List of modern names for biblical place names

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While the main Biblical place names like Jerusalem, Athens, Damascus, Alexandria, and Rome have been used for centuries, some have changed through the years.

Old Testament[edit]

Biblical name Mentioned in Present name Province/Region Country Name
Ai[1] Joshua 7:2 Khirbet Haiy;[2] others say, Et-Tell[3] Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Palestinian territories
Almon[4] Joshua 21:18 Khirbet Almit[5] Palestinian territories
Babylon Jeremiah 50:1 - 50:46 Hillah[6] Babil Governorate Iraq
Beth-anath[7] Joshua 19:38; Judges 1:33 Bi'ina[8] Northern District Israel
Beth Arbel[9] Hosea 10:14 Irbid[10] Irbid Governorate Jordan
Beth-tappuah[11] Joshua 15:53 Taffuh[12] Hebron Governorate Palestinian territories
Bozrah[13] Amos 1:12 Bouseira[14] Tafilah Governorate Jordan
Chezib[15] Genesis 38:5 Khirbet esh Sheikh Ghazy[16] Jerusalem District Israel
Cuthah[17] II Kings 17:24 Tell Ibrahim[18] Babil Governorate Iraq
Dedan[19] Ezekiel 38:13 Al-'Ula[20] Al Madinah Region Saudi Arabia
Ecbatana[21] Ezra 6:2 Hamadan[22] Hamadan Province Iran
Elim[23] Exodus 16:1 Wadi Gharandel[24] South Sinai Governorate Egypt
En-gannim[25] Joshua 19:21 Jenin[26] Jenin Governorate Palestinian territories
Erech[27] Genesis 10:10 Uruk[28] Al Muthanna Governorate Iraq
Eshtemoa[29] Joshua 21:14 as-Samu[30][31] Hebron Governorate Palestinian territories
Etam[32] II Chronicles 11:6 Solomon's Pools[33][34] Bethlehem Governorate Palestinian territories
Gath Joshua 13:3 Ramla[35][36] Central District Israel
Gath-hepher (Gittahhepher)[37] Joshua 19:13; 2 Kings 14:25 Gob'batha of Sepphoris[38] Northern District Israel
Gerar[27] Genesis 10:19 Haluza[39] Southern District Israel
Giloh[40] Joshua 15:51 Beit Jala[41][42] Bethlehem Governorate Palestinian territories
Gozan[43] I Chronicles 5:26 Tell Halaf Al Hasakah Governorate Syria
Harosheth Haggoyim[44] Judges 4:13 El Ahwat[45] Haifa District Israel
Hamath[46] II Samuel 8:9 Hama[47] Hama Governorate Syria
Hammath[48] Joshua 19:35 Tiberias[49] Northern District Israel
Hapharaim[50] Joshua 19:19 eṭ Ṭaiyibeh[51] Northern District Israel
Hazezon-tamar[52] Genesis 14:7 Ein Gedi[53] Southern District Israel
Hukok[54] Joshua 19:34 Yaquq[55] Northern District Israel
Ible'am[56] Joshua 17:11 Khirbet Yebla[57] Northern District Israel
Iron Joshua 19:38 Yaroun[58] Nabatieh Governorate Lebanon
Jezreel[59] I Kings 18:45 Zir'in[60] Northern District Israel
Joppa[61] Jonah 1:3 Jaffa[62] Tel Aviv District Israel
Kadesh[63] Numbers 20:1 Petra[64] Ma'an Governorate Jordan
Kadesh-barnea[65] Deuteronomy 1:2 Tell el-Qudeirat[66] Sinai Peninsula Egypt
Kedesh-naphtali[44] Judges 4:6 Kedesh[67] Northern District Israel
Kir of Moab[68] Isaiah 15:1 Al Karak[69] Karak Governorate Jordan
Kiriath-Jearim Joshua 9:17 Abu Ghosh[70] Jerusalem District Israel
Kitron[71] Judges 1:30 Sepphoris[72] Northern District Israel
Laish/Leshem[73][74] Judges 18:29 & Joshua 19:47 Tel Dan (Banias)[75] Northern District Israel
Medeba[76][77] Numbers 21:30 & Joshua 13:9 Madaba[78] Madaba Governorate Jordan
Nephtoah[79] Joshua 15:9 Lifta[80][81] Jerusalem District Israel
No Ezekiel 30:14 Alexandria[82] Alexandria Governorate Egypt
Noph Isaiah 19:13 Memphis[83][84] Giza Governorate Egypt
