List of missions to Mars
This is a list of the 49 spacecraft missions (including unsuccessful ones) relating to the planet Mars, such as orbiters and rovers.
- Mission Type Legend
- Mission to MarsGravity assist, destination elsewhere
|Mission||Spacecraft||Launch Date||Operator||Mission Type||Outcome||Remarks||Carrier rocket|
|1M No.1||1M No.1||10 October 1960||OKB-1
|Flyby||Launch failure||Failed to achieve Earth orbit||Molniya|
|1M No.2||1M No.2||14 October 1960||OKB-1
|Flyby||Launch failure||Failed to achieve Earth orbit||Molniya|
|2MV-4 No.1||2MV-4 No.1||24 October 1962||Soviet Union||Flyby||Launch failure||Booster stage ("Block L") disintegrated in LEO||Molniya|
|Mars 1||Mars 1
|1 November 1962||Soviet Union||Flyby||Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before flyby||Molniya|
|2MV-3 No.1||2MV-3 No.1||4 November 1962||Soviet Union||Lander||Launch failure||Never left LEO||Molniya|
|Mariner 3||Mariner 3||5 November 1964||NASA
|Flyby||Launch failure||Payload fairing failed to separate||Atlas LV-3 Agena-D|
|Mariner 4||Mariner 4||28 November 1964||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||First flyby of Mars on 15 July 1965||Atlas LV-3 Agena-D|
|Zond 2||Zond 2
|30 November 1964||Soviet Union||Flyby||Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before flyby||Molniya|
|Mariner 6||Mariner 6||25 February 1969||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|2M No.521||2M No.521
|27 March 1969||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to achieve Earth orbit||Proton-K/D|
|Mariner 7||Mariner 7||27 March 1969||NASA
|Flyby||Successful||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|2M No.522||2M No.522
|2 April 1969||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to achieve Earth orbit||Proton-K/D|
|Mariner 8||Mariner 8||9 May 1971||NASA
|Orbiter||Launch failure||Failed to achieve Earth orbit||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|Kosmos 419||Kosmos 419
|10 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Launch failure||Never left LEO; booster stage burn timer set incorrectly||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 2||Mars 2
|19 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Successful||Second spacecraft to orbit another planet. Entered orbit on 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171)
|Lander||Spacecraft failure||First lander to impact Mars. Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971.|
Lost with Mars 2
|First rover to impact Mars. Lost when the Mars 2 lander crashed into the surface of Mars.|
|Mars 3||Mars 3
|28 May 1971||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Successful||Third spacecraft to orbit another planet. Entered orbit on 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172)
|Lander||Partial success||First lander to make a soft landing on Mars. Landed on 2 December 1971. First partial image (70 lines) transmitted showing "gray background with no details". Contact lost 20 seconds after transmission started, 110 seconds after landing.|
|Prop-M||Rover||Carrier vehicle failed before rover was deployed||First rover to make a soft landing on another planet. 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) rover connected to the Mars 3 lander by a tether. Deployment status unknown due to loss of communications with the Mars 3 lander.|
|Mariner 9||Mariner 9||30 May 1971||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||First spacecraft to orbit another planet. Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit.||Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D|
|Mars 4||Mars 4
|21 July 1973||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Partial success||Failed to perform orbital insertion burn. Returned photographs of Mars during flyby.||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 5||Mars 5
|25 July 1973||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Successful||Contact lost after 9 days in Mars orbit. returned 180 frames||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 6||Mars 6
|5 August 1973||Soviet Union||Flyby||Successful||Flyby bus collected data.||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 6 lander||Lander||Spacecraft failure||Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unusable.|
|Mars 7||Mars 7
|9 August 1973||Soviet Union||Flyby||Successful||Flyby bus collected data.||Proton-K/D|
|Mars 7 lander||Lander||Spacecraft failure||Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere.|
|Viking 1||Viking 1 orbiter||20 August 1975||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for 1385 orbits. Entered Mars orbit on 19 June 1976.||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|Viking 1 lander||Lander||Successful||First successful Mars lander. Deployed from Viking 1 orbiter. Landed on Mars in 20 July 1976. Operated for 2245 sols.|
|Viking 2||Viking 2 orbiter||9 September 1975||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for 700 orbits. Entered Mars orbit on 7 August 1976.||Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T|
|Viking 2 lander||Lander||Successful||Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter. Landed on Mars on September 1976. Operated for 1281 sols (11 April 1980).|
|Phobos 1||Phobos 1
|7 July 1988||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit||Proton-K/D-2|
Lost with Phobos 1
|To have been deployed by Phobos 1|
|Phobos 2||Phobos 2
|12 July 1988||Soviet Union||Orbiter||Mostly successful||Orbital observations successful, communications lost before lander deployment.||Proton-K/D-2|
Lost with Phobos 2
|To have been deployed by Phobos 2|
Lost with Phobos 2
|To have been deployed by Phobos 2|
|Mars Observer||Mars Observer||25 September 1992||NASA
