List of missiles by country
This article is incomplete.(March 2016)
This list of missiles by country displays the names of missiles in order of the country where they originate (were developed), with the countries listed alphabetically and annotated with their continent (and defence alliance, if applicable). In cases where multiple nations have developed or produced a missile, it is listed under each significantly participating nation. Within the lists of each country, missiles are ordered by designation and/or calling name (the latter being especially relevant for Russian/Soviet missiles). In some cases multiple listings are used, in order to provide cross-references for easier navigation.
This is not a list of missiles in operational service by a particular country; nor a list of military rockets.
For an alphabetical list by missile name, see the list of missiles.
- 1 Argentina
- 2 Australia
- 3 Brazil
- 4 Canada
- 5 China
- 6 European joint-venture
- 7 France
- 8 Germany
- 9 India
- 10 Iran
- 11 Iraq
- 12 Israel
- 13 Italy
- 14 Japan
- 15 Nigeria
- 16 North Korea
- 17 Norway
- 18 Pakistan
- 19 South Korea
- 20 Russia
- 21 Serbia
- 22 South Africa
- 23 Sweden
- 24 Taiwan
- 25 Turkey
- 26 United Kingdom
- 27 USA
- 27.1 Missile Design Series (Unified)
- 27.2 Joint Designation System of 1947
- 27.3 United States Air Force Designation Systems
- 27.4 United States Navy Designation Systems
- 27.5 United States Army Designation Systems
- 27.6 United States Undesignated Missiles
- 27.7 United States Missiles with X Designations
- 28 See also
- 29 References
- AS-25K anti-ship, air-ground ASM
- Cóndor I (with major contributions of German technology)
- Cóndor II (in cooperation with several Middle-Eastern countries)
- Cóndor III
- Martin Pescador MP-1000 anti-ship, air-ground ASM
- Mathogo anti-tank, wire-guided
- Malkara (joint Australian/British)
- Nulka active missile decoy designed to seduce anti-ship missiles away from their targets
- A-Darter Fifth generation short range infrared homing air-to-air missile (joint South Africa/Brazil)
- FOG-MPM Fiber Optics Guided Multiple Purpose Missile.
- AVMT-300 GPS and/or laser-guided long range missile
- MAA-1A Piranha Short-range infrared homing air-to-air missile.
- MAA-1B Piranha Air to air missile, also known as "Piranha II".
- MSS-1.2 AC Anti-tank guided missile.
- MSA-3.1 AAé Anti-aircraft guided missile.
- MAS-5.1 Air-to-ground missile
- MAR-1 Anti-radiation missile.
- MAN-1 (MANSUP) Anti-ship missile
- Red Arrow 73
- Red Arrow 8
- Red Arrow 9
- Red Arrow 10 GT6
- C-802 (Yingji) anti-ship missile
- KD-88 KD-88 Land-Attack Cruise Missile
- PL-5 AAM
- PL-7 AAM
- PL-9 AAM
- PL-10 AAM
- PL-12 AAM
- CSS-2 missile
- DF-3A MRBM
- DF-4 IRBM
- DF-5 ICBM
- DF-15 SRBM
- DF-21 MRBM
- DF-31 ICBM Range:8000km
- DF-31A ICBM Range:13000km
- DF-41 ICBM
- DH-10 LACM
- JL-1 SLBM
- JL-2 SLBM Range:8000km
- Hongqi-1 SAM
- Hongqi-2 SAM
- Hongnu-5 SAM
- Hongqi-7 SAM
- Hongqi-9 SAM
- Hongqi-10 SAM
- Hongqi-15 SAM
- Hongqi-17 SAM
- Hongqi-18 SAM
- Hongqi-61 SAM
- Kaishan-1 SAM
- Lieying-60 SAM
- PenLung-9 SAM
- Qianwei-1 SAM
- Qianwei-2 SAM
- Silkworm missile short-range anti-ship subsonic cruise missile
- AIM-132 ASRAAM
- MBDA Aster
- MBDA Meteor
- Martel – Anglo-French: Models AJ 168 and AS.37
- MIM-115 Roland
- Taurus KEPD 150/350
- AS.34 Kormoran 1/2
- MIM-115 Roland (replaced by LFK NG)
- EuroSpike (Israel/Germany)
- Taurus KEPD 350
- AGM Armiger
- IRIS-T SL
- IDAS (missile)
- PARS 3 LR
- RBS-15 (Sweden/Germany)
- RIM-116 RAM
- LFK NG
- MBDA Meteor (Multinational)
- HOT (Franco German) anti-tank missile
- V-1 flying bomb
- V-2 rocket
- Enzian missile
- Wasserfall missile
- Ruhrstahl X-4 missile
- Henschel Hs 293
- Fritz X
- Pinaka MBRL truck
- Akash : Surface to air missile.
