuria varians bacterium dairy [2]
Kocuria varians bacterium sausage [2]
Komagataeibacter xylinus bacterium Nata de coco [13]
Lactobacillus acetotolerans bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus acetotolerans bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus acetotolerans bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus acidifarinae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus acidipiscis bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus acidipiscis bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterium yogurt [2]
Lactobacillus alimentarius bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus alimentarius bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus brevis bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [12]
Lactobacillus brevis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus brevis ssp. linens bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus bucheri bacterium bread [2]
Lactobacillus bucheri bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus cacaonum bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Idiazabal cheese [12]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Manchego cheese [12]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Roncal cheese [12]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium yogurt [2][5]
Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum bacterium Grana Padano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum bacterium Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus cellobiosus bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus collinoides bacterium cider [2]
Lactobacillus composti bacterium shōchū [2]
Lactobacillus coryniformis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus crispatus bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [12]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [12]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Pecorino Sardo cheese [12]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium sausage [2][5]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus bacterium cheese [2][5]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus bacterium yogurt [2][5]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus dextrinicus bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus diolivorans bacterium chicha [2]
Lactobacillus fabifermentans bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus farciminis bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus farciminis bacterium soy [2]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium chocolate [1][2]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus gasseri bacterium dairy [8]
Lactobacillus gasseri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus ghanensis bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus hammesii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus harbinensis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus helveticus bacterium cheese [2][5]
Lactobacillus helveticus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus hilgardii bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus hilgardii bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus homohiochii bacterium sake [2]
Lactobacillus homohiochii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus jensenii bacterium bread [2]
Lactobacillus johnsonii bacterium dairy [8]
Lactobacillus johnsonii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus kefiri bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus kimchii bacterium kimchi [2]
Lactobacillus kisonensis bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus kunkeei bacterium wine [14]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium cider [14]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium rum [14]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium wine [14]
Lactobacillus manihotivorans bacterium cassava [14]
Lactobacillus mindensis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus mucosae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nagelii bacterium wine [14]
Lactobacillus namuresis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nantesis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nodensis bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus oeni bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus otakiensis bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus panis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus parabuchneri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [12]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [12]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Pecorino Sardo cheese [12]
Lactobacillus parakefiri bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus paralimentarius bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus paraplantarum bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus paraplantarum bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [12]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus perolens bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus perolens bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Idiazabal cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Manchego cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Roncal cheese [12]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium sausage [5]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium vegetables [2][5]
Lactobacillus pobuzihii bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus pontis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus rapi bacterium pickle
