List of missions to Venus

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Launches to Venus
Decade
1960s
18
1970s
11
1980s
8
1990s
1
2000s
2
2010s
5
2020s
1

This is a list of the 42 (and counting) space missions to the planet Venus. Missions to Venus constitute part of the exploration of Venus.

List[edit]

As of 2018, the Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency and Japan have conducted missions to Venus.

Mission Type Legend
  Mission to Venus
  Gravity assist, destination elsewhere
Spacecraft Launch date[1] Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket[2]
Tyazhely Sputnik
(1VA No.1)
4 February 1961 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Impactor[3] Launch failure Power transformer failure, upper stage failed to ignite, never left LEO[3] Molniya
Venera 1
(1VA No.2)
12 February 1961 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Impactor[3] Spacecraft failure Communications failure. Flyby on 19 May 1961 at less than 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi); no data returned Molniya
Mariner 1
(P-37)
22 July 1962 NASA
 United States
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit; destroyed by range safety following guidance failure[4] Atlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.1 25 August 1962 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Premature upper stage cutoff due to ullage motor malfunction; never left LEO[4] Molniya
Mariner 2
(P-38)
27 August 1962 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 14 December 1962 Atlas-LV3 Agena-B
2MV-1 No.2 1 September 1962 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Upper stage fuel valve failed to open, resulting in failure to ignite; never left LEO[4] Molniya
2MV-2 No.1 12 September 1962 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Anomalous third stage cutoff resulted in air bubbles forming in fourth stage fuel; fourth stage shut down less than a second after ignition; failed to leave LEO[4] Molniya
3MV-1 No.2 19 February 1964 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Third stage oxidizer leak caused propellant to freeze in feed lines, which subsequently cracked; failed to orbit[5] Molniya-M
Kosmos 27
(3MV-1 No.3)
27 March 1964 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Launch failure Upper stage attitude control failure, never left LEO[5] Molniya-M
Zond 1
(3MV-1 No.4)
2 April 1964 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Spacecraft failure Electronics shorted out, communications lost before flyby.[5] Flew past Venus on 14 July 1964. Molniya-M
Venera 2
(3MV-4 No.4)
12 November 1965 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Spacecraft failure Flew past Venus on 27 February 1966, closest approach at 02:52 UTC. Communications lost after flyby, before any data could be returned.[6] Molniya-M
Venera 3
(3MV-3 No.1)
16 November 1965 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Lander Spacecraft failure Communications lost as soon as spacecraft entered atmosphere on 1 March 1966, no data returned. Molniya-M
Kosmos 96
(3MV-4 No.6)
23 November 1965 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Third stage combustion chamber exploded, resulting in loss of control, upper stage failed to ignite; Never left LEO[6] Molniya-M
Venera 4
(4V-1 No.310)
12 June 1967 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Atmospheric Successful Returned atmospheric data during entry on 18 October 1967. Never intended to work on surface[7] Molniya-M
Mariner 5 14 June 1967 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 19 October 1967, closest approach at 17:34:56 UTC[8] Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D
Kosmos 167
(4V-1 No.311)
17 June 1967 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Upper stage failed to ignite; turbopump cooling malfunction. Never left LEO[8] Molniya-M
Venera 5
(4V-1 No.330)
5 January 1969 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Atmospheric Successful Entered atmosphere on 16 May 1969, operated for 53 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 6
(4V-1 No.331)
10 January 1969 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Atmospheric Successful Entered atmosphere on 17 May 1969, operated for 51 minutes Molniya-M
Venera 7
(4V-1 No.630)
17 August 1970 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Lander Partial success Landed at 05:37:10 UTC on 15 December 1970, rolled upon landing and returned severely limited data. First soft landing on another planet. Molniya-M
Kosmos 359
(4V-1 No.631)
22 August 1970 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Venera 8
(4V-1 No.670)
27 March 1972 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Lander Successful Landed at 09:32 UTC on 22 July 1972. First fully successful landing on another planet. Molniya-M
Kosmos 482
(4V-1 No.671)
31 March 1972 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya-M