- Nag : Anti tank missile.
- Helina : Air launched anti tank missile.
- Amogha missile: Anti tank missile.
- CLGM: Cannon launched anti tank missile.
- DRDO Anti Tank Missile
- Prithvi-I (SS-150) : surface to surface Ballistic Missile.
- Prithvi-II (SS-250) : surface to surface Ballistic Missile.
- Prithvi-III (SS-350) : surface to surface Ballistic Missile.
- Agni-I MRBM : surface to surface medium-range ballistic missile.
- Agni-II MRBM : surface to surface medium-range ballistic missile.
- Agni-III IRBM : ocean to surface intermediate-range ballistic missile.
- Agni-IV IRBM : surface to surface intermediate-range ballistic missile
- Agni-V ICBM : surface to surface intercontinental ballistic missile.
- Agni-VI : Four-stage Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. (under development)
- Dhanush (missile) : Ship launched surface to surface Ballistic Missile.
- K 15 : Submarine launched Ballistic Missile.
- K 4 : Submarine launched Ballistic Missile.
- K 5 : Submarine launched Ballistic Missile. (under development)
- Shaurya : surface to surface hypersonic tactical missile.
- BrahMos : Fastest Supersonic cruise missile in the world.
- BrahMos-A : Air launched Cruise Missile.
- BrahMos-NG : Mini version based on BrahMos (missile). (under development)
- BrahMos-II : Hypersonic missile.(under development)
- Astra BVRAAM : Active radar homing Beyond-visual-range Air to Air Missile.
- DRDO Anti-Radiation Missile : state-of-the-art Air-to-surface anti-radiation missile. (under development)
- Nirbhay : Long Range subsonic cruise missile. (under development)
- Prahaar : Tactical short range Ballistic Missile.
- Pragati (missile)
- Pinaka MkIII : Guides rockets (Pinaka Mk1 & 2 are unguided)
- Barak 8 : Long range surface to air missile.
- Maitri (missile) DRDO Quick Reaction SAM
- Pradyumna Ballistic Missile Interceptor : Ballistic Missile interceptor, surface to air missile.
- Ashwin Ballistic Missile Interceptor : Ballistic Missile interceptor / anti aircraft missile.
- Trishul (missile) : Surface to air missile.
- Prithvi Air Defence : Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile.
- Advanced Air Defence : Endoatmospheric Anti-ballistic missile.
- Prithvi Defence Vehicle : Anti-ballistic missile.
As of 2009[update], Iran has an active interest in developing, acquiring, and deploying a broad range of ballistic missiles, as well as developing a space launch capability. In mid-July 2008, Iran launched a number of ballistic missiles during military exercises, reportedly including the medium-range Shahab-3. Iran announced other missile and space launch tests in August and November 2008. In February 2009, Iran announced it launched a satellite into orbit and "officially achieved a presence in space."
- Saeghe 1–2
- Fajr-8, upgrades copy of S-200, Iranian upgrades
- Shahin I & II, Reverse engineer of MIM-23 Hawk.
- R-17E, variant of Russian Scud B
- SS-N-22 Sunburn
- SS-NX-26 Yakhont
- Raduga Kh-55, also called X-55
- Silkworm, Capable of manufacture the missiles.
