List of mosasaur genera

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Tylosaurus proriger mounted skeleton in the Rocky Mountain Dinosaur Resource Center in Woodland Park, Colorado

This list of mosasaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the family Mosasauridae or the parent clade Mosasauroidea, excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered mosasauroid. Non-mosasaurid mosasauroids shall be noted as such. The list currently includes 78 genera.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of mosasaur genera but one of the most thorough attempts can be found on the "Pythonomorpha" section of Mikko Haaramo's Phylogeny Archive.

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen. In this case, these nomina nuda will be deleted from this list in favor of the published name.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

Mosasaur genera[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Location Notes

Acteosaurus

Meyer

1860

Valid.

 Slovenia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.[1]

Adriosaurus

Seeley

1881

Valid.

 Slovenia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Aigialosaurus

Kramberger

1892

Valid.

 Croatia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Amphekepubis

Mehl

1930

Valid.

 Mexico

Amphorosteus

Gibbs

1851

Nomen dubium.

 USA

Nomen dubium.

Ancylocentrum

Schmidt

1927

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Prognathodon.

Angolasaurus

Telles-Antunes

1964

Valid.

 Angola

Baptosaurus

Marsh

1870

Jr. synonym.

N/A

Junior synonym of Halisaurus.

Baseodon

Leidy

1865

Nomen dubium.

N/A

Nomen dubium.

Batrachiosaurus

Harlan

1839

Jr. synonym.

N/A

Junior synonym of Mosasaurus.

Brachysaurana

Strand

1928

Jr. synonym.

N/A

Junior synonym of Prognathodon.

Brachysaurus

Williston

1897

Preoccupied.

N/A

Preoccupied by a junior synonym of an iguanian lizard genus, Stenocercus;[2] referred to replacement names Brachysaurana and Ancylocentrum, of which Ancylocentrum has priority as such.

Carinodens

Woodward

1891

Valid.

 Morocco
 Netherlands
 Ukraine
 Russia
 Belgium

Carsosaurus

Kornhuber

1893

Valid.

 Slovenia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Clidastes

Cope

1868

Valid.

 Russia
 Jordan
 Germany
 USA
 Sweden
 Mexico

Compressidens

Dollo

1924

Preoccupied.

N/A

Preoccupied by a tusk shell; later renamed Carinodens.

Dallasaurus

Polcyn
Bell

2005

Valid.

 USA

Dolichosaurus

Owen

1894

Valid.

 UK

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Dollosaurus

Yakovlev

1901

Disputed.

 Spain
 Sweden
 Russia

Possible junior synonym of Prognathodon.

Ectenosaurus

Russel

1967

Valid.

 USA

Edestosaurus

Marsh

1871

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Clidastes.

Eidolosaurus

Nopcsa

1923

Valid.

 Slovenia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Elliptonodon

Emmons

1858

Nomen dubium.

Nomen dubium.

Eonatator

Bardet
Pereda Suberbiola
Iarochène
Bouya
Amaghzaz

2005

Disputed.

 Colombia
 Sweden

Possible junior synonym of Halisaurus.

Eremiasaurus[3]

Leblanc
Caldwell
Bardet

2012

Valid.

 Morocco

Type species is Eremiasaurus heterodontus.

Globidens

Gilmore

1912

Valid.

 USA
 Belgium
 Jordan
 Angola
 Syria
 Morocco
 Egypt

Goronyosaurus

Azzaroli
de Guili
Ficcarelli
Torre

1972

Valid.

 Morocco

Haasiasaurus

Polcyn
Tchernov
Jacobs

2003

Valid.

 State of Palestine

Hainosaurus

Dollo

1885

Valid.

 Sweden
 Russia
 Poland
 USA
 France
 Belgium
 Spain

Halisaurus

Marsh

1869

Valid.

 Morocco
 Niger
 Jordan
 Peru
 Zaire
 USA
 Sweden
 Belgium

Renamed Baptosaurus Marsh, 1870 when Marsh thought the name was preoccupied by a fish: Halosaurus. Modern rules allow the original.

