List of mosques in Indonesia
- The completion year of the building.
- The capacity of the building.
- Grouped into regions
These lists only include notable mosques.
The Indonesian Mesjid Agung is translated as "Great Mosque", while Mesjid Raya is translated as "Grand Mosque".
Mesjid Keramat is translated as "Holy Mosque".
Mesjid Jami is translated as Jami Mosque, which refers to the mosque where the weekly Friday prayer take
- 1 History
- 2 Oldest mosques in Indonesia
- 3 Largest mosques in Indonesia
- 4 By regions
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Islam spread gradually in Indonesia from the 12th century onwards, and especially during the 14th and 15th century. The advent of Islam did not lead to the introduction of a new building tradition, but saw the appropriation of existing architectural forms, which were reinterpreted to suit Muslim requirements.
Early Islamic architecture
Early Islamic architecture resembles a Majapahit era candi or gates. Most of the early Islamic mosques can still be found in Java, and the architectural style follows the existing building tradition in Java, in which four central posts support a soaring pyramidal roofs. None of the earliest Islamic structures in Sumatra survives. The characteristic of Islamic architecture include multi-tiered roofs, ceremonial gateways, and a variety of decorative elements such as elaborate clay finials for roof peaks. The multi-tiered roofs are derived from the tiered meru roof found in Balinese temple.
The oldest surviving Indonesian mosques are quite large and in most cases were closely associated with palaces. The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia is the Great Mosque of Demak which is the royal mosque of the Sultanate of Demak, although this is not the oldest Islamic structure. The oldest Islamic structure in Indonesia are parts of the royal palace in Sultanate of Cirebon, Cirebon. The palace complex contains a chronogram which can be read as the Saka equivalent of AD 1454. Early Islamic palaces retain many features of pre-Islamic architecture which is apparent in the gates or drum towers. The Kasepuhan Palace was probably begun in the late pre-Islamic period, and continued to grow during the Hinduism-to-Islam transitional period. The complex contains clues to the stages of the process of the gradual changes as Islam become incorporated into Indonesian architecture. Two of the Hindu features adopted into Islam in the Palace is the two types of gateways - the split portal (candi bentar) which provides access to the public audience pavilion and the lintel gate (paduraksa) which leads to the front court.
Minarets was not originally an integral part in Indonesian mosque. The Menara Kudus Mosque's tower was built in a Javanese Hindu brick temple style, This tower is not used as a minaret, but as a place for bedug, a huge drum which is beaten to the summons to prayer in Indonesia. This tower is similar to the Drumtowers of Hindu Balinese temples called kul-kul. These suggest a continuation of an earlier Hindu-Buddhist period into the Islamic era in Indonesia.
Intensive spice trade had strong influence on the Indonesian archipelago. As a result, the multi-storied roof architecture of mosques can be found from Aceh to Ambon. The spread of Islam through the Indonesian archipelago can be divided into three distinct historical processes. In Sumatra, the establishment of early Islamic states reflected the emergence of new polities rather than the subjugation of existing kingdoms. In Java, Muslim rulers succeeded to the political power base of Hindu kings; instead of eliminating the earlier ideology, they maintained a high degree of continuity with the past while extending their dominion. In eastern Indonesia (Borneo, Celebes, and Maluku) established rulers simply converted to Islam. These three distinct processes are reflected in the architecture of mosques in different part of the Indonesian Archipelago. In Sumatra, mosques do not occupy a significant position in terms of their spatial relation to the palace of the ruler, rather provides the focus for a wider area which includes the palace complex. In Java, there is a strong relationship between mosque and the ruler's palace, even when they are located far away from each other. This is particularly significant in the case of Masjid Agung (Great Mosques) of Java which are situated within the palace complex. In eastern Indonesia, conversion to Islam simply involved the appropriation of existing religious buildings to serve as mosques.
See also explanations in the section By regions below.