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Lost communications before orbital insertion||Commercial Titan III|
|Mars Global Surveyor||Mars Global Surveyor||7 November 1996||NASA
|Orbiter||Successful||Operated for seven years||Delta II 7925|
|Mars 96||Mars 96
|16 November 1996||Rosaviakosmos
|Spacecraft failure||Never left LEO||Proton-K/D-2|
|Mars 96 lander||Lander||Failure
Lost with Mars 96
|Two Mars landers to have been deployed by Mars 96.|
|Mars 96 lander||Lander||Failure|
Lost with Mars 96
|Mars 96 penetrator||Penetrator||Failure
Lost with Mars 96
|Two Mars Penetrators to have been deployed by Mars 96.|
|Mars 96 penetrator||Penetrator||Failure|
Lost with Mars 96
|Mars Pathfinder||Mars Pathfinder||4 December 1996||NASA
|Lander||Successful||Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997, Last contact on 27 September 1997||Delta II 7925|
|Sojourner||Rover||Successful||First rover to operate on another planet. Operated for 84 days|
|3 July 1998||ISAS
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Performed a Mars flyby. Later contact lost due to loss of fuel.||M-V|
|Mars Climate Orbiter||Mars Climate Orbiter||11 December 1998||NASA
|Orbiter||Spacecraft failure||Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to a software interface bug involving different units for impulse and burned up in the atmosphere||Delta II 7425|
|Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2||Mars Polar Lander||3 January 1999||NASA
|Lander||Spacecraft failure||Failed to land||Delta II 7425|
|Deep Space 2||Penetrator||Spacecraft failure||No data transmitted after deployment from MPL.|
|Deep Space 2||Penetrator||Spacecraft failure|
|Mars Odyssey||Mars Odyssey||7 April 2001||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Expected to remain operational until 2025.||Delta II 7925|
|Mars Express||Mars Express||2 June 2003||ESA
||Orbiter||Operational||Enough fuel to remain operational until 2035||Soyuz-FG/Fregat|
|Beagle 2||ESA||Lander||Lander failure||No communications received after release from Mars Express. Orbital images of landing site suggest a successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications.|
|10 June 2003||NASA
|Rover||Successful||Landed on 4 January 2004.
Operated for 2208 sols
|Delta II 7925|
|8 July 2003||NASA
|Rover||Successful||Landed on 25 January 2004.
Operated for 5351 sols
|Delta II 7925H|
|Rosetta||Rosetta||2 March 2004||ESA
|Successful||Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko||Ariane 5G+|
|Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter||Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter||12 August 2005||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 10 March 2006||Atlas V 401|
|Phoenix||Phoenix||4 August 2007||NASA
|Lander||Successful||Landed on 25 May 2008.
End of mission 2 November 2008
|Delta II 7925|
|Dawn||Dawn||27 September 2007||NASA
|Successful||Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres||Delta II 7925H|
|Fobos-Grunt/Yinghuo-1||Fobos-Grunt||8 November 2011||Roskosmos
Phobos sample return
|Spacecraft failure||Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power)||Zenit-2M|
Lost with Fobos-Grunt
|To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt|
|Mars Science Laboratory||Curiosity
(Mars Science Laboratory)
|26 November 2011||NASA
|Rover||Operational||Landed on 6 August 2012||Atlas V 541|
|Mars Orbiter Mission||Mars Orbiter Mission
|5 November 2013||ISRO
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended to 2022.||PSLV-XL|
|MAVEN||MAVEN||18 November 2013||NASA
|Orbiter||Operational||Orbit insertion on 22 September 2014||Atlas V 401|
|ExoMars 2016||ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter||14 March 2016||ESA/Roscosmos
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 19 October 2016||Proton-M/Briz-M|
|Schiaparelli EDM lander||ESA
||Lander||Spacecraft failure||Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Although the lander crashed, engineering data on the first five minutes of entry was successfully retrieved.|
|InSight||InSight||5 May 2018||NASA
|Lander||Operational||Landed on 26 November 2018.||Atlas V 401|
|MarCO A||Flyby||Successful||Flyby 26 November 2018. Last contact 29 December 2018.|
|MarCO B||Flyby||Successful||Flyby 26 November 2018. Last contact 4 January 2019.|
|Emirates Mars Mission||Hope||19 July 2020||MBRSC
United Arab Emirates
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 9 February 2021.||H-IIA|
|Tianwen-1||Tianwen-1 orbiter||23 July 2020||CNSA
|Orbiter||Operational||Entered orbit on 10 February 2021||Long March 5|
|Tianwen-1 lander||Lander||Success||Landed on 14 May 2021|
|Zhurong rover||Rover||Operational||Landed on 14 May 2021 Deployed by the Tianwen-1 lander on 22 May 2021.|
|Tianwen-1 Remote Camera||Lander||Success||Landed on 14 May 2021 Deployed by the Zhurong rover on 1st June, 2021.|
|Tianwen-1 deployable camera 2||Orbiter||Success||Entered orbit on 10 February 2021, deployed 31 December 2021|
|Mars 2020||Perseverance||30 July 2020||NASA
|Rover||Operational||Landed on 18 February 2021||Atlas V 541|
|Ingenuity||Helicopter||Operational||First aerodynamic flight on another planet. Landed with Perseverance rover on 18 February 2021. Deployed from rover on 3 April 2021. First flight achieved on April 19, 2021.|
Mars landing locations
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.  There should be 8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if they have not decayed as of 2016. One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface. The Viking 1 orbiter is predicted not to decay until at least 2019. One orbiter that is confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.
