List of missions to Mars

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Launches to Mars
Decade
1960s
12
1970s
11
1980s
2
1990s
7
2000s
8
2010s
6
2020s
3

This is a list of the 49 (and counting) spacecraft missions relating to the planet Mars, such as orbiters and rovers.

Missions[edit]

Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission[1] Outcome[2] Remarks Carrier rocket[3]
1M No.1 10 October 1960 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
1M No.2 14 October 1960 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
2MV-4 No.1 24 October 1962  Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Booster stage ("Block L") disintegrated in LEO Molniya
Mars 1
(2MV-4 No.2)
1 November 1962  Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
2MV-3 No.1 4 November 1962  Soviet Union Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya
Mariner 3 5 November 1964 NASA
 United States
Flyby Launch failure Payload fairing failed to separate Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Mariner 4 28 November 1964 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful The first flyby of Mars on 15 July 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Zond 2
(3MV-4A No.2)
30 November 1964  Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
Mariner 6 25 February 1969 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.521

(1969A)[4]

27 March 1969  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 7 27 March 1969 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.522

(1969B)[4]

2 April 1969  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 8 9 May 1971 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Kosmos 419
(3MS No.170)
10 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Never left LEO; booster stage burn timer set incorrectly Proton-K/D
Mars 2
(4M No.171)
19 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits[5] Proton-K/D
Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171)
19 May 1971  Soviet Union Lander Spacecraft failure Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971 Proton-K/D
Mars 3
(4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits[6][7] Proton-K/D
Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Lander Successful[8] The first lander on Mars, soft landed on 2 December 1971. The first partial image (70 lines) was transmitted. Contact lost 14.5 seconds after transmission start. Proton-K/D
Prop-M Rover rover
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Rover Partial failure Deployment is unknown, due to communication problem because of storm Proton-K/D
Mariner 9 30 May 1971 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful[9] The first orbiter of Mars. Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Mars 4
(3MS No.52S)
21 July 1973  Soviet Union Orbiter Spacecraft failure Failed to perform orbital insertion burn Proton-K/D
Mars 5
(3MS No.53S)
25 July 1973  Soviet Union Orbiter Partial failure Failed after 9 days in Mars orbit; returned 180 frames Proton-K/D
Mars 6
(3MP No.50P)
5 August 1973  Soviet Union Lander
Flyby
Spacecraft failure Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unreadable. Flyby bus collected data.[10] Proton-K/D
Mars 7
(3MP No.51P)
9 August 1973  Soviet Union Lander
Flyby
Spacecraft failure Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere Proton-K/D
Viking 1 orbiter 20 August 1975 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for 1385 orbits. Entered Mars orbit in 1976 June 19. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 1 lander 20 August 1975 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful The second lander successfully returning data, deployed from Viking 1 orbiter. Operated for 2245 sols. Landed on Mars in 1976 July 20. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 orbiter 9 September 1975 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for 700 orbits. Entered Mars orbit in 1976 August 7. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 lander 9 September 1975 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter, operated for 1281 sols (11 Apr 1980). Landed on Mars in 1976 September 3. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Phobos 1
(1F No.101)
7 July 1988  Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
Spacecraft failure Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit Proton-K/D-2
Phobos 2
(1F No.102)
12 July 1988  Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
Partial failure Orbital observations successful, communications lost before landing Proton-K/D-2
Mars Observer 25 September 1992 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Lost communications before orbital insertion Commercial Titan III
Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for seven years Delta II 7925
Mars 96
(M1 No.520)(Mars-8)[4]
16 November 1996 Rosaviakosmos
 Russia
Orbiter
Penetrators
Launch failure Never left LEO Proton-K/D-2
Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997,[11] Last contact on 27 September 1997 Delta II 7925
Sojourner 4 December 1996 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful The first rover on another planet, operated for 84 days[12] Delta II 7925
Nozomi
(PLANET-B)
3 July 1998 ISAS
 Japan
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Ran out of fuel before reaching Mars M-V
Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to a software interface bug involving different units for impulse and burned up in the atmosphere Delta II 7425
Mars Polar Lander 3 January 1999 NASA
 United States
Lander Spacecraft failure Failed to land Delta II 7425
Deep Space 2 3 January 1999 NASA
 United States
Penetrator Spacecraft failure Deployed from MPL, no data returned Delta II 7425
Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Expected to remain operational until 2025. Delta II 7925
Mars Express 2 June 2003 ESA
 European Union
Orbiter Operational Enough fuel to remain operational until 2026. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Beagle 2 2 June 2003 ESA