Domes and pointed arches, a well-known features in central, south and southwest Asia did not appear in Indonesia until the 19th century, when they were introduced by Dutch influence over local rulers. Indonesian scholars became familiar with the Near Eastern influence as they began to visit Islamic centers in Egypt and India.
Domes in Indonesia follows the form of the Indian and Persian's onion-shaped dome. These domes first appear in Sumatra. The Grand Mosque of Riau Sultanate in Penyengat Island is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia with a dome. There is an indication that the Rao Rao Mosque of West Sumatra employs a dome in its early design. The adoption of dome in mosques of Java was slower than it is in Sumatra. The oldest domed mosque in Java is probably Jami Mosque of Tuban (1928), followed by Great Mosque of Kediri and Al Makmur Mosque of Tanah Abang in Jakarta.
After the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, many older mosques built in traditional style were renovated and small domes were added to their square hipped roofs. Probably it was built in imitation of similar modifications made to the main mosque in the regional capital nearby.
Since the 1970s, the appropriateness of traditional buildings has been politically acknowledged, and some layered hipped forms have been reinstated. President Soeharto contributed to this trend during the 1980s by instigating the Amal Bakti Muslim Pancasila Foundation which subsidized the erection of small mosques in less prosperous communities. The standardized design of these mosques includes three hipped roofs above a square prayer hall, reminiscent of the Great Mosque of Demak.
Today, mosque architecture in Indonesia breaks apart from the multi-tiered traditions of traditional Javanese mosque. Most mosques in Indonesia today follows the Near Eastern influence e.g. Persian, Arabic, or Ottoman style architecture.
Oldest mosques in Indonesia
The list is divided into two based on form: traditional mosques and eclectic mosques.
Traditionally, mosque establishment in Indonesia began with the opening or purchase of land for the mosque. Next is the first construction of the mosque, often using traditional material such as bamboo and thatched roof. The mosque will eventually be made into a permanent mosque and later gradually extended to accommodate the increasing population.
Many of the year of establishment for traditional mosques refer to the land opening for the mosque which may create confusion as to which mosque is the oldest. To be included in the list, the year should be the year of the building's completion and not the opening of the land.
To be listed in this category, the architecture of the mosque has to be earlier than the beginning of the 20th century and has not undergone major alteration in the later periods. Architecture of the mosque has to show traditional style absent of Western or Middle-Eastern influence, such as multi-tiered roofs.
|Wapauwe Mosque||Kaitetu, Leihitu Subdistrict, Central Maluku Regency||1414? (established)||Javanese||Myth surrounds the year of establishment. The original structure and material has been replaced several times to maintain the mosque, but the architecture is kept similar.|
|Ampel Mosque||Surabaya, East Java||1421 (original column, mosque has been restored several times)||Javanese||Oldest mosque in Surabaya|
|Great Mosque of Demak||Demak, Central Java||1466, 1506||Javanese||One of the oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia|
|Mosque of Panjunan||Panjunan, Lemahwungkuk Subdistrict, Cirebon||1480||Javanese|
|Great Mosque of Cirebon||Cirebon, West Java
|Menara Kudus Mosque||Kudus, Central Java||1549||Majapahit-style (minaret), Persian architecture (mosque)||The year refers to the establishment of the mosque. The current mosque was built in the 20th century.|