- Al-Samoud 2
- Al Fahd 300
- Al Fahd 500
- Al Hussein
- Al Hijarah
- Al Abbas
- Badr 2000
- Project 144
- Al Abid
- Arrow missile (Anti-ballistic)
- Barak 1 (Naval point defense)
- Barak 8 (Naval area defense)
- Delilah missile (Cruise missile of several variants: drone, air-to-ground, possible anti-radiation variant as well)
- David's Sling/Magic Wand (Anti medium range missile)
- Gabriel missile (Ship-to-ship and air-to-ship variants)
- Iron Dome (anti-short range rocket)
- Jericho II IRBM (Ground-to-ground ballistic)
- Jericho III ICBM (Ground-to-ground ballistic)
- LAHAT (Guided anti-tank)
- Nimrod (Guided anti-tank)
- Popeye missile (Air-to-ground cruise missile. U.S. designation AGM-142 Have Nap. Possibly larger derivatives exist as well, including a submarine-launched variant)
- Python 5 (Air-to-air, also ground-to-air variant named SPYDER)
- Derby (Air-to-air, also known as the Alto)
- Shavit (Space launcher)
- Spike/Gil missile (Portable guided anti-tank of several variants including a longer a range tactical ground-to-ground/air-to-ground variant named Spike NLOS or "Tamuz")
- Aster (missile family)
- CAMM (missile family)
- Meteor (missile)
- Storm Shadow
- Vega (launcher) (Space launcher)
- AAM-1 (Type 69 Air-to-Air Missile)
- AAM-2 (Program was canceled)
- AAM-3 (Type 90 Air-to-Air Missile)
- AAM-4 (Type 99 Air-to-Air Missile)
- AAM-5 (Type 04 Air-to-Air Missile)
- AAM-5B (Development)
- ASM-1 (Type 80 Air-to-Ship Missile)
- ASM-1C (Type 91 Air-to-Ship Missile)
- ASM-2 (Type 93 Air-to-Ship Missile)
- ATM-1 (Type 64 Anti-Tank Missile)
- ATM-2 (Type 79 Anti-Landing craft and Anti-Tank Missile)
- ATM-3 (Type 87 Anti-Tank Missile)
- ATM-4 (Type 96 Multi-Purpose Missile System)
- ATM-5 (Type 01 Light Anti-Tank Missile)
- ATM-6 (Medium-Range Multi-Purpose Missile)
- SAM-1 (Type 81 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile)
- SAM-2 (Type 91 Portable Surface-to-Air Missile)
- SAM-3 (Type 93 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile)
- SAM-4 (Type 03 Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile)
- SAM-4B (Development)
- Type 11 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile
- SSM-1 (Type 88 Surface-to-Ship Missile)
- SSM-1B (Type 90 Ship-to-Ship Missile Missile)
- SM-3 Block-II/IIA (Joint development with U.S)
- Type 73 (Type 73 lightweight torpedo)
- Type 80 (Type 80 heavyweight torpedo)
- Type 89 (Type 89 heavyweight torpedo)
- Type 97 (Type 97 lightweight torpedo)
- Type 07 (Type 07 Vertical Launched ASROC)
- Ogbunigwe (Multi-purpose Missile)
Hwa song 2 missile Hwa song 1 missile
- Anza Mk.1, Mk.2 – Man-portable air-defence system (MANPADS)
- Ababeel – Medium range ballistic missile - Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle(MIRV)
- Barq – laser guided air-to-surface missile
- Baktar-Shikan – Anti-tank missile
- Babur 1 (Hatf VII) – ground-launched cruise missile(Hatf-VII)
- Babur 2 (Hatf VII) – ground-launched cruise missile(Hatf-VII)
- Babur 3 (Hatf VII) – submarine-launched cruise missile(Hatf-VII)
- Hatf-VIII (Ra'ad) – Air-launched Cruise Missile developed exclusively for launch from various Platforms.
