List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries

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The following monarchs either lost their thrones through deposition by a coup d'état, by a referendum which abolished their throne, or chose to abdicate during the 20th century or 21st century. A list of surviving former monarchs appears at the end of the article.

See also: Abolished monarchy, List of current monarchs, List of non-sovereign monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries

A[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

Albania (Principality)[edit]

  • Prince William fled Albania in 1914 following the outbreak of World War I (he was formally deposed in 1925).

Albania (Kingdom)[edit]

Austria-Hungary[edit]

B[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Bhutan[edit]

Brunei[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Burundi[edit]

C[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

  • King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 1955, then served in various important positions, including prime minister and head of state, intermittently until 1976, and was eventually restored to the kingship in 1993. He abdicated a second time in favour of his son, Norodom Sihamoni, on 7 October 2004.
  • Queen Sisowath Kossamak was deposed in 1970 with the coup that ended the regime of Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The monarchy was restored in 1993 with Sihanouk (who had previously reigned from 1941 to 1955) as King.

Canada[edit]

Central African Empire[edit]

  • Bokassa I (president turned monarch), Emperor of Central African Empire, deposed in 1979.

Ceylon[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Ceylon in 1972 when the country became a republic (The country was renamed Sri Lanka).

China[edit]

  • Xuantong Emperor (Puyi) was forced to abdicate in 1912 following a Republican revolution.
  • Yuan Shikai (reigned as the self-proclaimed Hongxian Emperor) abdicated in 1916, a few months before his death, and lasting only 83 days on the throne.
  • Xuantong Emperor (Puyi) was forced to abdicate again in 1917 following another Republican revolution.

Croatia[edit]

E[edit]

Egypt[edit]

  • King Farouk abdicated in 1952 in favor of his infant son Fuad II.
  • King Fuad II was deposed in 1953.

Ethiopia[edit]

  • While never formally crowned Emperor, the future Iyasu V was deposed in 1916 for suspected conversion to the Muslim faith.
  • Emperor Haile Selassie I was deposed following the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1936, and restored in 1941. He was deposed again during the communist revolution in 1975.
  • King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, also Emperor of Ethiopia, renounced his claim to the Ethiopian throne in 1943.
  • Emperor Amha Selassie I, briefly emperor 1974–1975, was deposed by the abolition of the monarchy.

F[edit]

Fiji[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Fiji in 1987 when the country became a republic following a coup.

Finland (Grand Duchy)[edit]

Finland (Kingdom)[edit]

  • Designated King-elect Frederick Charles I (Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse), was offered but did not accede to the throne as King of Finland.

G[edit]

Gambia[edit]

Germany[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Greece[edit]

Guyana[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Guyana in 1970 when the country became a republic.

H[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • King Charles IV (Emperor Charles I of Austria) was deposed in 1918 when a republic was established. Following the restoration of the Hungarian monarchy in 1920, he was refused permission to "assume residency and constitutional functions" in the Kingdom by the Regent Miklós Horthy. Charles IV died in exile in 1922. His son Crown Prince Otto succeeded him but claimed that like his father he was not allowed to enter the Kingdom or assume "residency and constitutional functions", and was not recognised as King. Hungary was proclaimed a republic by the National Assembly on 1 February 1946.

I[edit]

Iceland[edit]

India (British)[edit]

India (Dominion)[edit]

  • King George VI ceased to be King of India in 1950 when the country became a republic.

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

  • King Faisal II was deposed and murdered in 1958 in a military coup d'état.

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

J[edit]

Jordan[edit]

  • King Talal I ruled from July 20, 1951 upon the assassination of his father, King Abdullah I until August 11, 1952. He was forced to abdicate due to schizophrenia and was succeeded by his son, King Hussein I.

K[edit]

Kenya[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Kenya in 1964 when the country became a republic.

Korea[edit]

Kuwait[edit]

L[edit]

Laos[edit]

Lesotho[edit]

  • King Moshoeshoe II was deposed in 1990 and reinstated in 1995.
  • King Letsie III took the throne upon his father's, Moshoeshoe II, deposition in 1990. He later abdicated the throne in favor of his father (1995), and then reclaimed the throne on his father's death in 1996.

Libya[edit]

  • King Idris I was deposed in a coup led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 a day before his abdication was due to take effect.

Lithuania[edit]

  • Designated King-elect Mindaugas II (Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach), was deposed following the end of World War I in 1918.

Luxembourg[edit]

M[edit]

Macedonia[edit]

  • Voivode Julius I was deposed in 1943, after German occupation.

Malawi[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Malawi in 1966 when the country became a republic.

Maldives[edit]

Malta[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Malta in 1974 when the country became a republic.

Manchukuo[edit]

  • Emperor Kangde (Puyi) was deposed in 1945, after Soviet intervention.

Mauritius[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Mauritius in 1992 when the country became a republic.

Mohammerah[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

N[edit]

Nepal[edit]

  • King Tribhuvan went into exile in 1950 and was replaced by his son Gyanendra, but returned in 1951 and was restored as King that year.
  • King Gyanendra was removed as King in 1951 following the return of his father. He returned to the throne in 2001 after the Nepalese royal massacre in which his brother Birendra was killed, but was forced to abdicate after the Constituent Assembly of Nepal with a huge majority decided to form Nepal a federal democratic Republic, hence dissolving the monarchy on May 28, 2008.

