List of military alliances
A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, military factions; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. Military alliances often involve non-military agreements, in addition to their primary purpose.
- 431–404 BC Peloponnesian War
- 634–1853 Christian-Islamic Wars
- 1337–1453 100 Years War
Early modern period
- 1494–1559 Italian Wars
- 1618–1648 Thirty Years' War
- 1683–1699 Great Turkish War (War of the Holy League)
- 1688–1697 War of the Grand Alliance (Nine Years' War)
- 1700-1721 Great Northern War
- 1775-1783 American Revolutionary War
- Native Americans
- Treaty of Alliance, 1778-1800 - United States, France
- Treaty of Aranjuez, 1779-1783 - France, Spain
- First League of Armed Neutrality, 1780-1783 - Russia, Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Prussia, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Ottoman Empire
- 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars
- 1815–1825 Absolutist-Liberal conflicts
- The Quadruple Alliance of 1834
- 1873–1878 & 1881-1887 League of the Three Emperors - Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary and German Empire
- 1899-1901 Boxer Rebellion
- World War I
- 1931-1945 Second Sino-Japanese War (After Pearl Harbor, folded into the greater World War II.)
- World War II
- Cold War
- 1947 Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Pact) - Most of the countries of the Americas.
- 1948-2011 Western European Union (WEU) - limited role. Merged with EU in 2009.
- 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) -- United States, Canada, most of Western Europe
- 1951 ANZUS Treaty (ANZUS) - United States, Australia, New Zealand.
- 1954–1977 SEATO - United States, United Kingdom, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, Philippines
- 1955–1979 CENTO - United States, United Kingdom, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan
- 1955-1980 Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty - United States, Republic of China
- 1955–1991 Warsaw Pact - Soviet Union, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania
- 1958 North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) - United States and Canada.
- 1971 Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) - United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore.
- 1981 ECOMOG of Economic Community of West African States.
- 1982 Regional Security System (RSS) - several Eastern Caribbean countries.
- 1989 Major non-NATO allies of the United States (MNNA) - Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Thailand.
Contemporary Security Alliances
- NATO, Enlarged from 1999 to include eastern European states. Twenty eight countries including the United States, Canada and most of Europe including Turkey.
- Entente Cordiale / Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty is a joint Military alliance between France and the United Kingdom.
- Franco-German Brigade is a joint French-German Brigade.
- BALTRON is a joint Estonian—Latvian—Lithuanian Naval Squadron.
- Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, originally signed in 1373, is the oldest alliance still in force in the world.
- Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), formed in 1992 in after the collapse of the Soviet Union - Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), formed in 1996 to counterbalance NATO expansion - China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
- Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status (TAKM) is an intergovernmental military co-operation organization of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia.
- Arab League
- Axis of Resistance
- Israel & the United States.
- Peninsula Shield Force The military force of the Persian Gulf nations of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and Bahrain
- Multinational Force and Observers
United States - Asia
- Japan and the United States entered into a security alliance following the allied occupation after WWII.
- South Korea and the United States entered into a military alliance following the Korean War.
- Mutual Defense Treaty (U.S.–Philippines) is a joint US-Philippine Defence Treaty.
- African Union
- Economic Community of Central African States
- Economic Community of West African States
- Organization of American States
- Union of South American Nations
- United Nations
- ABCA Armies
- ANZUS is a joint military alliance between the United States, Australia and New Zealand.
- On 20 December, 1777, Morocco became the first country to recognise the United States as an independent nation. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship, formalised in 1786, is the longest unbroken treaty relationship in U.S. history, and Tangier is home to the oldest U.S. diplomatic property in the world.
- Five Power Defence Arrangements, signed in 1971 to prevent the Malaysian Peninsula, or Singapore from external or foreign aggression.
- Liska, George. Alliances and the Third World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.
- Pressman, Jeremy. Warring Friends: Alliance Restraint in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.
- Snyder, Glenn H. Alliance Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.
- Walt, Stephen. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.
- Weitsman, Patricia. Dangerous Alliances. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2004.