Mariner 10 3 November 1973 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Flyby on 4 February 1974; closest approach at 17:01 UTC; observed Venus and performed gravity assist to reach Mercury Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Venera 9
(4V-1 No.660)
8 June 1975 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Orbiter/Lander Successful Entered orbit on 20 October 1975; lander landed at 05:13 UTC on 22 October. First images from the surface of another planet. Proton-K/D
Venera 10
(4V-1 No.661)
14 June 1975 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Orbiter/Lander Successful Entered orbit on 23 October 1975; lander landed at 05:17 UTC on 25 October Proton-K/D
Venera 11
(4V-1 No.360)
9 September 1978 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Mostly successful Flyby on 25 December; Lander landed at 03:24 UTC the same day. Multiple instrument failures on lander Proton-K/D-1
Venera 12
(4V-1 No.361)
14 September 1978 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Mostly successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 21 December 1978. Both cameras on lander failed Proton-K/D-1
Pioneer Venus 1
(PV Orbiter)
20 May 1978 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 4 December 1978, decayed on 22 October 1992 Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Pioneer Venus 2
(PV Multiprobe)
8 August 1978 NASA
 United States
Atmospheric Successful Entered the atmosphere on 9 December 1978; consisted of five spacecraft, one of which briefly continued transmitting after reaching the surface[9] Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Venera 13
(4V-1M No.760)
30 October 1981 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Successful Lander landed at 03:20 UTC on 1 March 1982. First recording of sounds from another planet. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 14
(4V-1M No.761)
4 November 1981 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Lander Successful Lander landed on 5 March 1982. Proton-K/D-1
Venera 15
(4V-2 No.860)
2 June 1983 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Venera 16
(4V-2 No.861)
7 June 1983 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 11 October 1983, operated until July 1984 Proton-K/D-1
Vega 1
(5VK No.901)
15 December 1984 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Atmospheric/Lander Mostly successful Landed 11 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Vega 2
(5VK No.902)
21 December 1984 Lavochkin
 Soviet Union
Flyby/Atmospheric/Lander Successful Landed 15 June 1985. Atmospheric probe deployed during entry operated for two days. Main bus continued to explore comet 1P/Halley Proton-K/D-1
Magellan 4 May 1989 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 10 October 1990, deorbited 13 October 1994 Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-30 / IUS
Galileo 18 October 1989 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist at Venus Successful Flyby on 10 February 1990 en route to Jupiter; observed Venus during closest pass. Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-34 / IUS
Cassini 15 October 1997 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist Successful Flybys on 26 April 1998 and 24 June 1999 en route to Saturn; observed Venus during closest pass. Titan IV(401)B
MESSENGER 3 August 2004 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist Successful Flybys on 24 October 2006 and 5 June 2007 en route to Mercury; observed Venus during closest pass. Delta II 7925H
Venus Express 9 November 2005 ESA
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 11 April 2006. Full communications lost on 28 November 2014 [10] Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Akatsuki 20 May 2010 JAXA
 Japan
Orbiter Operational Flew past Venus on 6 December 2010 after failing to enter orbit. Insertion was successfully reattempted on 7 December 2015. H-IIA 202
IKAROS 20 May 2010 JAXA
 Japan
Flyby Successful Experimental solar sail released from the Akatsuki spacecraft. Flew past Venus on 8 December 2010 but did not make observations. H-IIA 202
Shin'en 20 May 2010 UNISEC
 Japan
Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications never established after launch. Flew past Venus in December 2010 H-IIA 202
Parker Solar Probe 12 August 2018 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist Operational Flybys on 10 October 2018, 26 December 2019, 11 July 2020, 20 February 2021, 16 October 2021, 21 August 2023, and 6 November 2024 to lower perihelion for solar observation. Delta IV Heavy/Star 48BV
BepiColombo 20 October 2018 ESA
Gravity assist Operational Flybys on 15 October 2020 and 11 August 2021 en route to Mercury; observed Venus during closest pass. Ariane 5 ECA
Solar Orbiter 10 February 2020 ESA
Gravity assist Operational Flybys on 27 Dec 2020, 8 Aug 2021, 3 Sep 2022, 18 Feb 2025, 24 Dec 2026, 17 Mar 2028, 10 Jun 2029, and 2 Sep 2030 to adjust orbital inclination. Atlas V 411