- Ghauri I – Medium-range ballistic missile
- Shaheen I – Short-range ballistic missile
- Ghauri II – Medium-range ballistic missile
- Shaheen II – Medium-range ballistic missile
- Shaheen-III – Medium-range ballistic missile
- Ghaznavi – Short-range ballistic missile
- Hatf-I/IA – Battle-field range ballistic missile
- Abdali-I – Short-range ballistic missile
- Hatf-IX (Nasr) – Tactical ballistic missile
- Baeksangeo (White Shark) heavyweight torpedo
- Cheolmae-2 (KM-SAM) mid-range surface-to-air missile
- Cheongsangeo (Blue Shark) lightweight torpedo
- Chiron surface-to-air missile
- C-Star ship-to-ship missile
- KL-SAM ground-based long-range Surface-to-Air anti-missile
- KAGM Air-to-Ground Missile
- K-BATS multi-payload tactical ballistic missile system
- K-LOGIR 2.75 inch (70 mm) missile
- Haeseong I anti-ship missile
- Haeseong II ship-to-surface cruise missile
- Haeseong III anti-ship underwater cruise missile
- Hongsangeo (Red Shark) rocket-based torpedo and anti-submarine missile (K-ASROC)
- Baekgom tactical ballistic missile
- Hyunmoo-1 tactical ballistic missile
- Hyunmoo-2A tactical ballistic missile
- Hyunmoo-2B tactical ballistic missile
- Hyunmoo-2C tactical ballistic missile
- Hyunmoo-3A tactical cruise missile
- Hyunmoo-3B tactical cruise missile
- Hyunmoo-3C tactical cruise missile
- Hyunmoo-3D/Hyunmoo-4 tactical cruise missile
- Pegasus surface-to-air missile
- K-SAAM ship-based surface-to-air anti-missile
- Hyun-Gung anti-tank missile
- K-RAM Surface-to-Air Missile
- Leaflet 130mm Ship-to-Ship guided Missile
- Tactical Flag ship-to-Surface guided missile
- KGGB GPS-guided Air-to-surface missile
The NATO reporting name of each missile is shown in parentheses behind the proper name.
- ALAS (Advanced Light Attack System) Long-range multipurpose guided missile
- RSA-1 (Variant of the Jericho II second stage for use as a mobile missile)
- RSA-2 (Variant of the Jericho II)
- RSA-3 (Variant of the Shavit)
- RSA-4 (Upper stages of the Shavit with a heavy first stage)
(Above missile prototypes made by Houwteq, none entered production)
(Above missiles made by Denel Dynamics)
- Hsiung Feng I (HF-1) (ship-to-ship)
- Hsiung Feng II (HF-2) (guided multiplatform antiship)
- Hsiung Feng IIE (HF-2E) (land attack cruise missile variant of HF-2)
- Hsiung Feng III (HF-3) (antiship and/or land attack cruise missile)
- Sky Bow I (TK-1) (SAM)
- Sky Bow II (TK-2) (SAM)
- Sky Bow III (TK-3) (SAM)
- Sky Spear (Short range SSBM)
- Sky Sword I (TC-1) (air-to-air)
- Sky Sword II (TC-2) (air-to-air)
- Yun Feng (long-range cruise missile)
- Bora missile
- HGK (bomb)
- Roketsan Cirit
- SOM (missile)
- J-600T Yıldırım
- AIM-132 ASRAAM
- Bloodhound Surface-to-air
- Blowpipe Man portable Surface-to-air
- Blue Steel Nuclear "Stand Off Bomb"
- Blue Streak
- Blue Water – surface to surface nuclear
- Brakemine WWII SAM project
- Fairey Fireflash Air-to-air
- Fairey Stooge anti-ship missile
- Fire Shadow
- Firestreak Air-to-air
- Green Cheese
- Javelin Surface-to-air
- Malkara (joint Australian/British)
- MBDA Meteor (European)
- Rapier Surface-to-air
- Red Dean
- Red Hebe
- Red Top Air-to-air
- Sea Cat Surface-to-air
- Sea Dart Surface-to-air
- Sea Eagle
- Sea Skua
- Sea Slug Surface-to-air
- Sea Viper (Aster Missile) Surface-to-air
- Sea Wolf Surface-to-air
- Skybolt ALBM
- Storm Shadow (British-French)
- Swingfire Ground to ground, anti-tank
- UB.109T – cruise missile
- Vickers Vigilant
Missile Design Series (Unified)
US DoD 4120 Mission Design Series (MDS) Designators and Symbols for Guided Missiles, Rockets, Probes, Boosters, and Satellites.
