List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)

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Humboldt University, founded in Berlin in 1810, was a much emulated model of a modern university in the 19th century (photochrom from 1900).[1]
University of London, founded in 1836, was established as an independent examining board for affiliated colleges, with King's College London and University College London as the founding colleges.[2]

The list of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) contains all universities which existed in Europe between the French Revolution and the end of World War II. Universities are regarded as comprising all institutions of higher education recognized as universities by the public or ecclesiastical authorities in charge and authorized to confer academic degrees in more than one faculty.[3] Temporary foundations are also included. Where institutions not meeting the definition of a University are included (e.g. university colleges) these are indicated by footnotes.

At the outset of the 19th century, European universities had been severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars, their number falling in the brief span of time between 1789 and 1815 by sixty to 83.[4] By 1840 their number recovered to 98 universities with approximately 80,000 students and 5,000 professors.[4] Notwithstanding the trend towards specialized institutions of higher learning – in France, for instance, the universities had been suppressed and replaced by Grandes écoles –, the size of the student and professor bodies multiplied over the next hundred years, attaining a size of 600,000 and 32,000 members respectively at around two hundred universities.[4] In total, the period saw about 220 universities in existence that are listed below.[3][A 1]

List[edit]

The list is sorted by the date of recognition. At places where more than one university was established, the name of the institution is given in brackets.

12th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
end 12th c.[3] Bologna Italy

13th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
beginning 13th c.[3] Paris France
early 13th c.[3] Oxford England
early 13th c.[3] Montpellier France
1209–25[3] Cambridge England
1218/19[3] Salamanca Spain
1222[3] Padua Italy
1224[3] Naples Italy
1233[3] Toulouse France
c.1235[3] Orléans France
1246[3] Siena Italy
end 13th c.[3] Valladolid Spain
1290[3] Lisbon Portugal

14th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1303[3] Rome (Sapienza) Italy
1308[3] Coimbra Portugal
1336[5] Camerino[A 2] Italy
1308[3] Perugia Italy
1339[3] Grenoble France
1343[3] Pisa Italy
1348[3] Prague Czech Republic
1349[3] Florence Italy
1354[3] Huesca (Spanish) Spain
1361[3] Pavia Italy
1364/1400[3] Cracow Poland
1365[3] Vienna Austria
1379[3] Erfurt Germany
1385[3] Heidelberg Germany
1388[3] Cologne Germany
1391[3] Ferrara Italy
1395[3] Budapest Hungary

15th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1402[3] Würzburg Germany
1404[3] Turin Italy
1409[3] Aix-en-Provence (French) France
1409[3] Leipzig Germany
1411[3] St Andrews Scotland
1414[3] Parma Italy
1419[3] Rostock Germany
1431[3] Poitiers France
1432[3] Caen France
1441[3] Bordeaux France
1444[3] Catania Italy
1450[3] Barcelona Spain
1451[3] Glasgow Scotland
1456[3] Greifswald Germany
1457[3] Freiburg Germany
1459[3] Basel Switzerland
1465[3] Pressburg Slovakia
1471[3] Genoa Italy
1474[3] Zaragoza Spain
1475[3] Copenhagen Denmark
1476[3] Tübingen Germany
1476[6] Mainz Germany
1477[3] Uppsala Sweden
1489[3] Sigüenza Spain
1495[3] Aberdeen Scotland
1499[3] Alcalá de Henares Spain
1500[3] Valencia Spain

16th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1502[3] Wittenberg Germany
1505[3] Seville Spain
1521[3] Toledo (Spanish) Spain
1526[3] Santiago de Compostela Spain
1527[3] Marburg Germany
1531[3] Granada Spain
1540[3] Macerata Italy
1540[3] Oñate (Spanish) Spain
1544[3] Königsberg Russia
1548[3] Messina Italy
1548[3] Osuna Spain
1552[3] Orihuela (Spanish) Spain
1555[3] Burgo de Osma (Santa Catalina) Spain
1556[3] Rome (Gregoriana) Italy
1556[3] Milan Italy
1558[3] Jena Germany
1559[3] Douai France
1570[3] Olomouc Czech Republic
1574[3] Oviedo Spain
1575[3] Leiden Netherlands
1576[3] Ostroh Ukraine
1578[3] Palermo Italy
1578[3] Vilnius Lithuania
1582/83[3] Edinburgh Scotland
1585[3] Fermo Italy
1585[3] Franeker Netherlands
1585/86[3] Graz Austria
1587[3] El Escorial Spain
1592[3] Dublin (Trinity College) Ireland
1592[7] Valletta[A 3] Malta