Future missions[edit]

Under development[edit]

Name Operator Proposed
launch year
Type Status Reference


Rocket Lab’s Venus probe Rocket Lab 2023 atmospheric probe under development [11]
Shukrayaan-1 ISRO 2024 orbiter and atmospheric balloon under development [12]
VERITAS NASA 2028 orbiter under development [13][14]
UAE 2028 [15]
Venera-D Roscosmos 2029 orbiter and lander under development [16]
DAVINCI+ NASA 2029–2030 atmospheric probe under development [17][13]
EnVision ESA early 2030's orbiter under development [18]

Proposed missions[edit]

Name Operator Proposed
launch year
Type Status Reference
CUVE NASA orbiter proposed [19][20]
EVE ESA orbiter proposed [21]
HAVOC NASA crewed aircraft conceptual [22]
VAMP NASA 2029 atmospheric balloon proposed as a secondary payload
on Venera D lander
[23][24]
VICI NASA 2027 lander proposed [25][26]
VISAGE NASA 2027 lander proposed [27][28][29]
VISE NASA lander and balloon proposed [30]
VOX NASA 2027 orbiter proposed [31][32]
Zephyr NASA 2039 rover Feasibility study [33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Interplanetary Probes". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1961" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 29–32.
  4. ^ a b c d Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37.
  5. ^ a b c Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45.
  6. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52.
  7. ^ "Venera-4: Plumbing the Atmosphere of Venus".
  8. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 61–68.
  9. ^ "NASA's Unintentional Venus Lander". 13 June 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  10. ^ ESA Science & Technology: Venus Express goes gently into the night
  11. ^ Daniel Oberhaus (18 September 2020). "Rocket Lab Could Beat NASA Back to Venus in the Search for ET". Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  12. ^ "Indian Mars and Venus missions: Science and exploration" (PDF). cospar-assembly.org. 22 July 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  13. ^ a b Roulette, Joey (2 June 2021). "NASA will send two missions to Venus for the first time in over 30 years". The Verge. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  14. ^ Freeman, A.; Smrekar, S. (9 June 2015). VERITAS – a Discovery-class Venus surface geology and geophysics mission (PDF). 11th Low Cost Planetary Missions Conference. Berlin, Germany.
  15. ^ Strickland, Ashley (6 October 2021). "New UAE space mission will orbit Venus and land on an asteroid". CNN. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  16. ^ Zak, Anatoly (5 March 2021). "New promise for the Venera-D project". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  17. ^ Steigerwald, William; Jones, Nancy Neal (2 June 2021). "NASA to Explore Divergent Fate of Earth's Mysterious Twin with Goddard's DAVINCI+". NASA. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  18. ^ "ESA selects revolutionary Venus mission EnVision". 10 June 2021.
  19. ^ Planetary Missions and Concepts - Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA. September 21, 2018.
  20. ^ NASA studies CubeSat mission to solve Venusian mystery. Lori Keesey. Published by PhysOrg. August 15, 2017.
  21. ^ Chassefière, E.; Korablev, O.; Imamura, T.; Baines, K. H.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D. V.; Aplin, K. L.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J. E. (1 March 2009). "European Venus Explorer (EVE): an in-situ mission to Venus". Experimental Astronomy. 23 (3): 741–760. Bibcode:2009ExA....23..741C. doi:10.1007/s10686-008-9093-x. ISSN 0922-6435.
  22. ^ Arney, Dale; Jones, Chris (2015). HAVOC: High Altitude Venus Operational Concept - An Exploration Strategy for Venus. SPACE 2015: AIAA Space and Astronautics Forum and Exposition. 31 August-2 September 2015. Pasadena, California. NF1676L-20719.
  23. ^ Wall, Mike (17 January 2017). "Russia, US Mulling Joint Mission to Venus". Space. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  24. ^ "NASA Studying Shared Venus Science Objectives with Russian Space Research Institute". NASA. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  25. ^ VICI: Venus In situ Composition Investigations. (PDF) L. Glaze, J. Garvin, N. Johnson, G. Arney, D. Atkinson, S. Atreya, A. Beck, B. Bezard, J. Blacksberg, B. Campbell, S. Clegg, D. Crisp, D. Dyar, F. Forget, M. Gilmore, D. Grinspoon, Juliane Gross, S. Guzewich, N. Izenberg, J. Johnson, W. Kiefer, D. Lawrence, S. Lebonnois, R. Lorenz, P. Mahaffy, S. Maurice, M. McCanta, A. Parsons, A. Pavlov, S. Sharma, M. Trainer, C. Webster, R. Wiens, K. Zahnle, M. Zolotov. EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 11, EPSC2017-346, 2017. European Planetary Science Congress 2017.
  26. ^ "NASA delays Dragonfly launch by a year". SpaceNews. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  27. ^ Venus In Situ Atmospheric and Geochemical Explorer (VISAGE): A Proposed New Frontiers Mission. (PDF) Esposito, L. W. Lunar and Planetary Science XLVIII (2017)
  28. ^ The New Frontiers Venus In Situ Atmospheric and Geochemical Explorer (VISAGE) Mission Proposal. (PDF) L.W. Esposito, D.H. Atkinson, K.H. Baines, A. Allwood, F. Altieri, S. Atreya, M. Bullock, A. Colaprete, M. Darrach, J. Day, M. Dyar, B. Ehlmann, K. Farley, J. Filiberto, D. Grinspoon, J. Head, J. Helbert, S. Madzunkov, G. Piccioni, W. Possel, M. Ravine, A. Treiman, Y. Yung, K. Zahnle. EPSC Abstracts. Vol. 11, EPSC2017-275-1, 2017. European Planetary Science Congress 2017.
  29. ^ "NASA delays Dragonfly launch by a year". SpaceNews. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  30. ^ LARRY W ESPOSITO. Mission Concept: Venus in situ Explorer (VISE).
  31. ^ Smrekar, Suzanne; Dyar, M. D.; et al. (eds.). Venus Origins Explorer (VOX), a Proposed New Frontier Mission (PDF). The Venus Exploration Analysis Group.
  32. ^ "NASA delays Dragonfly launch by a year". SpaceNews. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  33. ^ Zephyr: A Landsailing Rover For Venus. (PDF) Geoffrey A. Landis, Steven R. Oleson, David Grantier, and the COMPASS team. NASA John Glenn Research Center. 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada. February 24, 2015. Report: IAC-14,A3,P,31x26111

External links[edit]