List of mnemonics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains a list of notable mnemonics used to remember various objects, lists, etc.


obsolete (per the IAU definition of planet):
Most Vegetables Eat More Juice So Usually Never Pee[1]
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Potatoes[1]
Many Vicious Elephants Met Just Slightly Under New Pineapples[1]
My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets
Mark's Very Extravagant Mother Just Sent Us Ninety Parakeets
Mother Very Eagerly Made A (Asteroids) Jelly Sandwich Under No Protest

Since the IAU change the definition of a planet and relegated Pluto to the status of minor planet, the following has gained popularity

My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nachos
Oh Be A Fine Girl/Guy, Kiss Me Right Now, Sweetheart![2]
  • Revised stellar classification sequence: O B A F G K M L T Y
Old, Bald, And Fat Generals Kiss More Ladies Than You[3]
(Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Pisces)
  A Tense Grey Cat Lays  Very Low, Sneaking Slowly, Contemplating   A Pounce.
  • Average distances of the outer planets from the Sun in astronomical units, in round numbers:
Jupiter: 5 AU,  Saturn: 10 AU,  Uranus: 20 AU,  Neptune: 30 AU,  Pluto: 40 AU


  • To remember the order of taxa in biology (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, [Variety]):
    • "Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Soup" is often cited as a non-vulgar method for teaching students to memorize the taxonomic classification of system.[5][6] Other variations tend to start with the mythical king, with one author noting "The nonsense about King Philip, or some ribald version of it, has been memorized by generations of biology students".[7]
    • Dear King Philip Claps Often For Good Science
    • Dark King Prawns Curl Over Fresh Green Salad
    • Do Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk?[8]: 69 
    • Dumb Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Greasy Spinach[8]: 69 
    • Do Kindly Place Cover On Fresh Green Spring Vegetables[8]: 69 
    • Darn Kernel Panics Crash Our Family Game System[9]
    • Do Keep Pond Clean Or Frog Gets Sick
    • Dumb Kids Play Catch Over Father's Grave Stone
    • Daniel Keeps Philip Cat On Friday Getting Salsa
    • Dumb Kittens Pushing Cups Over Feeds Growing Spite
  • To remember the processes that define living things:
    • MRS GREN: Movement; Respiration; Sensation; Growth; Reproduction; Excretion; Nutrition[8]: 135 [10]
  • To remember the number of humps on types of camels:[8]: 67 [11]
  • To recognize poison ivy
    • Leaves of three, leave it be.
  • COWS stand for Cold Opposite Warm Same, which are the relation between the components of the Caloric reflex test[12]


Harry, he likes beer by cupfuls, not over frothy, never nasty mugs allowed. Since past six closing, are kegs cancelled?
(H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca.)
  • To remember the electrodes on which oxidation and reduction occurs( An Ox , Red Cat)

An Ox (Oxidation at Anode)

Red Cat (Reduction at Cathode)

  • To remember the different charges of the anode and cathode in electrolysis (PANIC):
Positive Anode Negative Is Cathode
At the ANode, Oxidation Involves electron Loss.
Reduction Involves electron Gain at the CAThode.
  • CHON: to remember the four most common elements in organisms
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
  • CHNOPS: to remember the six most common elements in organisms
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur


  • For the EIA electronic color code, Black(0), Brown(1), Red(2), Orange(3), Yellow(4), Green(5), Blue(6), Violet(7), Gray(8), White(9), Gold(5%), Silver(10%), None(20%)
Big brown rabbits often yield great big vocal groans when gingerly slapped[14]
Bad boys run our young girls behind victory garden walls[15]
B .B Roy [of] Great Britain [has] Very Good Wife.
  • A mnemonic to remember which way to turn common (right-hand thread) screws and nuts, including light bulbs, is "Righty-tighty, Lefty-loosey"; another is "Right on, Left off".[8]: 165 
  • For the OSI Network Layer model Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away correspond to the Physical, Datalink, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application layers.
  • For power in watts: Twinkle twinkle little star, Power equals I (current) squared R (resistance).
  • ELI the ICE man tells us E leads the I in an inductor, I leads the E in a capacitor. Useful in power factor correction.