Holcodus

Gibbs

1851

Nomen dubium.

Nomen dubium, possible junior synonym of Platecarpus

Holosaurus

Marsh

1880

Preoccupied.

Referred to Platecarpus.

Hydrosaurus

Kornhuber

1873

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by an agamid lizard; renamed Pontosaurus.

Igdamanosaurus

Zdansky

1935

Valid.

 Niger
 Egypt
 Morocco

Kaikaifilu Otero et al. In press. In press.  Antarctica

Kolposaurus

Camp

1942

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by a junior synonym of Nothosaurus,[4] referred to Plotosaurus

Komensaurus

Caldwell
Palci

2007

Valid.

 Slovenia

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Kourisodon

Nicholls
Meckert

2002

Valid.

 Japan
 Canada

Lakumasaurus

Novas
Fernandez
Gasparini
de Lirio
Mumez
Puerta

2002

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Taniwhasaurus.

Latoplatecarpus[5]

Konishi
Caldwell

2011

Valid.

 Canada

Type species is Latoplatecarpus willistoni. A second species is Latoplatecarpus nichollsae originally described in genus Plioplatecarpus.[6]

Leiodon

Owen

1841

Preoccupied.

 Spain
 Ukraine
 UK

Preoccupied by a shark, referred to Liodon.

Lesticodus

Leidy

1861

Nomen dubium.

Nomen dubium.

Lestosaurus

Marsh

1872

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Platecarpus.

Liodon

Agassiz

1846

Valid.

 USA
 Germany
 New Zealand
 Angola

Macrosaurus

Owen

1849

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Halisaurus.

Mesoleptos

Cornalia

1851

Valid.

 Croatia
 Slovenia
 State of Palestine

Putative non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Moanasaurus

Wiffen

1980

Valid.

Mosasaurus

Conybeare

1822

Valid.

 UK
 Bulgaria
 Canada
 New Zealand
 Netherlands
 Turkey
 Poland
 Angola
 USA
 Zaire
 Russia
 South Africa
 Sweden
 Poland
 Syria
 Spain
 Japan
 Denmark
 Belgium
 Niger
 Italy
 Jordan

Nectoportheus

Cope

1868

Nomen dubium.

Nomen dubium.

Opetiosaurus

Kornhuber

1901

Jr. synonym. Junior synonym of Aigialosaurus.

Oterognathus

Dollo

1889

Jr. synonym. Junior synonym of Plioplatecarpus.

Pannoniasaurus

Makádi
Caldwell
Ősi

2012

Valid.

Phosphorosaurus

Dollo

1889

Disputed.

 Angola

Junior synonym of Halisaurus.

Platecarpus

Cope

1869

Valid.

 USA
 Angola
 Russia
 Syria
 Egypt
 Sweden
 Morocco
 Jordan
 Canada
 Brazil
 Spain
 Niger
 Australia

Plesioplatecarpus[5]

Konishi
Caldwell

2011

Valid.

Type species is Plesioplatecarpus planifrons, originally described in genus Clidastes, and later recombined in Platecarpus.

Plesiotylosaurus

Camp

1942

Valid.

Plioplatecarpus

Dollo

1882

Valid.

 USA

Plotosaurus

Camp

1951

Valid.

 USA

Pluridens

Lingham-Sollar

1998

Jr. synonym.

 Niger

Junior synonym of Halisaurus.

Pontosaurus

Kornhuber

1873

Valid.

 Croatia
 Lebanon

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Proaigialosaurus

Kuhn

1958

Valid. Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Prognathodon

Dollo

1889

Valid.

 Belgium
 USA
 Saudi Arabia
 Spain
 Israel
 Angola
 Italy
 New Zealand
 Zaire
 Russia
 Canada
 Poland
 France
 Germany
 Netherlands
 Syria
 Jordan

Prognathosaurus

Dollo

1889

Jr. synonym. Junior synonym of Prognathodon.