No-amon/Thebes[85][86] Ezekiel30:16 & Nahum 3:8 Luxor Luxor Governorate Egypt
Noph Isaiah 19:13 Memphis[83][84] Giza Governorate Egypt
On/Awen[87] Genesis 46:20 Ayn Shams[88] Cairo Governorate Egypt
Ono I Chronicles 8:12 Or Yehuda[89] Central District Israel
Ophir Job 22:24 Sri Lanka[90] Island country Sri Lanka
Ophrah[91] Joshua 18:23 Taybeh[92] Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Palestinian territories
Pi-beseth/Bubastis[85] Ezekiel 30:17 Tell Basta[93] Al Sharqia Governorate Egypt
Qiryat Arba[94] Joshua 14:15 Hebron[95] Hebron Governorate Palestinian territories
Pirathon[96] Judges 12:15 Fara'ata[97] Qalqilya Governorate Palestinian territories
Rabbah[98] Joshua 15:60 Rebbo[nb 1] Jerusalem District Israel
Rabbah[13] Amos 1:14 Amman[101] Amman Governorate Jordan
Rakkath Joshua 19:35 Tiberias[102] Northern District Israel
Sarepta[103][104] I Kings 17:9 & Obadiah 20 Sarafand Southern Governorate Lebanon
Seba (Saba)[105] Psalm 72:10 Meroë[106] River Nile Governorate Sudan
Sheba[107] I Kings 10:1 Ma'rib[108] Ma'rib Governorate Yemen
Shechem Genesis 12:6 Nablus[109] Nablus Governorate Palestinian territories
Shiloah[110] Isaiah 8:6 Silwan Jerusalem Governorate
Shomron (Samaria) I Kings 16:24 Sebaste[111] Nablus Governorate Palestinian territories
Shunem[112] II Kings 4:8; Joshua 19:18 Sulam[113] Northern District Israel
Sin/Pelusium[85] Ezekiel 30:15 Tell el Farama[114] North Sinai Governorate Egypt
Socoh[115] Joshua 15:35 Kh. Shuweika[116] Jerusalem District Israel
Succoth[117] Joshua 13:27 Deir Alla[118] Balqa Governorate Jordan
Susa[119] Nehemiah 1:1 Shush[120] Khūzestān Province Iran
Syene[85][121] Ezekiel 29:10 & 30:6 Aswan[122] Aswan Governorate Egypt
Tadmor[123] II Chronicles 8:4 Palmyra[124][125] Homs Governorate Syria
Tahpanhes[126] Jeremiah 44:1 Tell Defenneh[127] Dakahlia Governorate Egypt
Timnah[128] Judges 14:1 Khirbet Tibneh[129] Jerusalem District Israel
Timnath-heres[130] Joshua 19:50 Khirbet Tibnah,[131] others say Kifl Haris[132][133] Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate[134] Palestinian territories
Ur[135][136] Genesis 11:31 & Nehemiah 9:7 Tell el Muqayyar Dhi Qar Governorate Iraq
Zaphon[117] Joshua 13:27 Amathus[137] Jordan
Zephathah (Zephath)[138] II Chronicles 14:10 Tell es-Safi Southern District Israel
Ziddim Joshua 19:35 Hittin[139] Northern District Israel
Zoan[140] Numbers 13:22 Tanis[141] Al Sharqia Governorate Egypt
Zorah[142] Joshua 15:33 Sar'a[143][144] Jerusalem District Israel

New Testament[edit]

Biblical name Mentioned in Present name Province/Region Country Name Country Flag
Adramyttium Acts 27:2 Burhaniye Balıkesir Province Turkey Turkey
Antioch Acts 11:26 Antakya[145] Hatay Province Turkey Turkey
Aphek Acts 23:31 Rosh HaAyin[146] Central District Israel Israel
Assos Acts 20:13 Behramkale[147] Çanakkale Province Turkey Turkey
Attalia Acts 14:25 Antalya[148] Antalya Province Turkey Turkey
Berea Acts 17:10-13 Veria Imathia Greece Greece
Cauda Acts 27:16 Gavdos Chania Greece Greece
Cenchrea Romans 16:1 Kechries Korinthía Greece Greece
Gerasa Mark 5:1 & Luke 8:26 Jerash[149] Jerash Governorate Jordan Jordan
Iconium Acts 14:1 Konya Konya Province Turkey Turkey
Lod Acts 9:32 Lod[150] Central District Israel Israel
Lystra Acts 14:8 Klistra[151] Konya Province Turkey Turkey