|Kasunyatan Mosque||Kasunyatan, Serang Regency, Banten||Between 1570 and 1596||Javanese||The main mosque shows eclectic influence.|
|Mosque of Mantingan||Mantingan, Jepara Regency, Central Java||1556-1559||Javanese|
|Great Mosque of Banten||Banten, Banten||1560||Javanese|
|Tuo Kayu Mosque||Jorong Kayu Jao, Solok Regency||1599||Minangkabau|
|Indrapuri Old Mosque||Indrapuri, Aceh Besar Regency, Aceh||between 1607-1636||Acehnese, Hindu||The mosque was built on top of a 12th-century Hindu temple. Renovation occur in 1696 and later in 1879.|
|Heritage Mosque of Banua Lawas||Banua Lawas, Tabalong Regency, South Kalimantan||1625||Banjar||Oldest mosque in Kalimantan.|
|Kiai Gede Mosque||Kotawaringin Barat Regency, Central Kalimantan||1632||Javanese||The construction of the mosque was initiated by the Sultanate of Banjar|
|Grand Mosque of Sheik Burhanuddin||Padang Pariaman Regency||1670||Minangkabau|
|Jami Mosque of Sultan Nata||Sintang, Sintang Regency||1672||Javanese|
|Sultan of Ternate Mosque||Ternate, North Maluku||17th century||Javanese||The construction of the mosque was initiated by the Sultanate of Ternate|
|Sultan Suriansyah Mosque||Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan||1746||Javanese-Banjar||Established in the 16th century, it is the oldest mosque in Borneo based on its year of establishment. The form of the building has been altered in the 18th century.|
|Kampung Baru Mosque of Bandengan||Jakarta||1748||Javanese-Western|
|Kauman Mosque of Semarang||Semarang, Central Java||1749||Javanese|
|Great Mosque of Surakarta||Surakarta, Central Java||1768||Javanese||The royal mosque of Surakarta Sunanate|
|Kauman Great Mosque||Yogyakarta (city), Special Region of Yogyakarta||1773||Javanese||The royal mosque of Yogyakarta Sultanate|
|Ganting Grand Mosque||Padang, West Sumatra||1805||Javanese||Oldest mosque in Padang and one of the largest in the city.|
|Jami Mosque of Pontianak||Pontianak, West Kalimantan||1821 (construction started)||Javanese||The first mosque of West Kalimantan and the largest in the province.|
|Jami Mosque of Taluak||Agam Regency||1860||Minangkabau|
|Saka Tunggal Mosque||Purwokerto, Central Java||1871||Javanese|
|Great Mosque of Malang||Malang, East Java||1890, 1903||Javanese, Arabic||The serambi (front porch) of the building was heavily altered, concealing the original architecture of the mosque just behind it.|
To be listed in this category, the building has to be completed before the independence of Indonesia (pre-1950s). Architecture of the mosque has to show prominent foreign features such as pointed arches and domes during the time of its completion. Ancient Javanese mosque which in later years modified to include eclectic element should be placed on the Traditional mosques list instead.
Civic buildings that are converted into a mosque can also be listed in the category. The year should be then the year of the completion of the building, and not the year of the establishment of the building as a mosque.
|Al Anshor Mosque||Jakarta||1648||Mixed Indian, Western, Javanese||The oldest mosque of Jakarta and the second mosque built in Jakarta (the oldest native Javanese mosque was the mosque of Jayakarta, which was destroyed by the colonial government during the exhumation of Jayakarta). There are few pure native-style mosques in Jakarta due to Dutch policy over restricting the amount of native Javanese people in Batavia. Al Anshor Mosque was built by the Moors (merchants from Hejaz and Gujarat).|
|Luar Batang Mosque||Jakarta||1736||Western, Javanese||Heavily altered|
|An-Nawier Mosque of Bandengan||Jakarta||1760||Western, Javanese|
|Great Mosque of Sumenep||Sumenep, East Java||1787||Mixed Chinese, Western, Javanese, Madurese||A mosque that exemplify Portuguese characteristics, not different with mosques in Sri Lanka.|