17th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1606[3] Cagliari Italy
1607[3] Gießen Germany
1612[3] Groningen Netherlands
1614/16[3] Paderborn (German) Germany
1617[3] Sassari Italy
1619[3] Salzburg Austria
1621[3] Strassburg France
1629[3] Münster Germany
1632[3] Tartu (Dorpat) Estonia
1632[8] Amsterdam[A 4] Netherlands
1635[9] Budapest Hungary
1636[3] Utrecht Netherlands
1640[3] Helsinki Finland
1658[10] Kyiv (Mohyla Academy)[A 5] Ukraine
1665[3] Kiel Germany
1661[3] Lemberg Ukraine
1668[3] Innsbruck Austria
1668[3] Lund Sweden
1669[3] Zagreb Croatia
1671[3] Urbino Italy
1691[3] Besançon France
1693[3] Halle Germany

18th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1702[3] Breslau Poland
1722[3] Dijon France
1724[3] Saint Petersburg (State University) Russia
1727[3] Camerino Italy
1737[3] Göttingen Germany
1743[3] Erlangen Germany
1755[3] Moscow (State University) Russia
1768[3] Nancy France
1772/73[3] Modena Italy
1795[11] Maynooth[A 6] Ireland

19th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1803[3] Rennes France
1804[3] Kazan Russia
1804[3] Kharkov Ukraine
1805[3] Clermont-Ferrand France
1808[3] Lyon France
1808[3] Rouen France
1810[3] Berlin Germany
1810[3] Laibach Slovenia
1811[3] Christiania Norway
1816[3] Warsaw Poland
1816[3] Liège Belgium
1816/17[3] Ghent Belgium
1817 Leuven (State University)[A 7]
1817[3] Lille France
1818[3] Bonn Germany
1822 Lampeter[A 8] Wales
1823[3] Corfu Greece
1826[3] Munich Germany
1826[12] London (University College)[A 9] England
1829[14] London (King's College)[A 10] England
1829[16] DTU Denmark
1832[3] Durham England
1833[3] Zurich Switzerland
1834[3] Bern Switzerland
1834 Leuven (Catholic University)[A 11] Belgium
1834[3] Bruxelles Belgium
1834[3] Kyiv Ukraine
1836[3] London (University of) England
1836[3] Madrid Spain
1837[3] Athens (University of) Greece
1845[3] Belfast[A 12] Northern Ireland
1845[3] Cork[A 13] Ireland
1845[3] Galway[A 14] Ireland
1851[3] Manchester (Owens College)[A 15] England
1854[3] Dublin (Catholic University)[A 16] Ireland
1855[3] ETH Zurich Switzerland
1860[3] Iași Romania
1863[18] Belgrade[A 17] Serbia
1864[3] Bucharest Romania
1864[3] Odessa Ukraine
1868[19] Moscow (Technical University)[A 18] Russia
1869[3] Zagreb Croatia
1871 Newcastle[A 19] England
1872[3] Geneva Switzerland
1872[3] Aberystwyth[A 20] Wales
1872[3] Kolozsvár Romania
1874 Leeds[A 21] England
1875[3] Czernowitz Ukraine
1875[3] Angers France
1875[3] Lille (Catholic University) France
1875[3] Lyon France
1875[3] Paris France
1875 Birmingham[A 22] England
1876 Bristol[A 23] England
1877[3] Toulouse France
1877[3] Stockholm Sweden
1879 Sheffield[A 24] England
1880[3] Amsterdam (Free University) Netherlands
1880 Manchester (Victoria University) England
1881[3] Nottingham[A 25] England
1881[22] Dundee[A 26] Scotland
1883[3] Liverpool[A 27] England
1883[3] Cardiff[A 28] Wales
1884[3] Bangor[A 29] Wales
1886[23] Deusto Spain
1887[3] Athens (Technical) Greece
1888[3] Sofia Bulgaria
1889[3] Fribourg Switzerland
1890[3] Lausanne Switzerland
1893[3] Wales Wales

20th century[edit]