Mitylene Acts 20:14 Mytilene[152] Lesbos Greece Greece
Myra Acts 27:5 Demre[153] Antalya Province Turkey Turkey
Neapolis Acts 16:11 Kavala[154] East Macedonia and Thrace Greece Greece
Nicopolis Titus 3:12 Preveza[155] Epirus Greece Greece
Pergamum Revelation 2:12 Bergama İzmir Province Turkey Turkey
Philadelphia Revelation 3:7 Alaşehir[156] Manisa Province Turkey Turkey
Ptolemais Acts 21:7 Acre Northern District Israel Israel
Puteoli Acts 28:13 Pozzuoli Campania Italy Italy
Rhegium Acts 28:13 Reggio Calabria Calabria Italy Italy
Smyrna Revelation 2:8 İzmir İzmir Province Turkey Turkey
Thessalonica I & II Thessalonians Thessaloniki Central Macedonia Greece Greece
Thyatira Revelation 2:18 Akhisar Manisa Province Turkey Turkey

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tentatively identified by Conder & Kitchener with the biblical city of Rabba (Josh. 15:60) because of their phonetic similarity, and which site is located in the territory given by lot to the tribe of Judah. Still, it is only a conjecture, without any valid oral tradition to substantiate the claim, or otherwise refute the claim.[99] Others have speculated that the Rabbah of Joshua 15:60 may be the town known as Rbt, an unidentified town believed to have been near the biblical Gezer and mentioned in Thutmosis III’s list of Canaanite cities (no. 105), and what is also thought to be mentioned in a cuneiform letter found at Taanach. According to two el-Amarna letters (289, 290) sent by the king of Jerusalem to the pharaoh, Milkilu, the king of Gezer, together with Shuwardata captured Rubutu with the aid of mercenaries.[100] The problem with this identification, however, is that no one has yet found a city near Gezer by the name of Rbt or Rubutu, and even if they had, Gezer - and by way of extension, Rabbah - would not be in the territorial domain of the tribe of Judah, but rather in what belonged to Ephraim (cf. Josh. 21:20–21). It was, therefore, imperative to look for the Rabbah in the tribal inheritance of Judah.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Joshua 7 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  2. ^ W.F. Birch, On the Identification of "Ai", Palestine Exploration Fund - Quarterly Statement for 1877, London 1878, pp. 132–133.
  3. ^ Watson E. Mills & Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press 1990, p. 18 ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7
  4. ^ "Joshua 21 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  5. ^ "The Cities of the Tribe of Benjamin". www.jewish-history.com.
  6. ^ Babylon
  7. ^ "Joshua 19:38 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  8. ^ Albright, W.F. (1923). "Contribution to the Historical Geography of Palestine". Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 2–3: 19–20. Albright's view is supported by Neubauer (Géographie du Talmud, p. 235–ff.), Abel ("La Liste géographique du Papyrus 71 de Zénon", RB 1928, pp. 409–415; idem. Géog. II, p. 266), Alt (PJB 22, 1926, pp. 55–ff.; 24, 1928, p. 87), Saarisalo ("Boundary", p. 189), Safrai ("Beth-Anath", Sinai 78, 1976, pp. 18–34), Rafael Frankel (Settlement dynamics and regional diversity in ancient Upper Galilee, 2001, p. 136), Yoel Elitzur (Ancient Place Names in the Holy Land, 2004, p. 374).
