List of military unit mottoes by country

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Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Canada[edit]

China, Republic of[edit]

Republic of China Armed Force

  • 防衛固守,有效嚇阻(fang-wei-gu-shou, you-xiao-he-zu): persistent defense, effective intimidation.
  • 決戰境外(jue-zhan-jing-wai): decisive battle outside of national boundary.
  • Republic of China Army
    • Aviation and Special Operation Command
      • 高山低頭,海水讓路(gao-shan-di-tou, hai-shui-rang-lu): the mountain bows, the ocean gives way.
      • 生為空特人,死為空特魂(sheng-wei-kong-te-ren, si-wei-kong-te-hun): live as kon-teh persons, die as kon-teh spirits.(空特kon-teh is abbreviation of Aviation and Special Warfare Command)
  • Republic of China Navy
    • 忠、義(zhong, yi): loyalty and justice.
    • 見敵必戰(jian-di-bi-zhan): we must battle when enemy is in sight.
    • Republic of China Marine Corps
      • 一日陸戰隊,終生陸戰隊(yi-ri-lu-zhan-dui, zhong-sheng-lu-zhan-dui): Once a marine, always a marine.
      • 不怕苦,不怕難,不怕死(bu-pa-ku, bu-pa-nan, bu-pa-si): fear no pain, fear no challenge, fear no death.
      • 永遠忠誠(yong-yuan-zhong-cheng): always faithful (taken from the USMC motto semper fidelis)
  • Republic of China Air Force
    • 無空防即無國防(wu-kong-fang-ji-wu-guo-fang): without air defense there is no national defense.
  • Republic of China Military Police
    • 忠貞憲兵(zhong-zheng-xian-bing): loyal military police.
  • Military Academy
    • 親愛精誠: Fraternity, Devotion, Sincerity
    • 貪生怕死勿入此門,升官發財請走他路(tan-sheng-pa-si-mo-ru-ci-men, sheng-guan-fa-cai-qing-zou-ta-lu): (those who) covet life and fear death do not enter this door, (those who wish for) promotion and wealth please take other paths.

Estonia[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Greece[edit]

India[edit]

The mottoes of the Indian Armed Forces units come from Sanskrit, English, or a regional language the specific unit is closely affiliated with. Some however are laurels won on the field and are in the language of the enemy or the commander's praise.