  • Boring, Average Politics Can Become Very Corrupt. People Everywhere Get Used Sometimes
  • Big Gorillas Eat Hotdogs, Not Cold Pizza[16]
  • Including Mexico, My Grandma's Bunny Eats Hamburgers, Not Canned Peas
  • Super Heroes Must Eat Oats
  • A more common mnemonic for the Great Lakes, disregarding order:
  • Huron Ontario Michigan Erie Superior: HOMES
  • The principal factors affecting climate: LABDOWA
Latitude, Altitude, Build, Distance from the sea, Ocean currents, Wind, Aspect
  • The countries bordering Germany (clockwise from top): Denmark, Poland, Czechia, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands.
    • Do Polish Checks Always Say "France Look Back Now"!
  • The traditional six counties of Northern Ireland are Fermanagh, Antrim, Tyrone, Derry, Armagh, and Down. FAT DAD.


  • Geological periods: Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous; Post-Cretaceous Epochs: Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent (Holocene)
  • Pregnant Camels Often Sit Down Carefully, Perhaps Their Joints Creak? Possibly Early Oiling Might Prevent Permanent Rheumatism[8]: 62–63 [17]
  • Paleozoic to Cenozoic: Pregnant Camels Ordinarily Sit Down Carefully, Perhaps Their Joints Creak[18]
  • Post-Cretaceous Epochs: Please Eat Oats My Pretty Pet Horse (Holocene)
For Talc(=1), Gypsum(=2), Calcite(=3), Fluorite(=4), Apatite(=5), Orthoclase(=6), Quartz(=7), Topaz(=8), Corundum(=9), Diamond(=10)
  • Tall Girls Can Fight And Other Queer Things Can Develop[8]: 64 
  • TAll GYroscopes CAn FLy APart ORbiting QUickly TO COmplete DIsintegration[8]: 64 
  • Toronto Girls Can Flirt And Only Quit To Chase Dwarves
  • Terrible Giants Can Find Alligators Or Quaint Trolls Conveniently Digestible
  • Tall Gene Calls Florence At Our Quarters To Correct Dumbness[20]
  • Differentiating stalactites from stalagmites.[21]
    • The 'mites go up and the 'tites come down. When one has ants in one's pants, the mites go up and the tights come down.[8]: 66  (In a strict scientific sense, a mite is not an ant, although "mite" in common speech can refer to any small creature.)
    • Stalactites hang tight, hang down like tights on a line; stalagmites might bite (if you sit on them), might reach the roof.[8]: 66 
    • Tights hang from the Ceiling, and Mites crawl around on the Ground
    • You need might to do push-ups (from the floor). You must hold tight doing chin-ups (off the ceiling).
    • Stalactites are on the ceiling. Stalagmites are on the ground.[8]: 66 
    • Stalactites cling tight to the ceiling; stalagmites might reach the ceiling.


  • Chinese dynasties (simplified): Xia (Hsia), Shang, Zhou (Chou), Qin (Ch'in), Han, Jin, Southern and Northern, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing (Ching)
  • She Shamefully Chose Chinese Hand Jingles (and) SiNfully Sweet Tango Songs: "You (and) Me, Chickadee!"[17]
  • English dynasties (simplified): Norman, Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, Windsor
  • No Plan Like Yours To Study History Wisely.[22]
  • Wives of Henry VIII (names): Aragon, Boleyn, Seymour, Cleves, Howard, Parr
  • All Boys Should Come Home Please[8]: 103 
  • Wives of Henry VIII (manner of death): Divorced, beheaded, died / Divorced, beheaded, survived.[8]: 104 
  • British nobility rank order (simplified): Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, Barons
  • Do Men Ever Visit Boston?[17]
  • Losers Bearing Grudges Grieve Mainly Cowards Killing Orators


Characteristic sequence of letters[edit]

  • I always comes before E (but after C, E comes before I)[23][24]

In most words like friend, field, piece, pierce, mischief, thief, tier, it is "i" which comes before "e". But on some words with c just before the pair of e and i, like receive, perceive, "e" comes before "i". This can be remembered by the following mnemonic,

I before E, except after C

But this is not always obeyed as in case of weird and weigh, weight, height, neighbor etc. and can be remembered by extending that mnemonic as given below

I before E, except after C
Or when sounded "A" as in neighbor, weigh and weight
Or when sounded like "eye" as in height
And "weird" is just weird

Another variant, which avoids confusion when the two letters represent different sounds instead of a single sound, as in atheist or being, runs

When it says ee
Put i before e
But not after c
  • Where ever there is a Q there is a U too

Most frequently u follows q. e.g.: Que, queen, question, quack, quark, quartz, quarry, quit, Pique, torque, macaque, exchequer. Hence the mnemonic:

Where ever there is a Q there is a U too[24] (But this is violated by some words; see:List of English words containing Q not followed by U)

Letters of specific syllables in a word[edit]

Do not believe a lie.[24]
A secretary must keep a secret[24]
There is an ache in every teacher.[24]
Be sure of your measurements before you start work.[24]
Fri the end of your friend[24]
The CIA have special agents[24]
Big Elephants Are Ugly[25]
Always smell a rat when you spell separate[24]
There was a farmer named Sep and one day his wife saw a rat. She yelled, “Sep! A ratE!!!”[26]
The principal is your pal.