  9. ^ "Hosea 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  10. ^ "Bible Map: Beth-arbel". bibleatlas.org.
  11. ^ "Joshua 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  12. ^ See page 310 in:Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  13. ^ a b "Amos 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  14. ^ "Bible Map: Bozrah". bibleatlas.org.
  15. ^ "Genesis 38 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  16. ^ Eusebius, Onomasticon - The Place Names of Divine Scripture, (ed.) R. Steven Notley & Ze'ev Safrai, Brill: Leiden 2005, p. 161 (§945), note 945
  17. ^ "2 Kings 17 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  18. ^ "Bible Map: Cuthah". bibleatlas.org.
  19. ^ "Ezekiel 38 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  20. ^ "The Incense Road: Dedan". nabataea.net.
  21. ^ "Ezra 6 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  22. ^ "Hegmataneh Hamedan". hegmataneh.ir. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  23. ^ "Exodus 16 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  24. ^ "Lion Tracks Photo QnA -- Elim. Second stop in the Sinai wilderness after crossing the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt". www.bibleistrue.com.
  25. ^ "Joshua 19:21 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  26. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. 2, (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 65 (note 168) (Hebrew)
  27. ^ a b "Genesis 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  28. ^ "Bible Map: Erech". bibleatlas.org.
  29. ^ "Joshua 21:14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  30. ^ Avraham Negev; Shimon Gibson (July 2005). Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-0-8264-8571-7. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  31. ^ Eusebius, Onomasticon - The Place Names of Divine Scripture, (ed.) R. Steven Notley & Ze'ev Safrai, Brill: Leiden 2005, p. 84 (§429), note 429 ISBN 0-391-04217-3
  32. ^ "2 Chronicles 11 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  33. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book viii, chapter vii, section 3; 8:186); Burial Places of the Fathers, published by Yehuda Levi Nahum in book: Ṣohar la-ḥasifat ginzei teiman (Heb. צהר לחשיפת גנזי תימן), Tel-Aviv 1986, p. 253, who quotes from an ancient rabbinic source: "Between Beth-Lehem and Hebron is the great pool, being the [water] duct that Hezekiah made, and the pool that he made, and it is [known as] Ein Etam." Rashi, who had not seen Josephus' writings, surmised that Ein Etam was the place known as "the waters of Nephtoah" (cf. Rashi's commentary on Yoma 31a and Zevahim 54b, s.v. עין עיטם); see also Rashi's comments on Joshua 15:8 and Deuteronomy 33.
  34. ^ Victor Guérin, Description de la Palestine, Judée, Description de la Judée, Paris 1869, pp. 104–119, 303–309
  35. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. II, chapter 11, s.v. ויבנה בארץ פלשתים, (3rd edition) Jerusalem 2007, p. 78 (Hebrew)
  36. ^ B. Mazar (1954). "Gath and Gittaim". Israel Exploration Journal. 4 (3/4): 227–235.
  37. ^ "Joshua 19:13 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  38. ^ Jerusalem Talmud (Kila'im 9:3; Genesis Rabba § 98:15; not a ruin, per se, but a recognised land feature (i.e. "wine press") known to the ancients, situate some 3 biblical miles from Sepphoris. Conder and Kitchener, in their Survey of Western Palestine (vol. 1, p. 365), thinks this place to have been the village of el-Messhed, about 2.5 miles south-east of Sepphoris and where is now the alleged tomb of Jonah the prophet, a view corroborated by Jerome (in his Proaem. to Jonah) and by Benjamin of Tudela. Marcus Jastrow explains "Gob'batha" as meanings "hills". In J. Payne Smith's A Compendious Syriac Dictionary the word is explained as meaning "a pit, hole, den, cavern." In the Leiden MS. of the Jerusalem Talmud, the name is written in a variant form, גו פפתה, while in the Rome MS. of the Jerusalem Talmud the word is written גופפתה. The place is said to have been the birthplace of Jonah the prophet.
