List of missions to Venus

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Launches to Venus
Decade
1960s
18
1970s
11
1980s
7
2000s
1
2010s
5

This is a list of space missions to the planet Venus. Missions to Venus constitute part of the exploration of Venus.

List[edit]

As of 2018, the Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency and Japan have conducted missions to Venus.

Spacecraft Launch date[1] Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket[2]
Tyazhely Sputnik
(1VA No.1)
4 February 1961 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor[3] Launch failure Power transformer failure, upper stage failed to ignite, never left LEO[3] Molniya
Venera 1
(1VA No.2)
12 February 1961 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Impactor[3] Spacecraft failure Communications failure. Flyby on 19 May 1961 at less than 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi); no data returned Molniya
Mariner 1
(P-37)
22 July 1962 NASA
United States
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit; destroyed by range safety following guidance failure[4] Atlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.1 25 August 1962 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Premature upper stage cutoff due to ullage motor malfunction; never left LEO[4] Molniya
Mariner 2
(P-38)
27 August 1962 NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 14 December 1962 Atlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.2 1 September 1962 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Upper stage fuel valve failed to open, resulting in failure to ignite; never left LEO[4] Molniya
2MV-2 No.1 12 September 1962 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Anomalous third stage cutoff resulted in air bubbles forming in fourth stage fuel; fourth stage shut down less than a second after ignition; failed to leave LEO[4] Molniya
3MV-1 No.2 19 February 1964 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Third stage oxidizer leak caused propellant to freeze in feed lines, which subsequently cracked; failed to orbit[5] Molniya-M
Kosmos 27
(3MV-1 No.3)
27 March 1964 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Launch failure Upper stage attitude control failure, never left LEO[5] Molniya-M
Zond 1
(3MV-1 No.4)
2 April 1964 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Spacecraft failure Electronics shorted out, communications lost before flyby.[5] Flew past Venus on 14 July 1964. Molniya-M
Venera 2
(3MV-4 No.4)
12 November 1965 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby Spacecraft failure Flew past Venus on 27 February 1966, closest approach at 02:52 UTC. Communications lost after flyby, before any data could be returned.[6] Molniya-M
Venera 3
(3MV-3 No.1)
16 November 1965 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Lander Spacecraft failure Communications lost as soon as spacecraft entered atmosphere on 1 March 1966, no data returned. Molniya-M
Kosmos 96
(3MV-4 No.6)
23 November 1965 OKB-1
Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Third stage combustion chamber exploded, resulting in loss of control, upper stage failed to ignite; Never left LEO[6] Molniya-M
Venera 4
(4V-1 No.310)
12 June 1967 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Successful Returned atmospheric data during entry on 18 October 1967. Never intended to work on surface[7] Molniya-M
Mariner 5 14 June 1967 NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 19 October 1967, closest approach at 17:34:56 UTC[8] Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D
Kosmos 167
(4V-1 No.311)
17 June 1967 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Upper stage failed to ignite; turbopump cooling malfunction. Never left LEO[8] Molniya-M
Venera 5
(4V-1 No.330)
5 January 1969 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Atmospheric Successful Entered atmosphere on 16 May 1969, operated for 53 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 6
(4V-1 No.331)
10 January 1969 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Atmospheric Successful Entered atmosphere on 17 May 1969, operated for 51 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 7
(4V-1 No.630)
17 August 1970 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Partial failure Landed at 05:37:10 UTC on 15 December 1970, rolled upon landing and returned severely limited data Molniya-M
