List of missions to Mars

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Mars and its moons have been a target for many spacecraft, with flyby, orbiter, lander and rover missions visiting the planet.[1][2] In addition, two spacecraft, Rosetta and Dawn, have made flybys to get gravity assists for other missions; the former en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, and the latter en route to asteroid 4 Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres. Three missions were dedicated to Phobos, but they did not achieve their goals.

Missions[edit]

Spacecraft Launch date[1] Operator Mission[1] Outcome[1] Remarks Carrier rocket[2]
1M No.1 10 October 1960 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
1M No.2 14 October 1960 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby 0Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
2MV-4 No.1 24 October 1962 Soviet Union Flyby 0Launch failure Disintegrated in LEO Molniya
Mars 1
(2MV-4 No.2)
1 November 1962 Soviet Union Flyby 1Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
2MV-3 No.1 4 November 1962 Soviet Union Lander 0Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya
Mariner 3 5 November 1964 NASA
United States
Flyby 0Launch failure Payload fairing failed to separate Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Mariner 4 28 November 1964 NASA
United States
Flyby 4Successful Closest approach at 01:00:57 UTC on 15 July 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Zond 2
(3MV-4A No.2)
30 November 1964 Soviet Union Flyby 1Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
Mariner 6 25 February 1969 NASA
United States
Flyby 4Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.521 27 March 19691 Soviet Union Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 7 27 March 19692 NASA
United States
Flyby 4Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.522 2 April 1969 Soviet Union Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 8 9 May 19712 NASA
United States
Orbiter 0Launch failure Failed to orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Kosmos 419
(3MS No.170)
10 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter 0Launch failure Never left LEO; upper stage burn timer set incorrectly Proton-K/D
Mariner 9 30 May 1971 NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful[3] Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Mars 2
(4M No.171)
19 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter 3Mostly successful Entered orbit 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits. Mapping operations unsuccessful due to dust storms on the surface[4] Proton-K/D
Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171)
19 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander 1Spacecraft failure Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971 Proton-K/D
Mars 3
(4M No.172)
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter 3Mostly successful Entered orbit 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits.[5] Mapping operations unsuccessful due to dust storms on the surface[6] Proton-K/D
Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander 2Partial failure Deployed from Mars 3; landed at 13:52 UTC on 2 December 1971 but contact lost 14.5 seconds later Proton-K/D
Prop-M Rover rover
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Rover 1Spacecraft failure Failed to deploy Proton-K/D
Mars 4
(3MS No.52S)
21 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Failed to perform orbital insertion burn Proton-K/D
Mars 5
(3MS No.53S)
25 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Failed after nine days in Mars orbit Proton-K/D
Mars 6
(3MP No.50P)
5 August 1973 Soviet Union Lander
Flyby
1Spacecraft failure Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unreadable. Flyby bus collected data.[7] Proton-K/D
Mars 7
(3MP No.51P)
9 August 1973 Soviet Union Lander
Flyby
1Spacecraft failure Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere Proton-K/D
Viking 1 orbiter 20 August 1975 NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Operated for 1385 orbits Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 1 lander 20 August 1975 NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Deployed from Viking 1 orbiter, operated for 2245 sols Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 orbiter 9 September 1975 NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Operated for 700 orbits Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 lander 9 September 1975 NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter, operated for 1281 sols Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Fobos 1
(1F No.101)
7 July 1988 Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
1Spacecraft failure Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit Proton-K/D-2
Fobos 2
(1F No.102)
7 July 1988 Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
2Partial failure Orbital observations successful, communications lost before landing Proton-K/D-2
Mars Observer 25 September 1992 NASA
United States
Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Lost communications before orbital insertion Commercial Titan III
Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 NASA
United States
Orbiter 4Successful Operated for seven years Delta II 7925
Mars 96
(M1 No.520)
16 November 1996 Rosaviakosmos
Russia
Orbiter
Penetrators
0Launch failure Never left LEO Proton-K/D-2
Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997[8] Delta II 7925
Sojourner 4 December 1996 NASA
United States
Rover 4Successful Operated for 84 days[9] Delta II 7925
Nozomi
(PLANET-B)
3 July 1998 ISAS
Japan
Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Ran out of fuel before reaching Mars M-V
Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 NASA
United States
Orbiter 1Spacecraft failure Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to unit conversion error and burned up in the atmosphere Delta II 7425
Mars Polar Lander 3 January 1999 NASA
United States
Lander 1Spacecraft failure Failed to land Delta II 7425
Deep Space 2 3 January 1999 NASA
United States
Penetrators 1Spacecraft failure Deployed from MPL, no data returned Delta II 7425
Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational Expected to remain operational until 2025. Delta II 7925
Mars Express 2 June 2003 ESA
Europe
Orbiter 5Operational Enough fuel to remain operational until 2026. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Beagle 2 2 June 2003 ESA
Europe
Lander 1Lander failure Deployed from Mars Express. Successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Spirit
(MER-A)
10 June 2003 NASA
United States
Lander/RoverRover 4Successful operated for 2208 sols Delta II 7925
Opportunity
(MER-B)
8 July 2003 NASA
United States
Lander/RoverRover 5Operational Delta II 7925H
Rosetta 2 March 2004 ESA
Europe
Gravity assist 4Successful Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[10] Ariane 5G+
MRO 12 August 2005 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational Atlas V 401
Phoenix 4 August 2007 NASA
United States
Lander 4Successful Delta II 7925
Dawn 27 September 2007 NASA
United States
Gravity assist 4Successful Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres Delta II 7925H
Fobos-Grunt 8 November 2011 Roskosmos
Russia
Orbiter
Phobos sample
1Spacecraft failure Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power) Zenit-2M
Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 CNSA
PR China
Orbiter 1Failure
Lost with Fobos-Grunt
To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt Zenit-2M
Curiosity
(Mars Science Laboratory)
26 November 2011 NASA
United States
Lander/RoverRover 5Operational Atlas V 541
Mars Orbiter Mission
(Mangalyaan)
5 November 2013 ISRO
India
Orbiter 5Operational Entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended by six months.[11][12] PSLV-XL
MAVEN 18 November 2013 NASA
United States
Orbiter 5Operational Orbit insertion on September 22, 2014[13] Atlas V 401
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter 14 March 2016 ESA/Roscosmos
Europe/Russia
Orbiter 5En route Proton-M/Briz-M
Schiaparelli EDM lander 14 March 2016 ESA
Europe
Lander 5En route Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Proton-M/Briz-M