  39. ^ Rabbi Saadia Gaon's Judeo-Arabic Translation of the word Gerar (Judeo-Arabic: אלכ'לוץ = al-Khalūṣ) in the Pentateuch (Tafsir), s.v. Genesis 10:19, Genesis 20:2, Genesis 26:17, 20. On Haluza's proximity to Gerar, see: M. Naor, Gerar — Tell el Far'a, Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (1955), pp. 99–102 (Hebrew)
  40. ^ "Joshua 15:51 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  41. ^ Victor Guérin, Description de la Palestine, Judée, Description de la Judée, Paris 1869, p. 298; See: Guérin, V. (1869). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 3. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale. Others identify Giloh with Khirbet Jala, ca. 8 km. (5 mi.) north, northwest of Hebron. See: David Noel Freedman and Allen C. Myers, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Grand Rapids 2000, p. 505 (s.v. Giloh) ISBN 0-8028-2400-5
  42. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 2000. p. 505. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.
  43. ^ "1 Chronicles 5:26 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  44. ^ a b "Judges 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  45. ^ "Long time archaeological riddle solved".
  46. ^ "2 Samuel 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  47. ^ "Bible Map: Hamath". bibleatlas.org.
  48. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  49. ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Erubin 5:7; Tosefta, Erubin 7:2; cf. Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 1:1 (2a). Hammath was, originally, an independent town (separate from Rakkath where Tiberias stands), but the suburbs of both towns merged into one. The Jerusalem Talmud mentions that Hammath was within the Sabbath-day walking distance, meaning, less than 1 biblical mile from Tiberias.
  50. ^ "Joshua 19:19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  51. ^ Thought by Yeshayahu Press, editor of Topographical-Historical Encyclopedia of the Land of Israel, to be the biblical Hapharaim, in the territory given to tribe of Issachar. Ishtori Haparchi, differing in view, thought that the old namesake is represented in the nearby village of Kefrah (see: Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. 2, [3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet], chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 63 -- note 144)
  52. ^ "Genesis 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  53. ^ Targum Onkelos on Genesis 14:7; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Ben-Uzziel on Genesis 7:14 and II Chronicles 20:2.
  54. ^ "Joshua 19:34 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  55. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach vol. 2, (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 54 (note 24) (Hebrew)
  56. ^ "Joshua 17:11 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  57. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach vol. 2, (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 63 (note 145) (Hebrew); Site now a ruin, seen on Palestine Exploration Fund Map: Jezreel (Sheet IX). Others, including Aaron Demsky, thought that Ibleam was to be identified with Belameh, located a little over one mile (1.6 km) south of Jenin.
  58. ^ "Bible Map: Yiron". bibleatlas.org.
  59. ^ "I Kings 18:45 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  60. ^ "Itinerary from Bordeaux to Jerusalem - 'The Bordeaux Pilgrim' (333 A.D.)", translated by Aubrey Stewart, pub. in: Palestine Pilgrim's Text Society, vol. 1, London 1887, p. 17 (note 5)
  61. ^ "Jonah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  62. ^ "Bible Map: Joppa". bibleatlas.org.
  63. ^ Place name translated by Onkelos in all places as Rekem (Hebrew: רקם). Not to be mistaken with the Kadesh of Upper Galilee.
  64. ^ Flavius, Josephus. "Antiquities of the Jews (iv.vii.§1)". Loeb Classical Library, London 1961. Missing or empty |url= (help) (see: Josephus. "Jewish Antiquities". doi:10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_antiquities.1930. Retrieved 6 August 2016.  – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required))
  65. ^ Place name translated by Onkelos in all places as Rekem-Giah (Hebrew: רקם גיאה). Not to be mistaken with the Kadesh of transjordan.
  66. ^ Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. (1990). Watson E. Mills; Roger Aubrey Bullard, eds. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7.
  67. ^ A. Neubauer, La Géographie du Talmud, Paris 1868, pp. 224–225
  68. ^ "Isaiah 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  69. ^ "Bible Map: Kir". bibleatlas.org.
  70. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica (vol. 2), Jerusalem 1971, p. 182 (s.v. Abu Ghosh)
  71. ^ "Judges 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  72. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. II (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 64 (Hebrew), where he cites the Babylonian Talmud (Megillah 6a).