Distinguishing between similar words[edit]

  • Difference between Advice & Advise, Practice & Practise, Licence & License etc.

Advice, Practice, Licence etc. (those with c) are nouns and Advise, Practise, License etc. are verbs.

One way of remembering this is that the word ‘noun’ comes before the word ‘verb’ in the dictionary; likewise ‘c’ comes before ‘s’, so the nouns are ‘practice, licence, advice’ and the verbs are ‘practise, license, advise’.[27]
  • Here or Hear
We hear with our ear.
  • Complement and Compliment
complement adds something to make it enough
compliment puts you in the limelight[24]
  • Principle and Principal
Your principal is your pal
A rule can be called a principle[26]
  • Remedial and Menial
Remedial work is meant to remedy.
Menial work is boring but it's mean (-ial) to complain.
  • Their, There and They're
Theirs is not mine even though 'I' is in it.
There is where we'll be.
They're is a contraction of 'they are.'
  • Stationary and stationery
Stationery contains er and so does paper; stationary (not moving) contains ar and so does car[24]
A for "at rest", e for envelope
  • Gray and grey
Gray is preferred in America while grey is preferred in England

First letter mnemonics of spelling[edit]

Dashing In A Rush, Running Harder (or) Else Accident!
Dining In A Rough Restaurant: Hurry, (otherwise) Expect Accidents!
Diarrhea Is A Really Runny Heap (of) Endless Amounts[25]
A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream[28]
Not Every Cat Eats Sardines (Some Are Really Yummy)[28]
Never Eat Chocolate, Eat Sardine Sandwiches And Remain Young
Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants
Big Elephants Cause Accidents Under Small Elephants
Big Elephants Can't Always Use Small Exits
Big Elephants Can’t Always Use Small Entrances[28]
Mnemonics Now Erase Man's Oldest Nemesis, Insufficient Cerebral Storage[26]
George's Elderly Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday.[26]
Trails Of My Old Red Rose Over Window[25]
Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move[28]


  • Adjective order in English: OSASCOMP (Opinion, Size, Age, Shape, Color, Origin, Material, Purpose)[29]
    • On Saturday And Sunday Cold Ovens Make Pastry
  • Commonly-used coordinating conjunctions in English: FANBOYS[30][31]
    • For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
  • The verbs in French that use the auxiliary verb être in the compound past (sometimes called "verbs of motion") can be memorized using the phrase "Dr. (and) Mrs. Vandertramp":
devenir, revenir, monter, rester, sortir, venir, aller, naître, descendre, entrer, rentrer, tomber, retourner, arriver, mourir, partir[32]



The first 15 numbers of Pi can be remembered by counting the letters in the phrase, "How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics."

Quadratic equation[edit]

The articulation of the quadratic equation can be sung to the tune of various songs as a mnemonic device.[33]

Mathematical operations[edit]

For helping students in remembering the rules in adding and multiplying two signed numbers, Balbuena and Buayan (2015) made the letter strategies LAUS (like signs, add; unlike signs, subtract) and LPUN (like signs, positive; unlike signs, negative), respectively.[34]
Order of Operations
Please - Parenthesis
Excuse - Exponents
My - Multiplication
Dear - Division
Aunt - Addition
Sally - Subtraction
(In the UK, the phrase BIDMAS is used instead; Brackets, Indices, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction.)[35]


The mnemonic "SOHCAHTOA" (occasionally spelt "SOH CAH TOA") is often used to remember the basic trigonometric functions:[36]

  • Sine = Opposite / Hypotenuse
  • Cosine = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
  • Tangent = Opposite / Adjacent

Other mnemonics that have been used for this include:

Some Old Hippie Caught Another Hippie Tripping On Acid.

Ships Of Holland Call At Harwich To Obtain Apples.

