List of monarchs of the Netherlands

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This is a list of monarchs of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koningen der Nederlanden). By practical extension, the list includes the stadtholders of the House of Orange Nassau since 1556. However, they were voted into office by and were civil servants and generals of the semi-independent provinces of the Dutch Republic and cannot be seen as monarchs. From William IV they were the direct male line ancestors of later monarchs when the monarchy was established in 1813 (first as a Sovereign Principality, but in 1815 as a Kingdom).

Dutch Republic[edit]

The origin of the Dutch monarchy can be traced back to the appointment of William I, Prince of Orange as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht in 1559 by Philip II of Spain. However, he was removed from office and became the leader of the Dutch Revolt. Consequently, the States-General appointed him as stadtholder of both rebelling provinces, Holland and Zeeland, in 1572. During the Dutch Revolt, most of the Dutch provinces declared their independence with the Act of Abjuration, signed on 26 July 1581 in The Hague in conformation with the decision made by the States-General. The representative function of the stadtholder became obsolete in the rebellious northern Netherlands – the feudal Lord himself having been abolished – but the office nevertheless continued in these provinces who now united themselves into the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. All stadtholders after William I were drawn from his descendants or the descendants of his brother, who were also the descendants of his granddaughter Albertina Agnes of Nassau-Orange.

In 1795 the Republic was overthrown by Napoleon and replaced with the Batavian Republic. In 1806 Napoleon abolished the new republic and made his brother King of Holland. However, in 1810 Napoleon invaded the Netherlands and annexed them to France. In 1813, Allied forces drove out the French. The Dutch called back William Frederick, the son of the last stadtholder, to head the new government. He was proclaimed "sovereign prince". In 1815, he raised the Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself King William I. The kingdom was enlarged with the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium and Luxembourg, soon after.

Stadtholderate under the House of Orange-Nassau[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
William I
  • the Silent
  • Willem I
(1533-04-24)24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584(1584-07-10) (aged 51)26 July 158110 July 1584Stadtholder[1]Orange-NassauWilliam, Prince of Orange
Maurice
  • Maurits
(1567-11-14)14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625(1625-04-23) (aged 57)158523 April 1625Stadtholder,[2] son of William IOrange-Nassau
Frederick Henry
  • Frederik Hendrik
(1584-01-29)29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647(1647-03-14) (aged 63)23 April 162514 March 1647Stadtholder,[3] son of William IOrange-Nassau
William II
  • Willem II
(1626-05-27)27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650(1650-11-06) (aged 24)14 March 16476 November 1650Stadtholder,[4] son of Frederick HenryOrange-Nassau
William III
  • Willem III
(1650-11-04)4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702(1702-03-08) (aged 51)4 July 16728 March 1702Stadtholder,[5] son of William II also King of England, Scotland and IrelandOrange-Nassau
William IV
  • Willem IV
(1711-09-01)1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751(1751-10-22) (aged 40)1 September 171122 October 1751First formally hereditary Stadtholder of the United Netherlands,[6] son of John William FrisoOrange-Nassau
William V
  • Willem V
(1748-03-08)8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806(1806-04-09) (aged 58)22 October 175119 January 1795Hereditary Stadtholder of the United Netherlands, son of William IV, deposed by the Batavian RevolutionOrange-Nassau

When William III died childless, the patrilineal ancestry of Orange-Nassau became extinct. In contrast to other provinces of the Dutch Republic, Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe had mostly drawn its stadtholders from the House of Nassau, that starting with John VI, the brother of William of Orange, and comprises in addition a matrilineal ancestry with the house of Orange-Nassau.