  73. ^ "Judges 18 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  74. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org.
  75. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. II (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 53 (Hebrew)
  76. ^ "Numbers 21 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  77. ^ "Joshua 13 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  78. ^ "Visit Madaba". www.visitmadaba.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008.
  79. ^ "Joshua 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  80. ^ List of Geographical Names, (A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names), Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects, Benjamin Maisler, Tel-Aviv 1932, p. 51
  81. ^ See p. 51 in: Maisler, Benjamin (1932). "A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects. 4 (3): 1–92. JSTOR 24384308 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). (Hebrew)
  82. ^ Jonathan ben Uzziel's Aramaic Targum on Ezekiel 30:14; Commentary of Rabbi David Kimhi (RADAK) on Ezekiel 30:14. Jewish tradition differs from the modern identification of this place name. Modern historical geographers place No with the ancient city of Thebes, in Egypt.
  83. ^ a b "Bible Map: Memphis". bibleatlas.org.
  84. ^ a b Jonathan ben Uzziel's Aramaic Targum on Ezekiel 30:16
  85. ^ a b c d "Ezekiel 30 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  86. ^ "Nahum 3 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  87. ^ "Genesis 46 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  88. ^ "Bible Map: On". bibleatlas.org.
  89. ^ Maisler (Mazar), Benjamin (1932). "The Method of Transcribing Geographical and Personal Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects: 19. JSTOR 24384308. (Registration required (help)).; Shmuel Klein, Eretz Yehudah (Heb. ארץ יהודה : מימי העליה מבבל עד חתימת התלמוד), Tel-Aviv 1939, s.v. אונו (Ono)
  90. ^ Solomon Skoss (ed.), The Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, Known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ` (Agron) of David ben Abraham al-Fasi, Yale University Press: New Haven 1936, vol. 1, p. 46 (s.v. אופיר), being identified with Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon). Cf. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book 8, chapter 6, §4), s.v. Aurea Chersonesus.
  91. ^ "Joshua 18:23 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  92. ^ James Elmer Dean (ed.), Epiphanius' Treatise on Weights and Measures, Chicago University Press: Chicago 1935, pp. 72–73 (s.v. Ḥafrå); W.F. Albright, "The Site of Tirzah and the Topography of Western Manasseh", in: The Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, vol. XI, Jerusalem 1931, p. 248, who says that the Arabic name eṭ Ṭaiyibeh (shortened for Ṭaiyibet al-Ism) was given to the city Ophrah as a euphemism, meaning "the goodly," to offset the name Afrīn which, in Arabic connotation, means "demons" (cf. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research [AASOR], IV, pp. 130–ff.; ibid. VI (1926), p. 35; Albrecht Alt, PJB 1926, pp. 68–ff.). Although the meaning of "Ophrah" in Hebrew has nothing to do with its Arabic connotation, nevertheless, such appellations for cities were thought of as being offensive, warranting its name change.
  93. ^ Wilkinson, Richard H. (2000). The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 109
  94. ^ "Joshua 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  95. ^ "Bible Map: Kiriath-arba (Hebron)". bibleatlas.org.
  96. ^ "Judges 12:15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  97. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach vol. 2, (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 58 (note 74) (Hebrew)
  98. ^ "Joshua 15:60 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  99. ^ C.R. Conder & H.H. Kitchener, The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology, vol. 3, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund: London 1883, p. 314.
  100. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd edition), volume 17 (Ra–Sam), Keter Publishing House Ltd.: Jerusalem 2007, p. 7
  101. ^ "Bible Map: Rabbah". bibleatlas.org.
  102. ^ "TIBERIAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com.
  103. ^ "1 Kings 17 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  104. ^ "Obadiah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  105. ^ "Psalms 72 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  106. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (book 2, chapter 10, section 2) [Paragraph # 249]
  107. ^ "1 Kings 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  108. ^ Kenneth A. Kitchen: The World of Ancient Arabia Series. Documentation for Ancient Arabia. Part I. Chronological Framework and Historical Sources p.110; Sefer Me'or ha-Afelah of Rabbi Nethanel ben Isaiah (ed. Yosef Qafih), Kiryat Ono 1983, p. 74 (Parashat Noah) (Hebrew), being an eponym for one of the sons of Joktan.