Military Motto Motto Language Translation Battle Cry Translation
Indian Army Service Before Self English Bharat Maata ki Jai Victory for Mother India
Army Air Defence "Aakasey Satrun Jahi" Sanskrit "Win Over The Enemy In The Sky"
Indian Air Force "Nabha sparsham Deeptam" Sanskrit "Touch the Sky with Glory"
Indian Navy "Sha-no Varuna" Sanskrit "May the Lord of the Oceans be Auspicious Unto Us"
Army Medical Corps "Sarve Santu Niramaya" Sanskrit "Freedom from sickness to all"
Indian Military Academy "Veerta aur Vivek" Hindi "Valour and Wisdom"
Regiment of Artillery "Sarvatra Izzat O Iqbal" Hindi/Urdu Everywhere with Honour and Glory
The Brigade of The Guards "Pahla Hamesha Pahla" Hindi/Urdu "Ahead, Always Ahead" or "First, Always First" "Garud Ka Hun Bol Pyare " "I am from the Guards, Say O my friend"
Paracommandos (Special Forces) "Balidaan" Hindi "Sacrifice"
The Mechanized Infantry "Valour and Faith" English --
The Punjab Regiment "Sthal Wa Jal" Hindi "By Land and Sea" "Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal" "Whoever utters Truth is immortal, shall be blessed."
The Madras Regiment "Swadharme Nidhanam Shreyaha" Sanskrit "It is a glory to die doing one’s duty" "Veera Madrasi, Adi Kollu, Adi Kollu" Valorous Madrasi! Hit! Kill! Hit! Kill!
The Gorkha Regiment "Kayar bhanda marna ramru" Gorkhali/Nepali " It is better to die with honour than live a coward" "Jai Mahakali, Ayo Gorkhali" "Victory for Goddess Kali, The Gorkhas are here"
The Maratha Light Infantry "Duty, Honour, Courage" English "Har Har Mahadev" "Hail The Greatest of Lords - The Destroyer"
Grenadiers Regiment "Sarvada Shaktishali" Sanskrit "Ever Powerful" "Sarvada Shaktishali" "Ever Powerful"
The Rajputana Rifles "Veer Bhogya Vasundhara" Sanskrit "The Brave Shall enjoy the Earth" "Raja Ram Chandra Ki Jai" "Victory to king Ram Chandra"
The Rajput Regiment "Sarvatra Vijay" Sanskrit "Victory Everywhere" "Bol Bajarang Bali Ki Jai" "Victory to Lord Hanuman the Powerful"
Jat Regiment "Sangathan Wa Veerta" Hindi "Spirit of Unity and Valour" "Jat Balwaan, Jai Bhagwaan" "Victory for powerful, victory for God"
The Sikh Regiment "Nischey Kar Apni Jeet Karon" Punjabi "With Determination, I Shall win" "Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal" "Whoever utters Truth is immortal, shall be blessed"
The Sikh Light Infantry "Deg Teg Fateh" Punjabi "Prosperity in Peace and Victory in War" "Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal" "Whoever utters Truth is immortal, shall be blessed"
The Dogra Regiment "Kartavyam Anvatma" Sanskrit "Duty Before Death" "Jwala Mata Ki Jai" "Victory for Goddess of Fire"
The Garhwal Rifles "Yudhaya Krit Nischya" Sanskrit "Fight With Determination" "Badri Vishal Lal Ki Jai"
The Kumaon Regiment "Parakramo Vijayate" Sanskrit "Valour Triumphs" "Kalika Mata Ki Jai/Bajrang Bali Ki Jai /Dada Kishan Ki Jai/Jai Durge Naga."
The Assam Regiment "Assam Vikram" "Unique Valour"
The Bihar Regiment "Karam Hi Dharam" Hindi "Work is Worship" "Birsa Munda Ki Jai" "Victory for Birsa Munda"
The Mahar Regiment "Yash Sidhi" Sanskrit "Success & Attainment" "Bolo Bharat Mata Ki Jai" "Victory for India"
The Jammu and Kashmir Rifles "Prashata Ranvirta" Sanskrit "Valour in Battle is Praiseworthy" "Durga Mata Ki Jai! "Victory to Goddess Durga!"
The Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry "Balidanam Vir Lakshanam" Sanskrit "Sacrifice is a Sign of the Brave" "Bharat Mata Ki Jai" "Victory for India"
The Ladakh Scouts "Ki Ki So So Lhargyalo" "Victory to God"
Ordnance Corps "Shastra Se Shakti" Hindi "Strength through Weapons"
The Corps of Signals "Teevra Chaukas" Hindi "Swift and Secure"
Corps of Engineers "Sarvatra" Sanskrit "Everywhere"
Judge Advocate General (Indian Army): "Satyameva Jayate" Sanskrit "Truth alone triumphs"
Border Security Force "Duty Unto Death" English
Indian Coast Guard "Vayam Rakshamah" Sanskrit "We Protect"
Defence Service Staff College "Yuddham Pragayya" Sanskrit "To War with Wisdom"
Defence Research & Development Organisation "Balasya Moolam Vigyanam" Sanskrit "Strength's Origin is in knowledge"

Central reserve police force

 "Service and loyalty "

Indonesia[edit]

Many Indonesian Armed Forces' mottoes are taken from Sanskrit language and Old Javanese language, but there are also many mottoes taken from Indonesian.