Kosmos 359
(4V-1 No.631)
22 August 1970 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Venera 8
(4V-1 No.670)
27 March 1972 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Successful Landed at 09:32 UTC on 22 July 1972 Molniya-M
Kosmos 482
(4V-1 No.671)
31 March 1972 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Mariner 10 3 November 1973 NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 4 February 1974; closest approach at 17:01 UTC; observed Venus and performed gravity assist to reach Mercury Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Venera 9
(4V-1 No.660)
8 June 1975 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter/Lander Successful Entered orbit on 20 October 1975; lander landed at 05:13 UTC on 22 October Proton-K/D
Venera 10
(4V-1 No.661)
14 June 1975 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter/Lander Successful Entered orbit on 23 October 1975; lander landed at 05:17 UTC on 25 October Proton-K/D
Venera 11
(4V-1 No.360)
9 September 1978 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Mostly successful Flyby on 25 December; Lander landed at 03:24 UTC the same day. Multiple instrument failures on lander Proton-K/D-1
Venera 12
(4V-1 No.361)
14 September 1978 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Mostly successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 21 December 1975. Both cameras on lander failed Proton-K/D-1
Pioneer Venus 1
(PV Orbiter)
20 May 1978 NASA
United States
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 4 December 1978, decayed on 22 October 1992 Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Pioneer Venus 2
(PV Multiprobe)
8 August 1978 NASA
United States
Atmospheric Successful Entered the atmosphere on 9 December 1978; consisted of five spacecraft, one of which briefly continued transmitting after reaching the surface[9] Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Venera 13
(4V-1M No.760)
30 October 1981 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 1 March 1982. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 14
(4V-1M No.761)
4 November 1981 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Successful Lander landed on 5 March 1982. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 15
(4V-2 No.860)
2 June 1983 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Venera 16
(4V-2 No.861)
7 June 1983 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 11 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Vega 1
(5VK No.901)
15 December 1984 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Atmospheric/Lander Mostly successful Landed 11 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Vega 2
(5VK No.902)
21 December 1984 Lavochkin
Soviet Union
Flyby/Atmospheric/Lander Successful Landed 15 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Magellan 4 May 1989 NASA
United States
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1990, deorbited 13 October 1994 Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-30 / IUS
Galileo 18 October 1989 NASA
United States
Gravity assist at Venus Successful Flyby on 10 February 1990 en route to Jupiter; observed Venus during closest pass. Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-34 / IUS
Cassini 15 October 1997 NASA
United States
Gravity assist Successful Flybys on 26 April 1998 and 24 June 1999 en route to Saturn; observed Venus during closest pass. Titan IV(401)B
MESSENGER 3 August 2004 NASA
United States
Gravity assist Successful Flybys on 24 October 2006 and 5 June 2007 en route to Mercury; observed Venus during closest pass. Delta II 7925H
Venus Express 9 November 2005 ESA Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 11 April 2006. Full communications lost on 28 November 2014 [10] Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Akatsuki 20 May 2010 JAXA
Japan
Orbiter Operational Flew past Venus on 6 December 2010 after failing to enter orbit. Insertion was successfully reattempted on 7 December 2015. H-IIA 202
IKAROS 20 May 2010 JAXA
Japan
Flyby Successful Experimental solar sail released from the Akatsuki spacecraft. Flew past Venus on 8 December 2010 but did not make observations. H-IIA 202
Shin'en 20 May 2010 UNISEC
Japan
Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications never established after launch. Flew past Venus in December 2010 H-IIA 202