 United Kingdom

Lander Lander failure No communications received after release from Mars Express. Orbital images of landing site suggest a successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Spirit
(MER-A)
10 June 2003 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful Landed on 4 January 2004.
Operated for 2208 sols
Delta II 7925
Opportunity
(MER-B)
8 July 2003 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful Landed on 25 January 2004.
Operated for 5351 sols
Delta II 7925H
Rosetta 2 March 2004 ESA
 European Union
Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[13] Ariane 5G+
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 12 August 2005 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on 10 March 2006 Atlas V 401
Phoenix 4 August 2007 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Landed on 25 May 2008.
End of mission 2 November 2008
Delta II 7925
Dawn 27 September 2007 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres Delta II 7925H
Fobos-Grunt 8 November 2011 Roskosmos
 Russia
Orbiter
Phobos sample
Spacecraft failure Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power) Zenit-2M
Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 CNSA
 China
Orbiter Failure
Lost with Fobos-Grunt
To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt Zenit-2M
Curiosity
(Mars Science Laboratory)
26 November 2011 NASA
 United States
Rover Operational Landed on 6 August 2012 Atlas V 541
Mars Orbiter Mission
(Mangalyaan)
5 November 2013 ISRO
 India
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended till 2020.[14] PSLV-XL
MAVEN 18 November 2013 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Orbit insertion on 22 September 2014[15] Atlas V 401
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter 14 March 2016 ESA/Roscosmos
 European Union/ Russia
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on 19 October 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M
Schiaparelli EDM lander 14 March 2016 ESA
 European Union
Lander Spacecraft failure Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Although the lander crashed,[16][17] engineering data on the first five minutes of entry was successfully retrieved.[18][19] Proton-M/Briz-M
InSight 5 May 2018[20][21] NASA
 United States
Lander Operational Landed on 26 November 2018. Atlas V 401
MarCO 5 May 2018[20][21][22] NASA
 United States
Two CubeSats flyby supporting InSight Successful Flyby 26 November 2018. Last contact Feb 2019 Atlas V 401
Emirates Mars Mission 19 July 2020[23] MBRSC
 United Arab Emirates
Orbiter En route Arrives February 2021. H-IIA
Tianwen-1 orbiter 23 July 2020[24] CNSA
 China
Orbiter En route Proposed orbit insertion: 11-24 February 2021 Long March 5
Tianwen-1 lander/rover 23 July 2020[24] CNSA
 China
Lander/rover En route Proposed landing: 23 April 2021 Long March 5
Tianwen-1 deployable camera[25] 23 July 2020[24] CNSA
 China
Imager (flyby) Successful Photographed the Tianwen-1 spacecraft while en route to Mars. Will flyby mars. Deployed from Tianwen-1 Long March 5
Perseverance rover 30 July 2020[26] NASA
 United States
Rover En route Proposed landing: 18 February 2021[27] Atlas V 541
Ingenuity helicopter 30 July 2020[28] NASA
 United States
Helicopter En route Proposed landing: 18 February 2021[28] To be deployed from the Perseverance rover. Atlas V 541

Mars landing locations[edit]

Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe TerraMap of Mars
The image above contains clickable linksInteractive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers. Hover your mouse over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(   Active Rover  Active Lander  Future )
Beagle 2
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Columbia Memorial Station
InSight Landing
Mars 2020
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Challenger Memorial Station
Green Valley
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Columbia Memorial Station
Tianwen-1
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station
Mars Landing Sites (16 December 2020]

There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [29] There should be 8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if they have not decayed as of 2016.[30] One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface.[31] The Viking 1 orbiter is predicted not to decay until at least 2019.[32] One orbiter that is confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.