Stadtholderate under the House of Nassau[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John VI
  • the Elder
  • Jan VI
(1536-11-22)22 November 1536 – 8 October 1606(1606-10-08) (aged 69)15781581Stadtholder,[7] brother of William INassau
William Louis
  • Our Father
  • Willem Lodewijk
(1560-03-13)13 March 1560 – 31 May 1620(1620-05-31) (aged 60)15841620Stadtholder,[8] son of John VINassau
Ernest Casimir I
  • Ernst Casimir I
(1573-12-22)22 December 1573 – 2 June 1632(1632-06-02) (aged 58)16201632Stadtholder,[9] son of John VINassau
Henry Casimir I
  • Hendrik Casimir I
(1612-01-21)21 January 1612 – 13 July 1640(1640-07-13) (aged 28)16321640Stadtholder,[10] son of Ernest Casimir INassau
William Frederick
  • Willem Frederik
(1613-08-07)7 August 1613 – 31 October 1664(1664-10-31) (aged 51)16401664Stadtholder,[11] son of Ernest Casimir INassau
Henry Casimir II
  • Hendrik Casimir II
(1657-01-18)18 January 1657 – 25 March 1696(1696-03-25) (aged 39)18 January 166425 March 1696Hereditary Stadtholder,[12] son of William Frederick and maternal grandson of Frederick HenryNassau
John William Friso
  • Johan Willem Friso
(1687-08-04)4 August 1687 – 14 July 1711(1711-07-14) (aged 23)25 March 169614 July 1711Hereditary Stadtholder,[13] son of Henry Casimir II, succeeded by his son William IV of Orange-Nassau, Hereditary Stadtholder of the United NetherlandsNassau

Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Louis I
  • the Good
  • Lodewijk I
(1778-09-02)2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846(1846-07-25) (aged 67)5 June 18061 July 1810Brother of NapoleonBonaparteLouis I of Holland
Louis II
  • Lodewijk II
(1804-10-11)11 October 1804 – 17 March 1831(1831-03-17) (aged 26)1 July 18109 July 1810Son of Louis IBonaparteLouis II of Holland

Principality of the Netherlands (1813–1815)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
William Frederick
  • Willem Frederik
(1772-08-24)24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843(1843-12-12) (aged 71)6 December 181316 March 1815Son of the last Stadtholder William V, raised the Netherlands to a Kingdom status in 1815Orange-NassauWilliam Frederick of the Netherlands

Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–present)[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
William I
  • Willem I
(1772-08-24)24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843(1843-12-12) (aged 71)16 March 18157 October 1840Son of the last Stadtholder William V

Abdicated
Orange-NassauWilliam I of the Netherlands
William II
  • Willem II
(1792-12-06)6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849(1849-03-17) (aged 56)7 October 184017 March 1849Son of William IOrange-NassauWilliam II of the Netherlands
William III
  • Willem III
(1817-02-19)19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890(1890-11-23) (aged 73)17 March 184923 November 1890Son of William IIOrange-NassauWilliam III of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina(1880-08-31)31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962(1962-11-28) (aged 82)23 November 18904 September 1948Daughter of William III

Abdicated
Orange-NassauWilhelmina of the Netherlands
Juliana(1909-04-30)30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004(2004-03-20) (aged 94)4 September 194830 April 1980Daughter of Wilhelmina

Abdicated
Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg)Juliana of the Netherlands
Beatrix (1938-01-31) 31 January 1938 (age 80)30 April 198030 April 2013Daughter of Juliana

Abdicated
Orange-Nassau (Lippe)Beatrix of the Netherlands
William-Alexander
  • Willem-Alexander
(1967-04-27) 27 April 1967 (age 51)30 April 2013IncumbentSon of BeatrixOrange-Nassau (Amsberg)William-Alexander of the Netherlands

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht (1559–1584), Stadtholder of Friesland and Overijssel (1580–1584)
  2. ^ Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland (1585–1625), Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel (1590–1625), Groningen (1620–1625)
  3. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel (1620–1625), Groningen and Drenthe (1640–1647)
  4. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel
  5. ^ Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel (1672–1702), Guelders (1675–1702), Drenthe (1696–1702)
  6. ^ Hereditary Stadtholder of Friesland (1711–1747), Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Overijssel (April/May 1747 – November 1747), Stadtholder of Groningen (1718–1747), Guelders and Drenthe (1722–1747), was formally voted the first Hereditary Stadtholder of the United Provinces (1747–1751)
  7. ^ Stadtholder of Guelders (under Philip II), architect of the Union of Utrecht
  8. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1584–1620), Groningen (1594–1620) and Drenthe (1596–1620)
  9. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1620–1632), Groningen and Drenthe (1625–1632)
  10. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1632–1640), Groningen and Drenthe (1632–1640)
  11. ^ Stadtholder of Friesland (1640–1664), Groningen and Drenthe (1650–1664)
  12. ^ In 1675 the State of Friesland voted to make the Stadtholdership hereditary in the house of Nassau-Dietz
  13. ^ Hereditary Stadtholder of Friesland (1707–1711) and Groningen (1708–1711)