  • Indonesian National Police: Official Motto: Rastra Sewakottama ("People's Main Servant"), Popular Motto: Melindungi dan Melayani ("To Protect and Serve")
  • Indonesian Army: Kartika Eka Paksi (literally "Great Bird, No Opponent"/meaning "Strength, Unity, Loyalty")
  • Indonesian Navy: Jalesveva Jayamahe ("On The Sea We Are Glorious")
  • Indonesian Air Force: Swabhuana Paksa ("The Wings of The Motherland")
  • Paspampres (Indonesian Presidential Guards Secret Service): Setia Vhaspada ("loyal and vigilant")
  • National Police Units
    • Mobile Brigade Corps: Jiwa Ragaku untuk Kemanusiaan (My Life and soul is for the sake of Humanity")
    • Traffic Regulator (Police) Corps: Dharmakerta Marga Raksyaka
    • Detective Corps: Sidik Shakti Indra Vhaspada
    • Police Academy: Dharma, Bijaksana, Ksatria ("Best-serviced, Wise and Knightful")
  • Army Units
    • Infantry: Yuddhawastu Pramukha ("The Foremost Warfare Equipment")
    • Field Artillery: Tri Sandhya Yudha ("Soldier's Ability to Carry Out Their Duties without Time-Spotting")
    • Air Defense Artillery: Vyati Rakca Bhala Cakti ("The Great Soldier, Guardian of The Sky")
    • Cavalry: Tri Daya Cakti ("Three Sacred Powers", referring to the Moving Power, Firing Power and Surprising Power of modern cavalry)
    • Army Aviation: Wira Amur ("Flying Soldiers")
    • Army Military Police: Satya Vira Wicaksana ("Loyal and Wise Knights")
    • Combat Engineer Corps: Yudha Karya Satya Bhakti ("Loyal in Battles and Developments")
    • Signal Corps: Cighra Apta Nirbhaya ("Fast, Exact, Secure")
    • Psychological Corps : Upakriya Labdha Prayojana Balottama ("Purpose of The Unit is to Give The Best Service to The Nation by Finding The Perfect Soldier")
    • Equipment Corps: Dwi Cakti Bhakti
    • Medical Corps: Hesti Wira Shakti
    • Army Research and Development Corps: Satiti Cakti Bhakti ("Make a Great Power for Serving The Nation")
    • Army Strategic Command (Kostrad): Dharma Putra
    • Army Raider Battalions: Cepat, Tepat, Senyap ("Fast, Exact, Quiet")
    • Army Special Forces Command: Berani, Benar, Berhasil ("Brave, Right, Successful")
    • Military Academy: Adhitakarya Mahatvavirya Nagarabhakti (Hard-working Knights Serving Bravery as Nations Hero")
  • Indonesian Navy Units
    • Navy Seaman Corps: Jalesveva Jayamahe ("On The Sea We Are Glorious")
    • Marine Corps: Jalesu Bhumyamcha Jayamahe ("On The Sea and Land We Are Glorious")
    • Navy Frogmen: Tan Hana Wighna Tan Sirna ("No Difficulties Can Not Conquered")
    • Navy Submarine Unit: Wira Ananta Rudira ("Steadfast until The End")
    • Navy Amphibious Ships Unit: Dwi Daya Yudha ("Two Powers in Battles", referring to amphibious properties of the ship)
    • Naval Academy: Hree Dharma Shanty ("Embarrassed for Doing The Defects")
    • Navy Military Police: Wijna Wira Widhayaka ("Knightful and Wise Rule Upholders")
    • Naval Hydro-oceanographic Service: Jala Citra Praja Yodha ("Mapping The Sea for Nations' Glory")
    • KRI Sultan Hasanuddin-366, a SIGMA corvette bought from the Netherlands: Bertempur dan Menang ("Fight and Win")
  • Indonesian Air Force Units
    • Air Force Special Forces Corps: Karmanye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadachana ("Working Without Counting The Profit and Loss")
    • Air Force Military Police: Wira Waksita ("Skilled and Alerted Knights")
    • Air Force Academy: Vidya Karma Vira Pakca

Israel[edit]