Timeline[edit]

Perseverance (rover)Tianwen-1InSightCuriosity (rover)Phoenix (spacecraft)Opportunity (rover)Spirit (rover)Mars PathfinderViking 2Viking 1Mars 3

Future missions[edit]

In development[edit]

Mission Organization Launch Type
ExoMars 2022 ESA
 European Union
SRI RAS
 Russia
2022[33][34] Lander, rover
Mars Terahertz Microsatellite[35] NICT, ISSL
 Japan
2022[36] Orbiter, lander
Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (Mangalyaan 2) ISRO
 India
2024[37][38] Orbiter and possibly a lander
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) JAXA
 Japan
2024[39][40] Orbiter
Psyche NASA
 United States
2023 Flyby En route to 16 Psyche
Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer ESA
 European Union
2025 Flyby En route to Jupiter

Proposals[edit]

Mission Organisation Proposed
launch
Type
MELOS rover JAXA
 Japan
2022 Rover and aircraft
Next Mars Orbiter (NeMO) NASA
 United States
2022[41] Telecomm orbiter[42] (originally proposed for 2022)
Starship Demo mission SpaceX
 United States
2022 Lander, cargo[43]
Biological Oxidant and Life Detection (BOLD) Washington State University
 United States
2022 Landing probes and Impactors
Mars-Grunt Roscosmos
 Russia
2024 Orbiter, lander, ascent vehicle, sample-return
Starship Crewed mission SpaceX
 United States
2024 or 2026 Lander, cargo, crew[44]
Icebreaker Life NASA
 United States
2026 Lander
Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer (DePhine) ESA
 European Union
2030 Orbiter and moon flybys
Mars MetNet FMI
 Finland
IKI
 Russia
INTA
 Spain
TBD Impactors
Mars Geyser Hopper NASA
 United States
TBD Hopper
Mars Micro Orbiter (MMO) NASA
 United States
? Orbiter
Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment NASA
 United States
? Orbiter
Mars Exploration Ice Mapper NASA
 United States
Canadian Space Agency
 Canada
2026 Orbiter

Missions to the moons of Mars[edit]

Deimos (lower left) and Phobos (lower right) compared with the asteroid 951 Gaspra
Phobos by Mars Global Surveyor in 1998[45]

Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the Moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.

There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN.[46] The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.[47]

Proposal Target Reference
Aladdin Phobos and Deimos [48]
DePhine Phobos and Deimos [49]
DSR Deimos [50]
Gulliver Deimos [51]
Hall Phobos and Deimos [52]
M-PADS Phobos and Deimos [53]
Merlin Phobos and Deimos [54]
MMSR (2011 ver.) Phobos or Deimos [47]
OSRIS-REx 2 Phobos or Deimos [55]
Pandora Phobos and Deimos [46]
PCROSS Phobos [56]
Phobos Surveyor Phobos [57]
PRIME Phobos [58]
Fobos-Grunt 2 Phobos [59]
Phootprint Phobos [60][61]
PADME Phobos and Deimos [62][63]

In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission to Phobos,[64][65] due to launch in 2024. This mission is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)[66] and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission.[67] MMX will build on the expertise the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa2 and SLIM missions.[68] As of January 2018, MMX is set for launch in September 2024.[69]

Planned mission Target Reference
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) Phobos and Deimos [66]

Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.

Launched mission Target Reference
Phobos 1 Phobos
Phobos 2 Phobos
Fobos-Grunt Phobos

Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.

Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double mission, with the other one collecting samples from the two Mars moons.[70] In 2012, it was stated that this mission would be the both quickest and least expensive way to get samples from the Moons.[71]

The 'Red Rocks Project', a part of Lockheed Martin's "Stepping stones to Mars" program, proposed to explore Mars robotically from Deimos.[72][73]

Undeveloped concepts[edit]

examples only

1970s[edit]

  • Mars 4NM and Mars 5NM – projects intended by the Soviet Union for heavy Marsokhod (in 1973 according to initial plan of 1970) and Mars sample return (planned for 1975). The missions were to be launched on the failed N1 rocket.[74]
  • Mars 5M (Mars-79) – double-launching Soviet sample return mission planned to 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems
  • Voyager-Mars – USA, 1970s – Two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket.

1990s[edit]

  • Vesta – the multiaimed Soviet mission, developed in cooperation with European countries for realisation in 1991–1994 but canceled due to the Soviet Union disbanding, included the flyby of Mars with delivering the aerostat and small landers or penetrators followed by flybys of 1 Ceres or 4 Vesta and some other asteroids with impact of penetrator on the one of them.
  • Mars Aerostat – Russian/French balloon part for cancelled Vesta mission and then for failed Mars 96 mission,[75] originally planned for the 1992 launch window, postponed to 1994 and then to 1996 before being cancelled.[76]
  • Mars Together, combined U.S. and Russian mission study in the 1990s. To be launched by a Molinya with possible U.S. orbiter or lander.[77][78]
  • Mars Environmental Survey – set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009
  • Mars-98 – Russian mission including an orbiter, lander, and rover, planned for 1998 launch opportunity as repeat of failured Mars 96 mission and cancelled due to lack of funding