Locations of selected Mars landers and rovers[edit]

Tharsis Montes Hellas Planitia Olympus Mons Valles Marineris Arabia Terra Amazonis Planitia Elysium Mons Isidis Planitia Terra Cimmeria Argyre Planitia Alba MonsMap of Mars
Interactive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers. Hover your mouse to see the names of prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Reds and pinks are higher elevation (+3 km to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the highest elevations. Axes are latitude and longitude; note poles are not shown.
Spirit (2004) > Spirit
Opportunity (2004) > Opportunity
Pathfinder < Sojourner (1997)
Viking 1 (1976) > Viking 1
Viking 2 (1976) > Viking 2
Phoenix < Phoenix (2008)
Mars 3 < Mars 3 (1971)
Curiosity (2012) > Curiosity
Beagle 2 < Beagle 2 (2003)

Future missions[edit]

In development[edit]

Mission Launch Notes Country or Space Agency
InSight May 5, 2018 [14][15] Lander National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA NASA
Red Dragon 2018[16] Lander SpaceX-Logo.svg SpaceX USA
Mangalyaan 2[17] 2020 Orbiter. Optional: lander, rover Indian Space Research Organisation Indian Space Research Organisation
Emirates Mars Mission July 2020[18][19][20] Orbiter[18]  United Arab Emirates
Mars 2020 July 2020 Rover National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA NASA
ExoMars Rover July 2020 [21] Rover European Space Agency ESA
2020 Chinese Mars Mission 2020 Orbiter, lander, rover China National Space Administration China National Space Administration