Proposed missions[edit]

Name Operator Proposed
launch year
Type Status Reference
CUVE NASA orbiter proposed [11][12]
DAVINCI NASA 2021 atmospheric probe proposed [13]
EVE ESA orbiter proposed [14]
EnVision ESA 2032 orbiter proposed [15]
HAVOC NASA crewed aircraft conceptual [16]
Shukrayaan-1 ISRO 2023 orbiter under development [17]
VAMP NASA 2026 atmospheric balloon proposed as a secondary payload
on Venera D lander
[18][19]
Venera-D Roscosmos 2026 orbiter and lander under development [18]
VERITAS NASA 2021 orbiter proposed [20]
VICI NASA late 2020s lander proposed [21]
VISAGE NASA late 2020s lander proposed [22][23]
VISE NASA late 2020s lander and balloon proposed [24]
VOX NASA orbiter proposed [25]
Zephyr NASA 2039 rover Feasibility study [26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1961" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 29–32.
  4. ^ a b c d Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37.
  5. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45.
  6. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52.
  7. ^ "Venera-4: Plumbing the Atmosphere of Venus".
  8. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 61–68.
  9. ^ "NASA's Unintentional Venus Lander". June 13, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  10. ^ ESA Science & Technology: Venus Express goes gently into the night
  11. ^ Planetary Missions and Concepts - Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA. September 21, 2018.
  12. ^ NASA studies CubeSat mission to solve Venusian mystery. Lori Keesey. Published by PhysOrg. August 15, 2017.
  13. ^ "The DAVINCI spacecraft". phys.org. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  14. ^ Chassefière, E.; Korablev, O.; Imamura, T.; Baines, K. H.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D. V.; Aplin, K. L.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J. E. (2009-03-01). "European Venus Explorer (EVE): an in-situ mission to Venus". Experimental Astronomy. 23 (3): 741–760. Bibcode:2009ExA....23..741C. doi:10.1007/s10686-008-9093-x. ISSN 0922-6435.
  15. ^ EnVision: Understanding why our most Earth-like neighbor is so different. M5 proposal. Richard Ghail. arXiv.org
  16. ^ Arney, Dale; Jones, Chris (2015). HAVOC: High Altitude Venus Operational Concept - An Exploration Strategy for Venus. SPACE 2015: AIAA Space and Astronautics Forum and Exposition. 31 August-2 September 2015. Pasadena, California. NF1676L-20719.
  17. ^ "Indian Mars and Venus missions: Science and exploration" (PDF). cospar-assembly.org. 22 July 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  18. ^ a b Wall, Mike (17 January 2017). "Russia, US Mulling Joint Mission to Venus". Space. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  19. ^ NASA Studying Shared Venus Science Objectives with Russian Space Research Institute. NASA. 10 March 2017
  20. ^ Freeman, A.; Smrekar, S. (9 June 2015). VERITAS – a Discovery-class Venus surface geology and geophysics mission (PDF). 11th Low Cost Planetary Missions Conference. Berlin, Germany.
  21. ^ VICI: Venus In situ Composition Investigations. (PDF) L. Glaze, J. Garvin, N. Johnson, G. Arney, D. Atkinson, S. Atreya, A. Beck, B. Bezard, J. Blacksberg, B. Campbell, S. Clegg, D. Crisp, D. Dyar, F. Forget, M. Gilmore, D. Grinspoon, Juliane Gross, S. Guzewich, N. Izenberg, J. Johnson, W. Kiefer, D. Lawrence, S. Lebonnois, R. Lorenz, P. Mahaffy, S. Maurice, M. McCanta, A. Parsons, A. Pavlov, S. Sharma, M. Trainer, C. Webster, R. Wiens, K. Zahnle, M. Zolotov. EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 11, EPSC2017-346, 2017. European Planetary Science Congress 2017.
  22. ^ Venus In Situ Atmospheric and Geochemical Explorer (VISAGE): A Proposed New Frontiers Mission. (PDF) Esposito, L. W. Lunar and Planetary Science XLVIII (2017)
  23. ^ The New Frontiers Venus In Situ Atmospheric and Geochemical Explorer (VISAGE) Mission Proposal. (PDF) L.W. Esposito, D.H. Atkinson, K.H. Baines, A. Allwood, F. Altieri, S. Atreya, M. Bullock, A. Colaprete, M. Darrach, J. Day, M. Dyar, B. Ehlmann, K. Farley, J. Filiberto, D. Grinspoon, J. Head, J. Helbert, S. Madzunkov, G. Piccioni, W. Possel, M. Ravine, A. Treiman, Y. Yung, K. Zahnle. EPSC Abstracts. Vol. 11, EPSC2017-275-1, 2017. European Planetary Science Congress 2017.
  24. ^ LARRY W ESPOSITO. Mission Concept: Venus in situ Explorer (VISE).
  25. ^ Smrekar, Suzanne; Dyar, M. D.; et al. (eds.). Venus Origins Explorer (VOX), a Proposed New Frontier Mission (PDF). The Venus Exploration Analysis Group.
  26. ^ Zephyr: A Landsailing Rover For Venus. (PDF) Geoffrey A. Landis, Steven R. Oleson, David Grantier, and the COMPASS team. NASA John Glenn Research Center. 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada. February 24, 2015. Report: IAC-14,A3,P,31x26111

External links[edit]