Lactobacillus rapi bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus reuteri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium Grana Padano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese [12]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus rossiae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus sakei bacterium sake [2]
Lactobacillus sakei bacterium sausage [2][5]
Lactobacillus salivarius bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis bacterium sourdough bread [2][5]
Lactobacillus satsumensis bacterium shōchū [2]
Lactobacillus secaliphilus bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus senmaizukei bacterium pickles [2]
Lactobacillus siliginis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus similis bacterium rum [2]
Lactobacillus spicheri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus suebicus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus spp. bacterium butter [6]
Lactobacillus spp. bacterium olive [6]
Lactobacillus sunkii bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus tucceti bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus tucceti bacterium sausage [2]
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus versmoldesis bacterium sausage [2]
Lactobacillus yamanashiensis bacterium cider [2]
Lactobacillus yamanashiensis bacterium wine [2]
Lactococcus lactis bacterium buttermilk [2]
Lactococcus lactis bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris bacterium Cheddar cheese [12]
Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis bacterium cheese [5][6]
Lactococcus raffinolactis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactococcus spp. bacterium butter [6]
Lecanicillium lecanii fungus cheese [2]
Leuconostoc carnosum bacterium meat [2]
Leuconostoc citreum bacterium cheese [2]
Leuconostoc citreum bacterium fish [2]
Leuconostoc fallax bacterium sauerkraut [2]
Leuconostoc holzapfelii bacterium coffee [2]
Leuconostoc inhae bacterium kimchi [2]
Leuconostoc kimchii bacterium kimchi [2]
Leuconostoc lactis bacterium cheese [2][5][8]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium chocolate [1]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium vegetables [2]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris bacterium cheese [2][5][8]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris bacterium vegetables [2][5]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium butter [2][8]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium Idiazabal cheese [12]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium pickle
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium Roncal cheese [12]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides bacterium Idiazabal cheese [12]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides bacterium Roncal cheese [12]
Leuconostoc palmae bacterium palm wine [2]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium butter [2][8]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium buttermilk [2][8]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium sour cream [2][8]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium butter [6]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium olive [6]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium wine [6]
Macrococcus caseolyticus bacterium cheese [2]
Macrococcus caseolyticus bacterium sausage [2]
Microbacterium foliorum bacterium surface-ripened cheese
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacterium Limburger cheese [4]
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4]
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacterium Tilsit cheese [4]
Micrococcus luteus bacterium cheese [2]
Micrococcus lylae bacterium sausage [2][5]
Mucor hiemalis fungus soy bean curd [2]
Mucor plumbeus fungus cheese [2]
Mucor racemosus fungus cheese [2]
Mucor racemosus fungus chocolate [1]
Neurospora intermedia fungus oncom
Oenococcus oeni bacterium wine [2][5][6]
Pediococcus acidilactici bacterium sausage [2][5][6]
Pediococcus acidilactici bacterium vegetables [5][6]
Pediococcus pentosaceus bacterium sausage [2][5][6]
Penicillium album fungus farmhouse cheeses [4]
Penicillium camemberti fungus cheese [2][5] v
Penicillium caseifulvum fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium chrysogenum fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium chrysogenum fungus sausage [5]
Penicillium commune fungus surface-ripened cheese [2][4]
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus ham
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus sausage [6]
Penicillium roqueforti fungus cheese [2][5][6]
Penicillium solitum fungus meat [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus dairy [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus kefir [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus wine [2]
Propionibacterium acidipropionici bacterium cheese [2]
Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii bacterium dairy [2][6]
Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii bacterium Emmental cheese [2][5][6]
Propionibacterium jensenii bacterium cheese [2]
Propionibacterium thoenii bacterium cheese [2]
Proteus vulgaris bacterium surface-ripened cheese
Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium yogurt
Psychrobacter celer bacterium cheese
Rhizopus microsporus ssp. oligosporus fungus oncom [6]
Rhizopus microsporus ssp. oligosporus fungus tempeh [2][5][6]
Rhodosporidium infirmominiatum fungus cheese [4]
Rhodotorula glutinis fungus chocolate [1]
Rhodotorula minuta fungus smear-ripened cheese [4]
Rhodotorula rubra fungus chocolate [1]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus beer [2]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus cider [2]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus wine [2]