Proposals[edit]

Mission Launch Notes Country or Space Agency
NASA 2022 orbiter 2022 Telecomm orbiter[22] National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA NASA
2024 Crewed mission to Mars[citation needed] SpaceX-Logo.svg SpaceX, USA
Mars to Stay Settlement[citation needed]  United States
2040-2060 Crewed phase of the Chinese Mars exploration program[23] China National Space Administration China National Space Administration
2040-2060 Crewed phase of the Russian Mars exploration program[24] Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos

Missions to the moons of Mars[edit]

Phobos' stickney crater
Deimos (lower left) and Phobos (lower right) compared with the asteroid 951 Gaspra
Phobos by Mars Global Surveyor in 1998[25]

Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the Moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.

There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN.[26] The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.[27]

In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is assessing a sample return mission to Phobos.[28][29] This mission is called MMX (Martian Moons Explorer)[30] and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission.[31] If funded, MMX will build on the expertise the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa 2 and SLIM missions.[32] As of January 2016, MMX is under review by JAXA, and is proposed to be launched in 2022.[29][33]

Proposal Target Reference
Aladdin Phobos and Deimos [34]
DSR Deimos [35]
Gulliver Deimos [36]
Hall Phobos and Deimos [37]
M-PADS Phobos and Deimos [38]
Merlin Phobos and Deimos [39]
MMSR (2011 ver.) Phobos or Deimos [27]
OSRIS-REx 2 Phobos or Deimos [40]
Pandora Phobos and Deimos [26]
PCROSS Phobos [41]
Phobos Surveyor Phobos [42]
PRIME Phobos [43]
Fobos-Grunt 2 Phobos [44]
Phootprint Phobos [45][46]
PADME Phobos and Deimos [47][48]
Martian Moons Explorer (MMX) Phobos [30]

Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.

Launched mission Target Reference
Phobos 1 Phobos
Phobos 2 Phobos
Fobos-Grunt Phobos

Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.