|Status Prefix||Launch Environment||Basic Mission||Vehicle Type|
|C – Captive||A – Air||C – Transport||B – Booster|
|D – Dummy||B – Multiple||D – Decoy||M – Guided Missile|
|J – Special Test (Temporary)||C – Coffin||E – Electronic/Communications||N – Probe|
|M – Maintenance||F – Individual||G – Surface Attack||R – Rocket|
|N – Special Test (Permanent)||G – Surface||I – Aerial/Space Intercept||S – Satellite|
|X – Experimental||H – Silo Stored||L – Launch Detection/Surveillance|
|Y – Prototype||L – Silo-Launched||M – Scientific/Calibration|
|Z – Planning||M – Mobile||N – Navigation|
|P – Soft Pad||Q – Drone|
|R – Ship||S – Space Support|
|S – Space||T – Training|
|U – Underwater||U – Underwater Attack|
|W – Weather|
Sample Missile MDS – "BGM-109G"
|Launch Environment||Multiple||– B|
|Basic Mission||Surface Attack||– G|
|Vehicle Type||Guided Missile||– M|
|Design Number||109th Missile Design||– 109|
|Series||7th Version of the Design||– G|
The list of U. S. missiles, sorted by ascending MDS number:
Joint Designation System of 1947
|Status Prefix||Launch Environment||Target Environment||System Designation||Developing Service||Sequence Number||Modification Suffix|
|R – Research||A – Air||A – Air||M – Missile||A – Air Force|
|T – Training||S – Surface||S – Surface||G – Army|
|X – Experimental||U – Underwater||U – Underwater||N – Navy|
|Y – Service Test|
Test Vehicle Designations
|Basic Mission||System Designation||Developing Service||Sequence Number||Modification Suffix|
|C – Control||TV – Test Vehicle||A – Air Force|
|L – Launching||G – Army|
|P – Propulsion||N – Navy|
|R – Research|
Air Force: Consecutive numerical sequence for each missile mission type.
Army: Single numerical sequence until 1948 when the sequence numbers were restarted.
Navy: Initially even numbers transitioning to sequential.
Sample Vehicle Designation "SSM-A-2 Navaho"
|Launch Environment||S – Surface||S|
|Target Environment||S – Surface||S|
|System Designation||M – Missile||M|
|Developing Service||A – Air Force||A|
|Sequence Number||Sequential Number||2|
|Modification Suffix||Not Used|
Sample Test Vehicle Designation "RTV-G-1 WAC Corporal"
|System Designation||TV – Test Vehicle||TV|
|Developing Service||G – Army||G|
|Modification Suffix||Not Used|
United States Air Force Designation Systems
United States Air Force Designation System, 1947–1951
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Air Force 1947–1951 designations.
United States Air Force Designation System, 1951–1955
During this timeframe, the U.S. Air Force treated missiles as pilotless aircraft.
|Basic Mission||Sequence Number||Modification Series|
|B – Bomber "Ground Attack Missile"|
|F – Fighter "Anti-Aircraft Missile"|
|X – Experimental|
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Air Force 1951–1955 designations.
1A version of the Falcon missile was briefly designated the F-104 before it was re-designated as the F-98.
2The X-11 and X-12 designations were assigned to one and three engine test missiles that would have been used to develop a five engine version of the Atlas missile.
United States Air Force Designation System, 1955–1963
|Status Prefix||Basic Mission||Sequence Number||Modification Series|
|H – Hardened||GAM – Guided Air-Launched Missile|
|R – Reconnaissance||GAR – Guided Air-Launched Rocket|
|S – Space||IM – Intercept Missile|
|T – Training||RM – Research Missile|
|U – Training||SM – Strategic Missile|
|X – Experimental||TM – Tactical Missile|
|Y – Service Test|
For all basic missions except GAR (which started at 1) the sequence number started after 67 which was the last bomber designation used for guided missiles.
Sample Air Force 1955–1963 designation: "XSM-73"
|Basic Mission||Strategic Missile||SM|
|Sequence Number||6th non-GAR missile after 67||73|
|Modification Series||Not Used|
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Air Force 1955–1963 designations.