|Manonjaya Grand Mosque||Manonjaya, Tasikmalaya, West Java||1834-1837||Western, Javanese|
|Grand Mosque of Riau Sultan||Penyengat Island, Riau Islands||1844 (first built in the 18th century, major alternation started in 1831)||Malay, Indian, Turkish||Reputedly the first mosque in Indonesia which employs a dome.|
|Al-Osmani Mosque||Medan, North Sumatra||1872 (first wooden construction in 1854, alteration began in 1870)||Moorish|
|Baiturrahman Grand Mosque||Banda Aceh, Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam||1881||Indo Islamic, Moorish||One of the oldest mosque in Aceh, the building survived the 2004 Tsunami|
|Great Mosque of Palembang||Palembang, South Sumatra||1893 (established in 1748; major renovations in 1893, 1916, 1950s, and the 1970s; major expansion in the 1990s)||European, Malay, Chinese||The royal mosque of Palembang Sultanate|
|Great Mosque of Sawahlunto||Sawahlunto, West Sumatra||1894||Originally a steam powered power station|
|Azizi Mosque||Tanjung Pura, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra||1902||Malay, Persian, Middle East, Chinese||The royal mosque of the Langkat Sultanate|
|Medan Grand Mosque||Medan, North Sumatra||1906||Indo Islamic, Moorish||The royal mosque of Deli Sultanate|
|Nurul Huda Mosque||Sawahlunto, West Sumatra||1921|
|Cut Mutiah Mosque||Jakarta||1922||Dutch Rationalist||Originally an architecture office|
|Baiturrahim Mosque||Ulee Lheue, Banda Aceh||1922, 1993 (expanded)||Moorish||The building has been fully restored after it was seriously damaged by the 2004 Tsunami.|
Largest mosques in Indonesia
Below is a list of large mosques of Indonesia. To be listed here, the building capacity has to exceed 10,000 people.
|Istiqlal Mosque||200,000||93,200 m2, 10,000 m2 (building)||1975||Central Jakarta, Jakarta||A national mosque and the largest mosque in Southeast Asia.|
|Great Mosque of Surabaya||59,000||18,800 m2 (building)||2000||Surabaya, East Java||A national mosque and the second largest mosque in Indonesia.|
|Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque||50,000||10,000 m2, 6,932 (building) m2||2005||Makassar, South Sulawesi|
|An-Nur Great Mosque Pekanbaru||45,000||2000||Pekanbaru, Riau||A Second largest Mosque in Sumatra|
|Mosque of Samarinda Islamic Center||40,000||2008||Samarinda, East Kalimantan|
|Dian Al-Mahri Mosque||20,000||50,000 m2, 8,000 m2 (building)||Depok, West Java|
|Grand Mosque of West Sumatra||20,000 (estimated)||not yet completed||Padang, West Sumatra
|Great Mosque of Central Java||16,000||10,000 m2, 7,669 m2 (building)||2006||Semarang, Central Java||Largest mosque in Central Java|
|Great Mosque of Palembang||15,000||29,305 m2, 7,512 m2 (building)||1893 (established in 1748, major renovations in 1893, 1916, 1950s, 1970s, and 1990s)||Palembang, South Sumatra||The royal mosque of Palembang Sultanate|
|Sabilal Muhtadin Grand Mosque||15,000||100.000 m2, 5,250 m2 (building)||1979||Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan||Largest mosque in South Kalimantan.|
|Grand Mosque of Bandung||12,412||23,448 m2, building: 8,575 m2||1812, 2003 (renovated to current form)||Bandung, West Java||Originally built in Sundanese-Javanese style in 1812, renovated to present condition in 2001-2003|
|Grand Mosque of Makassar||10,000||10,500 m2, 1,700 m2||1949, 1999 (renovated to current form)||Makassar, South Sulawesi||The main mosque of South Sulawesi.|
There are 239,497 registered mosques in Indonesia (2012). To be included in this list, the mosque has to be a landmark of particular region, and most importantly, historically notable.
Mosques in bold have been listed in the table above.
The earliest mosques in Java were built in the mid-15th century onwards, although there is an earlier reference to mosques in the 14th-century Majapahit capital.