|August 2022||2023 Flyby en route to 16 Psyche|
|ExoMars 2022||SRI RAS
|Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)||JAXA
|Escape and Plasma Acceleration and Dynamics Explorer mission (ESCAPADE)
Photon Blue and Gold
|October 2024||2 Orbiters|
|Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (Mangalyaan 2)||ISRO
|2025||2027 flyby en route to 311P/PANSTARRS|
Missions to the moons of Mars
Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.
There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN. The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.
|Aladdin||Phobos and Deimos|||
|DePhine||Phobos and Deimos|||
|Hall||Phobos and Deimos|||
|M-PADS||Phobos and Deimos|||
|Merlin||Phobos and Deimos|||
|MMSR (2011 ver.)||Phobos or Deimos|||
|OSRIS-REx 2||Phobos or Deimos|||
|Pandora||Phobos and Deimos|||
|PADME||Phobos and Deimos|||
In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission to Phobos, due to launch in 2024. This mission is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission. MMX will build on the expertise the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa2 and SLIM missions. As of January 2018, MMX is set for launch in September 2024.
|Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)||Phobos and Deimos|||
Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.
Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.
Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double mission, with the other one collecting samples from the two Mars moons. In 2012, it was stated that this mission would be both the quickest and least expensive way to get samples from the Moons.
- Mars 4NM and Mars 5NM – projects intended by the Soviet Union for heavy Marsokhod (in 1973 according to initial plan of 1970) and Mars sample return (planned for 1975). The missions were to be launched on the failed N1 rocket.
- Mars 5M (Mars-79) – double-launching Soviet sample return mission planned to 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems
- Voyager-Mars – USA, 1970s – Two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket.
- Vesta – the multiaimed Soviet mission, developed in cooperation with European countries for realisation in 1991–1994 but canceled due to the Soviet Union disbanding, included the flyby of Mars with delivering the aerostat and small landers or penetrators followed by flybys of 1 Ceres or 4 Vesta and some other asteroids with impact of penetrator on the one of them.
- Mars Aerostat – Russian/French balloon part for cancelled Vesta mission and then for failed Mars 96 mission, originally planned for the 1992 launch window, postponed to 1994 and then to 1996 before being cancelled.
- Mars Together, combined U.S. and Russian mission study in the 1990s. To be launched by a Molinya with possible U.S. orbiter or lander.
- Mars Environmental Survey – set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009
- Mars-98 – Russian mission including an orbiter, lander, and rover, planned for 1998 launch opportunity as repeat of failed Mars 96 mission; cancelled due to lack of funding
- Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander – October 2001 – Mars lander (refurbished, became Phoenix lander)
- Kitty Hawk – Mars airplane micromission, proposed for 17 December 2003, the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight. Its funding was eventually given to the 2003 Mars Network project.
- NetLander – 2007 or 2009 – Mars netlanders
- Beagle 3 – 2009 British lander mission meant to search for life, past or present.[clarification needed]
- Mars Telecommunications Orbiter – September 2009 – Mars orbiter for telecommunications
- Sky-Sailor – 2014 – Plane developed by Switzerland to take detailed pictures of Mars surface
- Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher – 2018 rover concept, cancelled due to budget cuts in 2011. Sample cache goal later moved to Mars 2020 rover.
- Red Dragon – Derivative of a Dragon 2 capsule by SpaceX, designed to land by aerobraking and retropropulsion. Planned for 2018, then 2020. Canceled in favor of the Starship system.
- Tumbleweed rover, wind-propelled sphere
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It was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around another world.
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