Military Unit Mottos: Israel

  • Israeli Defense Forces
    • Duvdevan, (lit.: cherry): Ki b'Tahbulot, Ta'ase-l'kha milhama (For by wise counsel thou shalt make thy war (Proverbs 24:6)).
    • Givati Brigade: Yehidat Sgula (A Unit of Virtue, also means: purple - the brigade's beret color)
    • Israeli Armored Corps: Ha-Adam She-ba-Tank Yenatze'ah (Hebrew:האדם שבטנק ינצח)(The Man in the Tank Shall Win)
    • Israeli Armored Corps: Ba-makom bo ya'atsru ha-zchalim, sham yikava ha gvool (Hebrew:במקום בו יעצרו הזחלים שמה ייקבע הגבול) (In the Place where the [tank] Treads Stop, There the Border Will Be Decided [marked/drawn])
    • Israeli Artillery Corps: Bli Siyua, Ha-chir Lo Yanua (Without Support, the Infantry Won't Move)
    • Israeli Artillery Corps: artilerya malkat Hakrav (Hebrew: ארטילריה מלכת הקרב) (Artillery is the Queen of Battle)
    • Israeli Engineering Corps: Rishonim Tamid (Hebrew: ראשונים תמיד) (Always First)
    • Israeli Engineering Corps: Et ha-Kashe Naase Hayom, Et ha-Bilti Efshari Naase Machar (Hebrew: את הקשה נעשה היום, את הבלתי אפשרי נעשה מחר) (The hard we shall do today, the impossible we shall do tomorrow)
    • Israeli Education and Youth Corps Am boneh Tzava Boneh Am (Hebrew: עם בונה צבא בונה עם) (A Folk builds An Army building a Folk)
    • Israeli Intelligence Corps: Lecha Dumiya Tehila (Silence is praise to You; Psalms 65:2)
    • Israeli Medical Corps: Ha-matsil nefesh achat, keilu hitsil olam shalem (he who saves one soul, it is as if he saves a whole world)
    • Israeli Navy: Vayerd MeYam Ad Yam, Uminahar Ad Afsey Aretz, Lefanav Yichreu Tziyim (He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth. Navies shall bow before him; Psalm 72:8,9)
    • Nahal Brigade: Hayitaron ha-Enoshi (The Human Advantage)
    • Paratroopers Brigade: Nizom, Novil, Ne'haveh Dugma VeNenaze'ah (We shall Innovate, Lead, Set an Example - and Win)
    • Sayeret Matkal (General Staff Reconnaissance Unit): Mi Sheme'ez, Menatze'ah (מי שמעז מנצח) (He Who Dares Wins)
    • Shayetet 13 She'hagalim mitchazkim, hachazakim mitgalim (כשהגלים מתחזקים החזקים מתגלים) (When the waves grow stronger, the strong men are revealed).
  • Mossad: Be'ein Tachbulot Yipol Am, Uteshua Berov Yoetz (Where no counsel is, the people fall, but in the multitude of counselors there is safety; Proverbs 11:14)
  • SHABAK: Magen Ve-Lo Yira'e (Defender Who Shall Not Have Fear / Defender Who Shall Not Be Seen)

Italy[edit]

  • Esercito Italiano (Italian Army): Salus rei publicae suprema lex esto (Latin for "the safeguard of the republic shall be the supreme law")
  • Marina Militare (Italian Navy): Patria e onore (Italian for "country and honour")
  • Aeronautica Militare (Italian Air Force): Virtute siderum tenus (Latin for "with valour to the stars")
  • Arma dei Carabinieri (Corps of Carabiniers): Nei secoli fedele (Italian for "faithful throughout the centuries")
  • Guardia di Finanza (Financial Guard): Nec recisa recedit (Latin for "does not retreat even if broken")
  • Polizia di Stato (State Police): Sub lege libertas (Latin for "under the law, freedom")
  • Polizia Penitenziaria (Penitentiary Police): Despondere spem munus nostrum (Latin for "to ensure hope is our role")
  • Corpo Forestale dello Stato (State Forestry Corps): Pro natura opus et vigilantia (Latin for "labour and vigilance for nature")
  • Vigili del Fuoco (Fire Service): Flammas domamus donamus cordem (Latin for "we tame the flames, we give our hearts)
  • Corpo Militare della Croce Rossa Italiana (Military Corps of the Italian Red Cross): Inter arma caritas (Latin for "in war, charity")
  • Corpo Militare dell'Esercito dell'Associazione dei Cavalieri Italiani del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta (Military Corps of the Army of the Association of Italian Knights of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta): Fortitudo et sanitas (Latin for "strength and health")
  • Corpo delle Infermiere Volontarie dell'Associazione dei Cavalieri Italiani del Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta (Corps of Voluntary Nurses of the Association of Italian Knights of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta): Fortitudo et sanitas (Latin for "strength and health")
  • Ordinariato Militare in Italia (Military Ordinariate in Italy): Fides, charitas, spes (Latin for "faith, charity, hope")