Saccharomyces carlsbergensis fungus lager beer [6]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus ale beer [2][5]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus bread [2][5]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus cider [2]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus cheese [2][4]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus chocolate [1]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus wine [2][5]
Saccharomyces pastorianus fungus lager beer [5]
Saccharomyces rouzii fungus miso
Saccharomyces uvarum fungus lager beer [6]
Staphylococcus carnosus bacterium cheese [4]
Staphylococcus carnosus ssp. carnosus bacterium sausage [2][5]
Staphylococcus condimenti bacterium soy [2]
Staphylococcus equorum bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus equorum ssp. linens bacterium cheese [2][4]
Staphylococcus fleurettii bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus piscifermentans bacterium fish [2]
Staphylococcus saphrophyticus bacterium Harzer cheese [4]
Staphylococcus sciuri ssp. carnaticus bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus simulans bacterium sausage
Staphylococcus succinus bacterium dairy [2]
Staphylococcus succinus bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus vitulinus bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus vitulinus bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus warneri bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus xylosus bacterium cheese [2][4]
Staphylococcus xylosus bacterium sausage
Streptococcus gallolyticus bacterium dairy [2]
Streptococcus salivarius bacterium yogurt
Streptococcus thermophilus bacterium cheese [2][5]
Streptococcus thermophilus bacterium yogurt [5][6]
Streptomyces griseus bacterium meat
Streptomyces mobaraensis bacterium meat, fish [15]
Tetragenococcus halophilus bacterium miso [2]
Tetragenococcus halophilus bacterium soy sauce [2][5]
Tetragenococcus koreensis bacterium kimchi [2]
Torulaspora delbrueckii fungus smear-ripened cheese [4]
Torulopsis versatilis fungus miso
Thrichosporon beigelii fungus smear-ripened cheese [4]
Verticillium lecanii fungus Tomme cheese [4]
Weissella beninensis bacterium cassava [2]
Weissella cibaria bacterium kimchi [2]
Weissella fabaria bacterium chocolate [2]
Weissella ghanesis bacterium chocolate [2]
Weissella koreensis bacterium kimchi [2]
Weissella paramesenteroides bacterium sausage [2]
Weissella thailandensis bacterium fish [2]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus Raclette cheese [4]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus smear-ripened cheese [4]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus dairy [2]
Zygotorulaspora florentina fungus kefir [2]
Zymomonas mobilis bacterium palm wine [2]
Zymomonas mobilis bacterium pulque [2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Microbe Wiki, "Chocolate" Archived 2012-03-16 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja Egon Bech Hansen, "Prof Egon Bech Hansen QPS IDF List Safety Food Microorganisms 11 Slides - Documents". 2016-11-13. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  3. ^ Cleenwerck I; Vandemeulebroecke D; Janssens D; Swings J (2002). "Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52: 1551–1558. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-5-1551. PMID 12361257. Archived from the original on 2015-12-24. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Barry A. Law and Adnan Tamime, (2011) Technology of Cheesemaking. John Wiley & Sons, pp. Google Books preview
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Robert Wayne Hutkins, (2006) Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 75–76. Google Books preview
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Arthur P. Riley, (2005) New Developments in Food Policy, Control and Research. Nova Publishers, p. 35. Google Books preview
  7. ^ a b c Christine L. Case, The Microbiology of Chocolate Archived 2012-03-31 at the Wayback Machine, Skyline College.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kalidas Shetty, (2006) Food biotechnology. CRC Press, pp. 222, 226, 229. Google Books preview
  9. ^ a b c d Schubert, K. et al. (1996) "Two coryneform bacteria isolated from the surface of French Gruyère and Beaufort cheeses are new species of the genus Brachybacterium: Brachybacterium alimentarium sp. nov. and Brachybacterium tyrofermentans sp. nov." Int J Syst Bacteriol. 46 (1): 81-7. PMID 8573524
  10. ^ a b c NOTE: Candida mycoderma, Candida valida, and/or Candida vini are sometimes listed as a starter culture for wine, but this is not true. They only cause 'flowers of wine', a type of wine spoilage.
  11. ^ a b Hosono, A. and Tokita, F. (1970) "The lipolytic properties of Candida mycoderma and Debaryomyces kloeckeri isolated from Limburger cheese and some properties of the lipases produced by these yeasts." Archived 2018-02-28 at the Wayback Machine Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 41 (10): 519–527.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad P. F. Fox, (2004) Cheese: Major Cheese Groups. Academic Press, p. 59, 74. Google Books preview
  13. ^ Sanchez, P.C. (2008). Philippine Fermented Foods: Principles and Technology. University of the Philippines Press. p. 378. ISBN 978-971-542-554-4.
  14. ^ a b c d e f David Hendricks Bergey and David R. Boone, (2009) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes. Springer–Verlag, p. 502 Google Books preview
  15. ^ Oort, Maarten van (2010). Robert J. Whitehurst (ed.). Enzymes in food technology (2nd ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4443-0994-3.