Sighs Of Happiness Come After Having Tankards Of Ale.

Some Old Hen Caught Another Hen Taking Off Alone.

Silly Old Hitler Can't Advance His Troops On Africa.


Mnemonics for Euler's characteristic are "fav. me", for "F  add V, minus E ", and "veryfun".[37]


The mnemonic "LIATE" is commonly used to determine which functions are to be chosen as u and DV in integration by parts.

  • Logarithmic functions
  • Inverse trigonometric functions
  • Algebraic functions
  • Trigonometric functions
  • Exponential functions


  • To remember the signs of a stroke:
    • FAST
      • Face (Has the victim's face fallen on one side?)
      • Arms (Can the victim raise both arms and keep them raised?)
      • Speech (Is the victim's speech slurred? Can they repeat a simple sentence?)
      • Time (It is time to contact emergency services.)
  • To remember the steps for Resuscitation:
    • D.R.S. A.B.C.D
      • Danger (Check for danger to yourself or others before starting)
      • Response (Check for signs of life or response)
      • Send for help (Call for backup, or Emergency services)
      • Airway (Check for obstruction in the throat)
      • Breaths (Check for breaths)
      • CPR (Commence CPR)
      • Defib (Apply Defibrillator)


  • To remember the 10 organ systems of the human body:[38]
    • NICER DRUMS (Nervous, Integumentary, Circulatory, Endocrine, Respiratory, Digestive, Reproductive, Urinary, Muscular, Skeletal)
  • Intrinsic muscles of hand[39]


Thenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

Abductor pollicis brevis
    Opponens pollicis
    Flexor pollicis brevis
    Adductor pollicis

Hypothenar (lateral to medial-palmar surface):

Opponens digiti minimi
    Flexor digiti minimi
    Abductor digiti minimi
My Tensors Dig Ants for Mom
2 big ones, 2 small ones, 2 tensors, 2 pterygoids
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her
So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb
Simply Learn The Positions That The Carpus Has
Send Louis To Paris To Tame Carnal Hungers
Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver's Hands
  • Differential Diagnosis
List of mnemonics for the cranial nerves, their respective type and foramen
NERVE: Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Pathic (Trochlear) nerve Trigeminal (dentist) nerve Abducens nerve Facial nerve Vestibulo-cochlear (Auditory) nerve Glosso-pharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve Spinal Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve
Ophthalmic Maxillary Mandibular
(for nerve)[40]
OLd OPen OCeans TROuble TRIbesmen ABout Fish VEnom Giving VArious ACute / SPlitting Headaches
On Old Olympus' Towering Top A Fat Vocal German Viewed A Hop
TYPE: Sensory Sensory Motor Motor Both (sensory + motor) Motor Both Sensory Both Both Motor Motor
(for type)[41]
Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More
FORAMINA: Cribriform plate Optic canal Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Foramen Rotundum Foramen Ovale Superior Orbital Fissure Internal Acoustic Meatus Internal Acoustic Meatus Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Hypoglossal Canal
(for foramina)
Cleaners Only Spray Smelly Stuff Right On Smelly Idiots In Jumbled Junkyards Juggled High
Carl Only Swims South. Silly Roger Only Swims In Infiniti Jacuzzis. Jane Just Hitchhikes.


Bowed strings[edit]

  • Mnemonics are used in remembering string names in violin standard tuning.
    • Good Dogs Always Eat[42]
    • Greedy Dogs Always Eat[43]
  • Mnemonics are used in remembering string names in viola standard tuning.
    • Cats Give Dogs Advice[43]


  • Mnemonics are used in remembering guitar string names in standard tuning.[44]
  • Every Average Dude Gets Better Eventually
  • Eggs Are Deliciously Good Breakfast Energy
  • Eddy Ate Dynamite Good Bye Eddy
  • Every Adult Dog Growls Barks Eats.
  • Every Acid Dealer Gets Busted Eventually
  • Even After Dinner Giant Boys Eat
  • Elephants All Dine Generally Before Eight
  • Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big Ears
  • Every American Dog Gets Bones Easily
  • Every Angel Does Good Before Evil
  • Eat All Day Get Big Easy
  • Eine Alte Dame Geht Heute Einkaufen (German: an old lady goes shopping today)
  • Een Aap Die Geen Bananen Eet (Dutch: A monkey that doesn't eat bananas)

Thus we get the names of the strings from 6th string to the 1st string in that order.