Recognized University Modern country
1901 Reading[A 30] England
1902[24] Southampton[A 31] England
1904[3] Comillas Spain
1905[3] Belgrade Serbia
1907 [25] London (Imperial College)[A 32] England
1908[3] Rome (Angelicum) Italy
1909[3] Neuchâtel Switzerland
1909[3] Saratov Russia
1911[3] Reykjavík Iceland
1911[3] Porto Portugal
1912[3] Debrecen Hungary
1913[26] Mogilev[A 33] Belarus
1914[3] Frankfurt Germany
1915[3] Murcia Spain
1915[3] Rostov-on-Don Russia
1916[27] Nizhny Novgorod Russia
1917[3] Turku (Åbo Akademi) Finland
1917[3] Perm Russia
1918[3] Tbilisi Georgia
1918[3] Dnipropetrovsk Ukraine
1918[3] Smolensk Russia
1918[3] Petrograd (Communist University) Russia
1918[3] Moscow (State Pedagogical University) Russia
1918[3] Voronezh Russia
1918 Wageningen University Netherlands
1919[3] Warsaw (Free Polish University) Poland
1919[3] Brno Czech Republic
1919[3] Hamburg Germany
1919 Ljubljana Slovenia
1919[3] Poznań Poland
1919[3] Riga Latvia
1919[3] Moscow (Sverdlov University) Russia
1919 Cluj-Napoca Romania
1920[3] Erewan Armenia
1920[3] Turku (University of) Finland
1920[3] Sofia (UNWE) Bulgaria
1920[3] Milan (Catholic University) Italy
1920[3] Lublin Poland
1920[3] Bucharest (Politehnica) Romania
1920 Timișoara Romania
1920[3] Samara Russia
1920[3] Yekaterinburg Russia
1920[3] Swansea[A 34] Wales
1921[3] Minsk Belarus
1921[3] Moscow (KUNMZ) Russia
1921[3] Moscow (KUTV) Russia
1921[3] Pécs Hungary
1921[3] Szeged Hungary
1922[3] Kaunas Lithuania
1923[3] Nijmegen Netherlands
1923[3] Bari Italy
1923[3] Tbilisi Georgia
1924[3] Milan (University of) Italy
1924[3] Trieste Italy
1925[3] Thessaloniki Greece
1927 Geneva (Graduate Institute of International Studies)[A 35] Switzerland
1930[3] Lisbon (Technical University) Portugal
1934[3] Aarhus Denmark
1937 Iași (Gheorghe Asachi) Romania
1940[3] Salamanca (Pontifical University) Spain
1940 Chișinău Moldova