The 'Red Rocks Project', a part of Lockheed Martin's "Stepping stones to Mars" program, proposed to explore Mars robotically from Deimos.[49][50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Chronology of Mars Exploration. NASA. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
  2. ^ a b Russian Space Web - Mars Missions
  3. ^ Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. pp. 73–78. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7. It was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around another world. 
  4. ^ "Missions to Mars". The Planetary Society. 
  5. ^ Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union (PDF). NASA Headquarters History Division. pp. 34–60. ISBN 0-16-058859-6. 
  6. ^ Webster, Guy (April 11, 2013). "NASA Mars Orbiter Images May Show 1971 Soviet Lander". NASA. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  7. ^ NSSDC - Mars 6
  8. ^ "Mars Pathfinder Science Results". NASA. 
  9. ^ Mars Pathfinder - Welcome to Mars - Sol 86
  10. ^ "ESA - Beautiful new images from Rosetta's approach to Mars: OSIRIS UPDATE". Esa.int. 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  11. ^ "The first image sent from Mars Orbiter.". ISRO. 
  12. ^ "Mangalyaan Completes 6 Months in Martian Orbit, Could Last Much Longer". NDTV. 24 March 2015. 
  13. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Neal-Jones, Nancy; Zubritsky, Elizabeth (September 21, 2014). "NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit around Red Planet". NASA. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  14. ^ Clark, Stephen (9 March 2016). "InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 
  15. ^ Chang, Kenneth (9 March 2016). "NASA Reschedules Mars InSight Mission for May 2018". New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  16. ^ Cowing, Keith (28 April 2016). "SpaceX Will Start Going to Mars in 2018". SpaceRef. Retrieved 2016-04-28. 
  17. ^ "India plans second Mars mission in 2018". CNN IBN. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-30. 
  18. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (8 May 2015). "UAE details ambitious plan for Martian weather satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Emirates Mars Mission". iCresRise Magazine. January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  20. ^ Emirates Mars Mission. Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC). 5 May 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  21. ^ "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). ESA. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  22. ^ Stephen, Clark (March 3, 2015). "NASA eyes ion engines for Mars orbiter launching in 2022". Space Flight Now. Retrieved 2015-03-05. 
  23. ^ 中国嫦娥探月工程进展顺利 进度将有望加快-军事频道-中华网-中国最大职业人士门户
  24. ^ Пилотируемый полет на Марс будет возможен после 2040 года - Роскосмос. versii.com (in Russian). Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ a b MERLIN: The Creative Choices Behind a Proposal to Explore the Martian Moons (Merlin and PADME info also)
  27. ^ a b MMSR - a study for a Martian Moon Sample Return mission
  28. ^ "Introduction to JAXA's Exploration of the Two Moons of Mars, with Sample Return from Phobos" (PDF). Phobos/Deimos Sample Return Mission Study Team. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-22. 
  29. ^ a b "JAXA、火星衛星「フォボス」探査…22年に". The Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). January 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-04. [dead link]
  30. ^ a b "ISASニュース 2016.1 No.418" (PDF) (in Japanese). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-04. 
  31. ^ "宇宙科学・探査分野 工程表取り組み状況について その3" (PDF) (in Japanese). Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  32. ^ Torishima, Shinya (June 19, 2015). "JAXAの「火星の衛星からのサンプル・リターン」計画とは". Mynavi News (in Japanese). Retrieved 2015-10-06. 
  33. ^ JAXA plans probe to bring back samples from moons of Mars
  34. ^ C. Pieters, et al. - Aladdin: Phobos-Deimos Sample Return
  35. ^ Small Body Sample Return to Deimos
  36. ^ Dr. Britt - The Gulliver Mission: Sample Return from Deimos
  37. ^ P. Lee, et al. - Hall: A Phobos and Deimos Sample Return Mission
  38. ^ Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander (Ball, Andrew J.; Price, Michael E.; Walker, Roger J.; Dando, Glyn C.; Wells, Nigel S. and Zarnecki, John C. (2009). Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander. Advances in Space Research, 43(1), pp. 120–127.)
  39. ^ MERLIN: MARS-MOON EXPLORATION, RECONNAISSANCE AND LANDED INVESTIGATION
  40. ^ Elifritz, T. L. - OSIRIS-REx II to Mars
  41. ^ Colaprete, A, et al. - PCROSS — Phobos Close Rendevous(sic) Observation Sensing Satellite
  42. ^ Phobos Surveyor - Space Safety Magazine
  43. ^ PRIME
  44. ^ SSM - Phobos-Grunt 2 Bound for Launch in 2020, Russians Confirmed While Celebrating Sputnik
  45. ^ Barraclough, Simon; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Buchwald, Robert; Scheer, Heloise; Chapuy, Marc; Garland, Martin (June 16, 2014). Phootprint: A European Phobos Sample Return Mission (PDF). 11th International Planetary Probe Workshop. Airbus Defense and Space. 
  46. ^ Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis (August 2, 2014). "Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study". ESA. Retrieved 2015-12-22. 
  47. ^ Lee, Pascal; Bicay, Michael; Colapre, Anthony; Elphic, Richard (March 17–21, 2014). Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME): A LADEE-Derived Mission to Explore Mars's Moons and the Martian Orbital Environment. (PDF). 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2014). 
  48. ^ Reyes, Tim (1 October 2014). "Making the Case for a Mission to the Martian Moon Phobos". Universe Today. Retrieved 2014-10-05. 
  49. ^ Larry Page Deep Space Exploration - Stepping Stones builds up to "Red Rocks : Explore Mars from Deimos"
  50. ^ One Possible Small Step Toward Mars Landing: A Martian Moon