  109. ^ "SHECHEM - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com.
  110. ^ "Isaiah 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  111. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book xv, chapter viii, §5)
  112. ^ "2 Kings 4:8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  113. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaftor wa-Ferach, vol. 2, (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 62 (note 130) (Hebrew)
  114. ^ "Pelusium: Gateway to Egypt - Archaeology Magazine Archive". www.archaeology.org.
  115. ^ "Joshua 15:35 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  116. ^ See p. 53 in: Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  117. ^ a b "Joshua 13:27 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  118. ^ Jerusalem Talmud (Shevi'it 9:2), where it says: "Sukkot (of Joshua 13:27) is Dar'ellah".
  119. ^ "Nehemiah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  120. ^ "Susa - Livius". www.livius.org.
  121. ^ "Ezekiel 29 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  122. ^ "Bible Map: Syene". bibleatlas.org.
  123. ^ "2 Chronicles 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  124. ^ "Bible Map: Tadmor". bibleatlas.org.
  125. ^ Art, Author: Department of Ancient Near Eastern. "Palmyra - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
  126. ^ "Jeremiah 44 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  127. ^ "Bible Map: Tahpanhes". bibleatlas.org.
  128. ^ "Judges 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org.
  129. ^ Page 214 in:Clermont-Ganneau, Charles Simon (1896). [ARP] Archaeological Researches in Palestine 1873-1874, translated from the French by J. McFarlane. 2. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  130. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org.
  131. ^ Schürer, E. (1891). Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi [A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ]. 1. Translated by Miss Taylor. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 158 (note 438).
  132. ^ List of Geographical Names, (A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names), Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects, Benjamin Maisler, Tel-Aviv 1932, p. 38 (Part II)
  133. ^ According to the Samaritan Chronicle, in Kefr Ghuweirah (now called Awarta) is found the tomb of Joshua bin Nun. Conder and Kitchener, citing another Samaritan tradition, say rather that it was Eleazer the priest who was buried a "little way west of Awarta (at al 'Azeir)," while Joshua bin Nun was buried at Kefr Haris. See: Conder and Kitchener, 1882, p. 218 - 219
  134. ^ If, however, the site is Kifl Haris, as some propose, the region is in Salfit Governorate.
  135. ^ "Genesis 11 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  136. ^ "Nehemiah 9 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  137. ^ Jerusalem Talmud (Shevi'it 9:2), where it says: "Zaphon (of Joshua 13:27) is Amathus".
  138. ^ "2 Chronicles 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  139. ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 1:1 (2a)
  140. ^ "Numbers 13 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  141. ^ "Bible Map: Zoan". bibleatlas.org.
  142. ^ "Joshua 15:33 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org.
  143. ^ E. Robinson & E. Smith, Biblical researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea (vol. 2), Boston 1841, pp. 339–340, 343; C.R. Conder, Tent Work in Palestine (vol. 1), London 1879, pp. 274–275; Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach (3rd edition), vol. II -- chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 78 (note 282) (Hebrew), et al.
  144. ^ Victor Guérin, Description géographique, historique et archéologique de la Palestine (vol. 3), Paris 1869, p. 323
  145. ^ "Bible Map: Syrian Antioch". bibleatlas.org.
  146. ^ "Bible Map: Antipatris". bibleatlas.org.
  147. ^ "Bible Map: Assos". bibleatlas.org.
  148. ^ "Bible Map: Attalia". bibleatlas.org.
  149. ^ "Bible Map: Gerasa". bibleatlas.org.
  150. ^ "Bible Map: Lod". bibleatlas.org.
  151. ^ "Kilistra (Gökyurt) - English". kilistra.org.tr. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  152. ^ "Bible Map: Mitylene". bibleatlas.org.
  153. ^ "Bible Map: Myra". bibleatlas.org.
  154. ^ "Bible Map: Neapolis". bibleatlas.org.
  155. ^ "Bible Map: Nicopolis". bibleatlas.org.
  156. ^ "Bible Map: Philadelphia". bibleatlas.org.