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This number also includes Russian universities in the Asian part of the country which are not included in this list.
  2. ^ Founded 1336. University 1727.[5]
  3. ^ Jesuit College 1592. University 1769.[7]
  4. ^ As Athenaeum Illustre, Recognised as a university 1877[3]
  5. ^ School 1615. Academy 1658. Theological Seminary 1817. Suppressed 1918. University 1991.[10]
  6. ^ Pontifical University 1796; recognised only as a college by civil authorities.[11]
  7. ^ Closed 1835
  8. ^ Not listed by Rüegg (p. 684).[3] Limited degree awarding powers: Bachelor of Divinity 1852; Bachelor of Arts 1865. College of the University of Wales 1971. Recognised as a university 2007.
  9. ^ Listed as part of the University of London rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 684).[3] UCL was founded in 1826 but not formally recognised as a college and affiliated to the University of London until 1836. Formally remains a college of the University of London and not a university. Degree awarding powers 2005.[13]
  10. ^ Listed as part of the University of London rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 684).[3] King's was recognised as a college in 1829 and affiliated to the University of London in 1836. Formally remains a college of the University of London and not a university. Degree awarding powers 2006.[15]
  11. ^ Divided into French and Dutch speaking universities 1968
  12. ^ Queen's College, Belfast 1845. College of the Queen's University of Ireland 1850. Affiliated to the Royal University of Ireland 1879. Recognised as a university 1908.[17]
  13. ^ Queen's College, Cork 1845. College of the Queen's University of Ireland 1850. Affiliated to the Royal University of Ireland 1879. College of the National University of Ireland 1908. Recognised as a constituent university of the National University 1997.
  14. ^ Queen's College, Galway 1845. College of the Queen's University of Ireland 1850. Affiliated to the Royal University of Ireland 1879. College of the National University of Ireland 1908. Recognised as a constituent university of the National University 1997.
  15. ^ Owens College 1851. College of the Victoria University 1880. Recognised as a university 1903.
  16. ^ Not recognised as a university by the civil authorities. Reformed as University College, Dublin and affiliated to the Royal University of Ireland 1880. College of the National University of Ireland 1908. Recognised as a constituent university of the National University 1997.
  17. ^ College (school) 1808. Lyceum 1838. Advanced School (university college) 1863. University 1905.[18]
  18. ^ Craft School 1830. University 1868.[20]
  19. ^ Durham University College of Science 1871. Recognised as a university 1963.
  20. ^ Listed as part of the University of Wales rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 687). University College Wales 1872. College of the University of Wales 1893. Recognised as a university 2007.
  21. ^ Yorkshire College of Science 1874. College of the Victoria University 1887. Recognised as a university 1904.[21]
  22. ^ Mason Science College 1875. Recognised as a university 1900.
  23. ^ University College, Bristol 1876. Recognised as a university 1909.
  24. ^ Firth College 1879. Recognised as a university 1905.
  25. ^ University College, Nottingham 1881. Recognised as a university 1948.
  26. ^ University College, Dundee 1881. College of the University of St Andrews 1897. Recognised as a university 1967.
  27. ^ University College, Liverpool 1883. College of the Victoria University 1884. Recognised as a university 1903.
  28. ^ Listed as part of the University of Wales rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 687). University College South Wales and Monmouthshire 1883. College of the University of Wales 1893. Recognised as a university 2005.
  29. ^ Listed as part of the University of Wales rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 687). University College North Wales 1884. College of the University of Wales 1893. Recognised as a university 2007.
  30. ^ University Extension College 1892. University College Reading 1901. Recognised as a university 1926.
  31. ^ Hartley University College 1902. Recognised as a university 1952.[24]
  32. ^ Founded as a college of the University of London by merging the pre-existing Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines and City and Guilds College into a single institution. Separated from the University of London in 2007 becoming independent.[25]
  33. ^ Teachers School 1913. University 1997.
  34. ^ Listed as part of the University of Wales rather than a separate institution by Rüegg (p. 687). University College Swansea 1920, a college of the University of Wales. Recognised as a university 2007.
  35. ^ Specialist graduate school rather than full university

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rüegg 2004, pp. 4–6
  2. ^ "University of London: History". Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm Rüegg 2004, pp. 673–691
  4. ^ a b c Rüegg 2004, p. 3
  5. ^ a b International Handbook of Universities. International Association of Universities. 1959. 
  6. ^ Kolb, Robert (2008). Lutheran Ecclesiastical Culture: 1550 - 1675. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 69. ISBN 978-90-04-16641-7. 
  7. ^ a b "History of the University". University of Malta. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  8. ^ "Facts and Figures". University of Amsterdam. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  9. ^ [1] The Illustrated History the Eötvös Loránd University
  10. ^ a b "History". National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "A Brief History". St Patrick's College, Maynooth. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  12. ^ "About UCL". Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  13. ^ "Your Degree". UCL. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  14. ^ "King's College London - Overview". Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  15. ^ "King's Governance". King's College London. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  16. ^ "History of DTU". Retrieved 18 Sep 2016. 
  17. ^ "History of Queen's". Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "History of the University of Belgrade". University of Belgrade. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  19. ^ "About the University". Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  20. ^ "ОЧЕРК СЕДЬМОЙ БОРЬБА ЗА СТАТУС ВЫСШЕГО УЧЕБНОГО ЗАВЕДЕНИЯ". Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "Heritage". University of Leeds. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  22. ^ "About: Facts and figures". University of Dundee. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  23. ^ [2] University of Deusto website: History and Mission (retrieved 9 Sept 2012)
  24. ^ a b "Our history timeline". University of Southampton. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  25. ^ a b "Imperial College London - A timeline of College developments". Imperial College London. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  26. ^ Гісторыя Магілёўскага дзяржаўнага універсітэта (1913—1940 гг.): дакументы і матэрыялы / аўт.-склад.: А. Р. Агееў, К. М. Бандарэнка, В. П. Клімковіч; пад агульн. рэд. К. М. Бандарэнкі. — Магілёў: МДУ імя А. А. Куляшова, 2008. — 216 с.
  27. ^ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Central Archives, fund 377.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]