Pterycollosaurus

Dollo

1882

Jr. synonym. Junior synonym of Mosasaurus.

Rhamphosaurus

Cope

1872

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by another lizard, referred to Tylosaurus.

Rhinosaurus

Marsh

1872

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied,[7] referred to Tylosaurus.

Rikisaurus[8]

Wiffen

1990

Jr. synonym.

 New Zealand

Junior synonym of Moanasaurus.

Rikkisaurus

Bell
Caldwell
Holmes
Wiffen
McKee

1999

Lapsus calami.

Lapsus calami of Rikisaurus.

Romeosaurus[9]

Palci
Caldwell
Papzzoni

2013

Valid.

 Italy

Russellosaurus[10]

Polson
Bell

2005

Valid.

 USA

Saurochampsa

Wagler

1830

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Mosasaurus.

Selmasaurus[11]

Wright
Shannon

1988

Valid.

 USA

Sironectes

Cope

1840

Jr. synonym.

Junior synonym of Platecarpus.

Taniwhasaurus

Hector

1874

Valid.

 Antarctica
 New Zealand
 Japan

Tethysaurus[12]

Bardet
Superbiola
Jalil

2003

Valid.

 Morocco

Tylosaurus

Marsh

1872

Valid.

 USA
 Canada
 Spain
 Jordan
 Mexico
 Sweden
 New Zealand

Vallecillosaurus[13]

Smith
Buchy

2008

Valid.

 Mexico

Non-mosasaurid mosasauroid.

Yaguarasaurus

Paramo

1994

Valid.

 Colombia

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Redescription of Acteosaurus tommasinii von Meyer, 1860, and a discussion of evolutionary trends within the clade Ophidiomorpha. 2010.
  2. ^ Stenocercus at Herpbreeder.com Archived April 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 12-03-2007.
  3. ^ Leblanc, A.R.H.; Caldwell, M.W.; Bardet, N. (2012). "A new mosasaurine from the Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) phosphates of Morocco and its implications for mosasaurine systematics". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (1): 82–104. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.624145. 
  4. ^ Sauropterygia at Paleofile.com. Retrieved 12-03-2007.
  5. ^ a b Konishi, T.; Caldwell, M.W. (2011). "Two new plioplatecarpine (Squamata, Mosasauridae) genera from the Upper Cretaceous of North America, and a global phylogenetic analysis of plioplatecarpines". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (4): 754–783. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.579023. 
  6. ^ Cuthbertson, R.S.; Mallon, J.C.; Campione, N.E.; Holmes, R.B. (2007). "A new species of mosasaur (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Pierre Shale (lower Campanian) of Manitoba". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 44 (5): 593–606. doi:10.1139/e07-006. 
  7. ^ Edward Drinker Cope "On the structure of the Pythonomorpha". (1872) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 24:140-141
  8. ^ Wiffen, J. 1990: New mosasaurs (Reptilia; family Mosasauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand journal of geology and geophysics, 33: 67-85.
  9. ^ Alessandro Palci, Michael W. Caldwell and Cesare A. Papazzoni (2013). "A new genus and subfamily of mosasaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of northern Italy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (3): 599–612. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.731024. 
  10. ^ Polcyn, M. J. & Bell Jr., G. L., 2005: Russellosaurus coheni n. gen., n. sp., a 92 million-year-old mosasaur from Texas (USA), and the definition of the parafamily Russellosaurina. –Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw: Vol. 84, #3.
  11. ^ Wright, K. R. & Shannon, S. W., 1988: Selmasaurus russelli, a new plioplatecarpine mosasaur (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from Alabama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 8, #1, pp. 102-107
  12. ^ Bardet, N., X. Pereda Suberbiola, and N-E. Jalil. 2003. A new mosasauroid (Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) of Morocco. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Palevol 2:607–616.
  13. ^ Smith, K.T. and Buchy, M-C. 2008 A new aigialosaur (Squamata-Anguimorpha) with soft tissue remains from the Upper Cretaceous of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(1): 85-94.

References[edit]