Conversely, a mnemonic listing the strings in the reverse order is:

  • Every Beginning Guitarist Does All Exercises!
  • Elvis' Big Great Dane Ate Everything
  • Every Big Girl Deserves An Elephant
  • Easter Bunny Gets Drunk At Easter
  • Easter Bunnies Go Dancing After Easter


As for guitar tuning, there is also a mnemonic for ukuleles.

  • Good Cooks Eat A-lot
  • In the other direction it is Aunt Evy Cooks Grits

Reading music[edit]

E, G, B, D, and F
  • Musicians can remember the notes associated with the five lines of the treble clef using any of the following mnemonics, EGBDF: (from the bottom line to the top)
  • Every Good Boy Does Fine.[45]
  • Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (or Friendship, Fun, Fruit, etc.)
  • Eggnog Gets Better During February
  • Empty Garbage Before Dad Flips
F, A, C, and E
  • The four spaces of the treble clef spell out (from the bottom to the top) FACE and can be remembered as FACE fits in the space (between lines)
  • The five lines of the bass clef from the bottom to the top
  • Good Boys Do Fine Always
  • Good Birds Don't Fly Away
  • Grizzly Bears Don't Fly Airplanes
  • Great Basses Dig Fine Altos
  • Goblins Bring Death For All
  • George Bush Didn't Find Anything
  • Good Burritos Don't Fall Apart
  • The four spaces of the bass clef from the bottom to the top
  • All Cows Eat Grass
  • All Cars Eat Gas
  • The five lines of the alto clef from the bottom to the top
  • Fat Alley Cat Eats Garbage
  • The four spaces of the alto clef from the bottom to the top
  • Green Birds Do Fly
Key signatures of C♯ major or A♯ minor (left) and C♭ major or A♭ minor (right)
  • The order of sharps in key signature notation is F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯, E♯, B♯, which can be remembered using the phrase
  • Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle
  • Father Christmas Gave Dad An Electric Blanket.[46]
  • Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Birds.
  • Fidel Castro Gets Drunk And Eats Babies.
  • Fat Cats Greedy Dogs All Eat Bananas.
  • The order of flats is B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, C♭, and F♭ (reverse order of sharps), which can be remembered using the phrase:
  • Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father
  • Blanket Exploded And Dad Got Cold Feet.[46]
  • Before Eating A Doughnut Get Coffee First.
  • To remember the difference between the whole rest and the half rest:
    • A whole rest looks like a "hole in the ground", and a half rest looks like a hat.


  • THE LAD ZAPPA is a mnemonic for the first 11 (and most important) Ionian philosophers: Thales, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus, Anaximander, Democritus, Zeno, Anaximenes, Protagoras, Parmenides, Anaxagoras .
  • THE PLAZA PAD is another mnemonic for the first 11 (and most important) Ionian philosophers: Thales, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Protagoras, Leucippus, Anaximander, Zeno, Anaximenes, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Democritus.
  • SPA is a mnemonic for the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle in their order of appearance, Socrates first.



  • TULIP, summarises the core tenants of Calvinism: Total depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, and Perseverance of the Saints.


  • "Red, Right, Return" reminds the skipper entering ("returning to") an IALA region B port to keep red markers to the starboard of the vessel. Conversely the opposite convention exists in IALA region A ports, where a similar (but significantly different) mnemonic of "Red on the Right Returning To Sea" can be used.
  • The phrase "there's always some red port (wine) left" is used to remember the basics in seafaring. "Red" refers to the color of navigation lights on the port (left) side of a vessel (as opposed to green on the starboard side).[47]
  • "Nuclear Restrictions Constrain Fishing and Sailing, People Say" is used to encode the "order of priority" for which vessels have right of way (earlier in the list has priority over later): Not under command; Restricted; Constrained by draft; Fishing vessel; Sailboat; Powerboat; Seaplane.[47]

  • CRAFT - Clearance limit, Route, Altitude, Frequency, Transponder.
  • pre-landing: GUMPS - Gas, Undercarriage, Mixture, Propeller, Speed.
  • pre-final: MARTHA - Missed (procedure), Altitude (limit), Radios (set), Time (limit), Heading (final), Airspeed (descent)
  • pre-high-altitude - FLOWER - Flow (enabled), Lights (test), Oxygen (charged), Water (humidity), Electricity (on), Radio (check)
  • pre-flight-paperwork - ARROW - Airworthiness (certificate), Registration, Required (charts), Operating (checklists), Weight and balance
  • night collision avoidance: Red, Right, Returning - Red nav light on Right implies target is Returning (closing)
  • radio loss Instrument course - CDEF - as Cleared, else Direct to last fix, else as directed to Expect, else as flight plan Filed
  • spin recovery - POKER - Power (off), Opposite (full rudder), Klean (flaps, ...), Elevator (briskly forward), Recover (from dive)