Lebanon[edit]

  • Lebanese Army: شرف تضحية وفاء Sharaf Tadhiya Wafaa (Honor, Sacrifice, Loyalty)
  • Lebanese Rangers: حيث لا يجراء الأخرون

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysian Army: Gagah Setia (Strong and Loyal)

Royal Ranger Regiment: Agi Idup Agi Ngelaban (Whilst there is life,there is fight)

  • 1st Rangers
  • 2nd Rangers: Osiou oh Kamanang (Who Dares Wins in Kadazandusun)
  • 3rd Rangers: Biar Putih Tulang (Original proverb is "Biar putih tulang, Jangan putih mata", which roughly translates to "Better to die than to be a coward.")
  • 4th Rangers: Jadi Yang Terbaik (Be the Best)
  • 5th Rangers: Agi Idup Agi Ngelaban; previous Motto was Berjuang terus Berjuang (Keep on Fighting)
  • 6th Rangers
  • 7th Rangers (Mechanized): Cekal Perkasa (Determined and Strong)
  • 8th Rangers (Para)
  • 9th Rangers: Siau bani Manang (Who Dares Wins in Bajau)
  • 10th Rangers

Note: The 1st,5th,6th,8th and 10th Rangers uses the same motto,which is Agi Idup Agi Ngelaban.

Rejimen Sempadan (Border Regiment): Setia Waspada (Loyal and Alert)

Rejimen Semboyan Diraja (Royal Signs Regiment): Pantas dan Pasti (Swift and Sure)

Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera (Religious Corps of the Armed Forces of Malaysia): Berjuang Berakhlak

Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armored Corps): Bersatu (United)

Kor Risik DiRaja (Royal Intelligence Corps): Pintar dan Cergas (Intelligent and Active)

Royal Malaysian Navy:Sedia Berkorban (Ready to Sacrifice)

Royal Malaysian Air Force: Sentiasa di Angkasa Raya (Always in the Skies)

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) Motto (Urdu): Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah (English translation: "A follower of none but Allah, the fear of Allah, Jihad for Allah")
  • Pakistan Air Force (Urdu: پاک فضائیه) Motto (Persian): Sahrast ke daryast tah-e-bal-o-par-e-mast (English translation:-

"Be it the deserts, Be it the rivers, All are under my wings")

    • No. 9 Squadron: "How high you fly depends on how brave you are"
    • No. 11 Squadron: "Your destination is beyond everyone else’s destination"
    • No. 14 Squadron: "Bold and fearless, endowed with undaunted spirit and great measure of heavenly might"
  • Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) Motto (Urdu): (English translation: "A silent force to be reckoned with")
  • Pakistan Marines (Urdu: پا مير ينز) Motto (Arabic): (English translation: "And hold fast to the rope of Allah and do not be divided")
  • Pakistan Rangers (Urdu: پاکستان رینجرز) Motto (Urdu): داﯾمً ﺳﺎﮪرً Daaeman Saaheran (English translation: "Ever Vigil")

Philippines[edit]

Armed Forces of The Philippines
  • Philippine Army: "At Your Service, Across the Land"
    • Philippine 1st Scout Ranger Regiment: "We Strike"
    • 1st Special Forces Airborne Regiment, Philippine Army: "Anytime, Anywhere"
  • Philippine Marine Corps: Karangalan, Katungkulan, Kabayanihan ("Honor, Duty, Valour")
    • Philippine Marine Corps Force Recon Battalion: "Recon"
  • Philippine Air Force: The "First Force"

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Spain[edit]

Spanish Military: "Todo Por La Patria"

Sri Lanka[edit]

Military Unit Mottos: Sri Lanka

Switzerland[edit]