2000s[edit]

  • Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander – October 2001 – Mars lander (refurbished, became Phoenix lander)
  • Kitty Hawk – Mars airplane micromission, proposed for 17 December 2003, the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight.[79] Its funding was eventually given to the 2003 Mars Network project.[80]
  • NetLander – 2007 or 2009 – Mars netlanders
  • Beagle 3 – 2009 British lander mission meant to search for life, past or present.
  • Mars Telecommunications Orbiter – September 2009 – Mars orbiter for telecommunications

2010s[edit]

  • Sky-Sailor – 2014 – Plane developed by Switzerland to take detailed pictures of Mars surface
  • Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher – 2018 rover concept, cancelled due to budget cuts in 2011. Sample cache goal later moved to Mars 2020 rover.[81]
  • Red Dragon – Derivative of a Dragon 2 capsule by SpaceX, designed to land by aerobraking and retropropulsion. Planned for 2018, then 2020. Canceled in favor of the Starship system.
  • Tumbleweed rover, wind-propelled sphere[82]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chronology of Mars Exploration. NASA. Retrieved on 1 December 2011.
  2. ^ "Pathfinder Rover Gets Its Name".
  3. ^ Russian Space Web - Mars Missions
  4. ^ a b c "Chronology of Mars Missions". ResearchGate. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  5. ^ "Missions to Mars". The Planetary Society.
  6. ^ Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union. NASA Headquarters History Division. pp. 34–60. ISBN 0-16-058859-6.
  7. ^ Webster, Guy (11 April 2013). "NASA Mars Orbiter Images May Show 1971 Soviet Lander". NASA. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Mars 3 Lander". NASA. Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to make a successful soft landing on Mars.
  9. ^ Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. pp. 73–78. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7. It was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around another world.
  10. ^ NSSDC - Mars 6
  11. ^ "Mars Pathfinder Science Results". NASA. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  12. ^ Mars Pathfinder - Welcome to Mars - Sol 86
  13. ^ "ESA - Beautiful new images from Rosetta's approach to Mars: OSIRIS UPDATE". Esa.int. 24 February 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  14. ^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/595344/isro-mars-orbiter-mission-life.html
  15. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Neal-Jones, Nancy; Zubritsky, Elizabeth (21 September 2014). "NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit around Red Planet". NASA. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
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  18. ^ Chan, Sewell (20 October 2016). "No Signal From Mars Lander, but European Officials Declare Mission a Success". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  19. ^ Wall, Mike (21 October 2016). "ExoMars '96 Percent' Successful Despite Lander Crash: ESA". Space.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  20. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (9 March 2016). "InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
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  27. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Mars Helicopter". NASA Mars. Retrieved 30 July 2020. A technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars.
  29. ^ M. Adler, et al. – Use of MRO Optical Navigation Camera .. (2012)
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  31. ^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, 29 November 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9 Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
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  33. ^ Jones, Andrew (12 March 2020). "ExoMars rover mission delayed to late 2022". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). ESA. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
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  45. ^ [4]
  46. ^ a b MERLIN: The Creative Choices Behind a Proposal to Explore the Martian Moons (Merlin and PADME info also)
  47. ^ a b MMSR - a study for a Martian Moon Sample Return mission
  48. ^ C. Pieters, et al. - Aladdin: Phobos-Deimos Sample Return
  49. ^ DePhine: The Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer. (PDF) Jurgen Oberst, Kai Wickhusen, Konrad Willner, Klaus Gwinner, Sofya Spiridonova, Ralph Kahle, Andrew Coates, Alain Herique, Dirk Plettemeier, Marina Dıaz-Michelena, Alexander Zakharo, Yoshifumi Futaana, Martin Patzold, Pascal Rosenblatt, David J. Lawrence, Valery Lainey, Alison Gibbings, Ingo Gerth. Advances in Space Research. Volume 62, Issue 8. pp: 2220-2238. 15 October 2018. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.028
  50. ^ Small Body Sample Return to Deimos
  51. ^ Dr. Britt - The Gulliver Mission: Sample Return from Deimos
  52. ^ P. Lee, et al. - Hall: A Phobos and Deimos Sample Return Mission Archived 29 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
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