Units of measure[edit]

  • kilo-, hecto-, deca-, deci-, centi-, milli-, in descending order of magnitude:
"Base" (Meters, liters, grams) come in between "deca" and "deci".
  • Kangaroos Hop Down British Driveways Carrying M&Ms[50]
  • King Henry Drank Both Diet Cokes Monday[50][dead link]
  • King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk[50][dead link]
  • deca-, hecto-, kilo-, mega-, giga-, tera-, in ascending order of magnitude:
  • deci-,-, milli-, micro-, nano-, pico-, femto-, atto- in descending order of magnitude:
  • Darn Clever Mnemonic Makes No Prefix Forgettable, Absolutely[50][dead link]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Brown, Mike (2012). How I killed Pluto and why it had it coming. Spiegel & Grau Trade Paperback. ISBN 978-0385531108.
  2. ^ "SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF STARS". Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  3. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2008). "Outstanding Issues in Our Understanding of L, T, and Y Dwarfs". 14th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars. 384: 85. arXiv:0704.1522. Bibcode:2008ASPC..384...85K.
  4. ^ James M. Russell, Never Eat Shredded Wheat: Weird Ways to Remember Things, Michael O'Mara Books, 18 Oct 2018
  5. ^ E.D. Hirsch, Jr., The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Houghton Mifflin, 1993); E.D. Hirsch, Jr., "What Your Fifth Grader Needs to Know: Fundamentals of a Good Fifth-grade Education" (Doubleday, 2005) p308
  6. ^ Scott Hagwood, Memory Power: You Can Develop a Great Memory--America's Grand Master Shows You How (Simon & Schuster, 2007)
  7. ^ Robert A. Wallace, et al., Biology, the Science of Life (Scott, Foresman, 1986) p398
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Parkinson, Judy (2008). I before E (except after C) : old-school ways to remember stuff. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association. ISBN 978-07621-0917-3.
  9. ^ "Mnemonics". xkcd. Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  10. ^ "Life processes - MRS GREN". KS3 Bitesize. BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  11. ^ Psychology: Concepts and Connections, Spencer Rathus
  12. ^ "Caloric Reflex (COWS): How does it work?". Medicine Specifics. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  13. ^ "MedicalMnemonics Full Abridged" (PDF). p. 36. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  14. ^ Ganssle, Jack; Noergaard, Tammy; Eady, Fred; Edwards, Lewin; Katz, David J.; Gentile, Rick; Arnold, Ken; Hyder, Kamal; Perrin, Bob (2007-09-14). Embedded Hardware: Know It All. Newnes. ISBN 978-0-08-056074-8.
  15. ^ Niebel, Benjamin W.; Freivalds, Andris (2003). "big+brown"&pg=PA297 Methods, Standards, and Work Design. ISBN 9780072468243.
  16. ^ Dempsey, Caitlin (22 January 2017). "Geography Mnemonic to Learn the Countries of Central America". Geography Realm. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  17. ^ a b c "11 Tricks for Keeping World History Straight". 5 January 2016. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  18. ^ "Mnemonic: Eras of Life". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  19. ^ "Mnemonic: Mineral Hardness". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  20. ^ "Mnemonic devices for: Chemistry". Retrieved 2012-08-09.
  21. ^ "Mnemonic: Stalactites and Stalagmites". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  22. ^ Pauk, Walter; Owens, Ross J. Q. (2013). How to Study in College. Cengage. p. 246. ISBN 9781285632889.
  23. ^ "Great Mnemonics". Retrieved 29 Aug 2011.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Mnemonics - Some Memory Joggers to help you Spell". Archived from the original on 2009-02-14.
  25. ^ a b c Word. Mnemonic
  26. ^ a b c d "Spelling Mnemonics". Archived from the original on 2010-09-24.
  27. ^ "Is it practise or practice? - Future Perfect". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  28. ^ a b c d "Mnemonics > Useful mnemonics". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  29. ^ "Mnemonics in English Language Teaching". Retrieved 18 March 2023.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]