  • École et Bataillon d'intervention de l'infanterie "Miles Protector"
  • Kommando Spezialkräfte: Honor, Unitas, Modestia (English Honor, and Latin for "Unity, Modesty")
  • Infanterie OS: Exemplo ducemus (Latin for "Leading by example")
  • Inf Grenadiere: Semper fidelis (Latin for "Always faithful")
  • Pz Aufklärer: Videre sine videri (Latin for "Seeing without being seen")

Sweden[edit]

  • Armén (Swedish Army)
    • Artilleriregementet (Artillery Regiment): Ultima ratio regum (Latin for "the last resort of kings")
    • Livgardet (Life Guards): Possunt nec posse videntur (Latin for "they can do what it seems they cannot")
    • Livregementets husarer (Life Guard Regiment Hussars): Pergite! (Latin for "forward!")
    • Luftvärnsregementet (Anti-Aircraft Regiment): Semper metam contingimus (Latin for "we always reach our goals")
    • Norrbottens regemente (Norrbotten Regiment): De hava aldrig svikit eller för egen del tappat (Swedish for "they have never failed or for their own part lost")
      • Norrlands ingenjörkompani (Norrland Engineer Company): Nos nihil efficere non possumus (Latin for "to us, nothing is impossible")
    • Skaraborgs regemente (Skaraborg Regiment): Arvet förpliktar (Swedish for "the heritage obligates")
      • 42:a Mekaniserade Bataljonen (42nd Mechanised Battalion): Coniucti fortes (Latin for "together strong")
        • Kåkinds kompani (Kåkind Company): Följ mig (Swedish for "follow me")
    • Södra skånska regementet (South Scania Regiment): Framåtanda och stolthet (Swedish for "ambition and pride")
  • Marinen (Swedish Navy)
    • Amfibiekåren (Amphibious Corps)
      • 1. Amfibiebataljonen (1st Amphibious Battalion): Facile princips (Latin for "simple principles")
      • 2. Amfibiebataljonen (2nd Amphibious Battalion): Ubique vigilans (Latin for "vigilant everywhere")
      • 3. Amfibiebataljonen (3rd Amphibious Battalion): Fortis, robur et velox (Latin for "brave, strong, and fast")
      • 4. Amfibiebataljonen (4th Amphibious Battalion): Victoria (Latin for "victory")
      • 5. Amfibiebataljonen (5th Amphibious Battalion): Västkustens styrka och stolthet (Swedish for "strength and pride of the west coast")
      • 6. Amfibiebataljonen (6th Amphibious Battalion): Primus sub stella polaris (Latin for "the first under the polar star")
  • Särskilda operationsgruppen (Special Operations Task Group): Framåt i natten (Swedish for "forward through the night")

Tunisia[edit]

Tunisian Armed Forces

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The phrase comes from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
  2. ^ Before the Battle of Plataea, Mardonius offered the Athenians peace terms, with the hope of dividing the Greek forces. The Athenians responded with "As long as the sun follows his course, as he does now, we shall not come to a compromise with Xerxes".
  3. ^ The phrase was uttered by the Spartan King Leonidas I, just prior to the Battle of Thermopylae, as a response to the Persian King Xerxes I's demand for the surrender of the Spartans' arms.
  4. ^ Spartan mothers would utter the phrase to their sons before they went to war, reminding them to return victorious with the shield, or be brought back dead upon it. Returning home without a shield meant the soldier deserted, since a hoplite could not escape the field of battle unless he tossed away the heavy and cumbersome shield.
  5. ^ The phrase is the traditional battle cry of Greek infantrymen when attacking the enemy.
  6. ^ The phrase a tribute to the Sacred Band that fought during World War II alongside the Special Air Service, which also shares the motto.
  7. ^ The phrase is a reference to the Gordian Knot, a legendary knot tied to a pole near the temple of Zeus in Gordium. It was prophesied that whoever loosed the knot would become ruler of all Asia. Alexander the Great solved the puzzle by slicing through the knot.
  8. ^ The phrase comes from Thucydides' account of Pericles' oration on the eve of the Peloponnesian War.
  9. ^ It is United States Army Special Forces tradition that this phrase is considered to mean "to liberate the oppressed". However, a literal translation would be "from (being) an oppressed man, (to being) a free one".

References[edit]