United States Navy Designation System 1941 – 1945
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Navy 1941 – 1945 designations.
|Pre-Fix||Basic Mission||Manufacturer Code|
|X – Experimental||BD – Assault Drone||D – McDonnell|
|LB – Bomb Carrying Glider||E – Pratt-Read|
|TD – Target Drone||P – Piper|
|T – Taylorcraft|
United States Navy Designation System 1946 – 1947
|Basic Mission||Manufacturer Sequence Number||Manufacturer Code|
|KA – Anti-Aircraft||None – First Missile Constructed by Manufacturer||D – McDonnell|
|KD – Drone||2 – Second Missile Constructed by Manufacturer||M – Martin|
|KG – Ground Attack||3 – 3rd Missile Constructed by Manufacturer||N – Naval Air Material Unit|
|KS – Anti-Ship||Q – Fairchild|
|KU – Research and Test||S – Sperry|
|Y – Convair|
|W – Willys-Overland|
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Navy 1946–1947 designations.
United States Navy Designation System 1947 – 1963
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Navy 1947–1963 designations.
United States Army Designation Systems
United States Army Designation System 1941 – 1947
|Designation||Function||Period of Usage|
|BG – Bomb Glider||Glider with explosive warhead||1942 to 1944|
|BQ – Guided Bomb||Ground-launched remote controlled drone||1942 to 1945|
|GB – Glide Bomb||Guided Bomb||1941 to 1947|
|GT – Glide Torpedo||Guided Bomb with a torpedo||1943 to 1947|
|JB – Jet Bomb||Missile||1943 to 1947|
|VB – Vertical Bomb||Guided Bomb||1943 to 1947|
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Army 1941–1947 designations.
- JB-1 Bat
- JB-2 Doodle Bug
- JB-3 Tiamet
- JB-4 Project MX-607
- JB-5 Project MX-595
- JB-6 Project MX-600
- JB-7 Project MX-605
- JB-8 GAPA
- JB-9 Project MX-626
- JB-10 Bat
United States Army Designation System 1948 – 1955
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Army 1948 – 1955 designations.
United States Army Designation System 1955 – 1963
|Prefix||Army Ordnance Designator||Equipment Category Sequence Number||Modification Suffix|
|X – Pre Production||M – Ordnance Designator|
The list of missiles sorted by ascending Army 1955–1963 designations.
- M1 Nike-Ajax
- M2 Corporal
- M3 Hawk
- M4 Lacrosse
- M6 Nike-Hercules
- M8 Redstone
- M9 Redstone
- M13 Shillelagh
- XM14 Pershing
- M15 Sergeant
- M16 Hawk
- M18 Hawk
- XM19 Pershing
- M50 Honest John
United States Undesignated Missiles
The list of undesignated United States missiles sorted alphabetically:
1Australian target missile briefly used by the United States Navy.
2The United States procured Rapier missile systems for the air defense of United States Air Force Bases in the United Kingdom.
United States Missiles with X Designations
The list of X designated United States missiles numerically:
- "List of important Missiles of India for IBPS SBI SSC and all other Competitive Exams 2015 | Bank4Study". www.bank4study.com. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview".
- "Eurosatory 2016: South Korea's Hanwha reveals ballistic target system – IHS Jane's 360". janes.com. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Pike, John. "L-SAM Long-range Surface-to-Air Missile". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "Ship-Launched/Air-Launched Guided Missiles > Precision Guided Missile > Business Areas > LIG Nex1". lignex1.com. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "Europe | Russia tests long-range missile". BBC News. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
- "RSA-1". astronautix.com. 2007-10-20.
- "RSA-2". astronautix.com. 2007-10-20.
- "RSA-3". astronautix.com. 2007-10-20.
- "RSA-4". astronautix.com. 2007-10-20.
- Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L), DoD 4120.15-L Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles, Department of Defense, May 12, 2004
- Bridges Derek. (2007) M-Missiles, , retrieved December 25, 2007
- Andreas Parsch, Pre-1963 Designations of U.S. Missile and Drones, , Retrieved November 17, 2007.
- Andreas Parsch, Pre-1963 Designations of U.S. Missile and Drones, , Retrieved November 13, 2007.
- Missile's Mission: Picking Off The Strays, October 1950, Popular Science detailed article