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Nigeria in 1963 when the country became a republic.

Norway[edit]

O[edit]

Oman[edit]

P[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Pakistan in 1956 when the country became a republic.

Poland[edit]

  • The portion of Poland formerly ruled by Russia was occupied by Germany and Austria in 1915 and proclaimed an independent kingdom in 1916. Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria was named King-elect, but the nation was declared a republic without ever actually having had a King in the 20th century.

Portugal[edit]

Q[edit]

Qatar[edit]

R[edit]

Rhodesia[edit]

Romania[edit]

  • King Michael I was removed as King in favour of his father Carol II in 1930. He returned to the throne in 1940, but was forced to abdicate in 1947 by the communist government.
  • King Carol II abdicated in 1940 in favour of his son Michael I.

Russia[edit]

  • Emperor Nicholas II abdicated after the February Revolution of 1917, as did his named successor, his brother Grand Duke Michael (possibly known for a very short time as Michael II). Both Nicholas II and Michael separately were later murdered, as was all of Nicholas II's immediate family in 1918 (see the House of Romanov). The monarchy was abolished and replaced by a Provisional Government which was in turn overthrown months later by Lenin, which would by 1922 become the Soviet Union.

Rwanda[edit]

S[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

  • King Peter I became King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes after Montenegro was merged with Serbia in 1918 (Renamed Yugoslavia in 1929).

Sierra Leone[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Sierra Leone in 1971 when the country became a republic.

South Africa[edit]

Spain[edit]

Syria[edit]

  • King Faisal I was elected to be king of Greater Syria. His reign lasted from March 11, 1920 until July 25 when he was expelled by French forces.

T[edit]

Tanganyika[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Tanganyika in 1962 when the country became a republic.

(Tanganyika was later united with Zanzibar, and Tanzania was formed.)

Thailand[edit]

Tibet[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Trinidad and Tobago in 1976 when the country became a republic.

Tunisia[edit]

Turkey (Ottoman Empire)[edit]

U[edit]

Uganda[edit]

  • Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen of Uganda in 1963 when the country became a republic.

United Kingdom[edit]

  • King Edward VIII abdicated as King in on 11 December 1936 in favour of his brother George VI, later he became the Duke of Windsor.
    • He also abdicated from the rest of the Dominions, but is listed separately under them. The dates of abdication are the same except in Ireland, where it occurred one day later for technical reasons.

V[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

  • Emperor Bao Dai abdicated in 1945 when communists, called Viet Minh, seized control of the nation. Later on Ho Chi Minh, leader of Viet Minh, proclaimed the creation of Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Following the Geneva accords, Vietnam was partitioned and Bao Dai became Head of State (Quoc Truong) of the French controlled areas of Vietnam. He was never restored as emperor, and in 1955 was removed from office via referendum.

Vatican City[edit]

  • Pope Benedict XVI abdicated as sovereign of Vatican City and the Petrine Ministry on 28 February 2013 due to old age.

Y[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Yugoslavia[edit]

Z[edit]

Zanzibar[edit]

(Zanzibar was later united with Tanganyika, and Tanzania was formed.)

Surviving monarchs from abolished monarchies[edit]

Country Monarch Born Reign Notes
Bulgaria Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II 1937 28 August 1943 – 15 September 1946 He later served as Prime Minister (2001–2005).
Egypt Egypt King Fuad II 1952 26 July 1952 – 18 June 1953
 Fiji
 Gambia
 Ghana
 Guyana
 Kenya
 Malawi
 Malta
 Mauritius
 Nigeria
 Pakistan
 Sierra Leone
 South Africa
 Sri Lanka
 Tanganyika
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Uganda
Queen Elizabeth II 1926 10 October 1970 – 7 October 1987
18 February 1965 – 24 April 1970
6 March 1957 – 1 July 1960
26 May 1966 – 23 February 1970
12 December 1963 – 12 December 1964
6 July 1964 – 6 July 1966
21 September 1964 – 13 December 1974
12 March 1968 – 12 March 1992
1 October 1960 – 1 October 1963
6 February 1952 – 23 March 1956
27 April 1961 – 19 April 1971
6 February 1952 – 31 May 1961
6 February 1952 – 22 May 1972
9 December 1961 – 9 December 1962
31 August 1962 – 1 August 1976
9 October 1962 – 15 April 1966
Currently Queen of 16 other nations
Greece Greece King Constantine II 1940 6 March 1964 – 1 June 1973
Nepal Nepal King Gyanendra 1947 7 November 1950 – 8 January 1951
4 June 2001 – 28 May 2008
Flag of Quaiti Hadramaut.svg Qu'aiti Sultan Ghalib II 1948 10 October 1966 – 17 September 1967
Romania Romania King Michael I 1921 20 July 1927 – 8 June 1930
6 September 1940 – 30 December 1947
Rwanda Rwanda King Kigeli V 1936 25 July 1959 – 28 January 1961
Zanzibar Zanzibar Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah 1929 1 July 1963 – 12 January 1964

See also List of living former sovereign monarchs

See also[edit]