Most of the earliest mosques in Java typically include multi-tiered roof. A serambi (roofed porch) attached to the front of the mosque. The minimum number of tiers is two whilst the maximum is five. The top of the roof is decorated with a clay decoration called the mustoko or memolo. Sometimes the roof tiers represent a division into separate floors each of which is used for a different function: the lower floor for prayer, middle floor for study, and top floor for the call to prayer. Minarets were not introduced into Java until the 19th century so that in a one-storeyed mosque, the call to prayer is made from the attached serambi. The highest roof tier is supported by four main pillars, called soko guru. In several of the oldest mosques, one of these pillars is made of wooden splinters held together by metal bands (the significant of which is unknown).
Inside the mosque there is a mihrab in the qibla wall and a wooden minbar. The mihrab niche is made of brick and are highly decorated with deep wood-carving derived from the pre-Islamic art of the area. The enclosure walls are fairly low and decorated with inset bowls and plates from China, Vietnam and elsewhere. In the middle of the east side there is a monumental gate. Some mosques, such as the mosque in Yogyakarta, is further enclosed by a moat.
Other characteristics of these early mosques are a peristyle, courtyard, and gates.
See also Early Islamic architecture in Java
- West Java
- Great Mosque of Cirebon, Cirebon, part of the Kraton Kasepuhan (1489)
- At Taqwa Mosque, Cirebon (1951)
- Mosque of Panjunan, Panjunan (1480)
- Great Mosque of Garut, Garut (1998, replacing earlier the 1813 colonial-style mosque.)
- Bandung Grand Mosque, Bandung
- Main Mosque of University of Indonesia, Depok (1987).
- Central Java
- Great Mosque of Demak, Demak (1466)
- Menara Kudus Mosque, Kudus (1526)
- Mosque of Mantingan, Mantingan, Jepara Regency (1556)
- Kauman Mosque of Semarang, Semarang (1749)
- Great Mosque of Surakarta, Surakarta (1763-1768)
- Saka Tunggal Mosque, Purwokerto (1871)
- Darussalam Mosque Purbalingga, Purbalingga (2004)
- Great Mosque of Central Java, Semarang (2006)
- Al-Ittihad Mosque Jatibarang, Jatibarang (2008). Largest mosque in Brebes.
- East Java
Similar to the mosques of Java, Sumatran mosques share the attributes of Javanese mosque, although it is unfortunate that none of the earliest Islamic structures in Sumatra survived.
In Aceh, royal mosque was a center of armed resistance to the Dutch in the 1870s, and therefore was destroyed in battle. Early prints show it as a structure with wide hipped roofs similar to those of a mosque still standing in the 17th century citadel of Sultan Iskandar Muda.
In West Sumatra, mosques, known as surau, conform the local style with the similar three- or five-tiered roofs as the Javanese mosque, but with the characteristic Minangkabau 'horned' roof profile. The roof is supported on ranks of concentric columns, often focusing on a towering central support which reaches the apex of the building. Some mosques are built on islands in artificial ponds. Traditional Minangkabau woodcarvings may be implemented in the facade.
Many mosques in Pekanbaru and Riau adopts a three- or five-tiered roofs similar to West Sumatra, but with lack of prominent 'horned' roof profile. This gives them appearance of a Javanese-style mosque but with a taller profile.
- Ancient Mosque of Indrapuri (17th century)
- Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Banda Aceh (1885)
- Great Mosque of Singkil, Aceh Singkil Regency (1909, renovated close to the original architecture in 2005 after destruction by tsunami)
- Baiturrahim Mosque of Ulee Lheue, Banda Aceh (1922)
- Great Mosque of Meulaboh, West Aceh Regency (1999)
Ancient mosque of Indrapuri built above a Hindu candi in the 17th century.
A mosque in Samalanga showing the traditional Javanese multi-tiered roofs.
A mosque in Takengon (1910-1930)
The Great Mosque of Meulaboh, finished in 1999. The mosque survives the Boxing Day Tsunami.
- West Sumatra
- Old Mosque of Kayu Jao, Solok Regency (1599)
- Grand Mosque of Sheik Burhanuddin, Padang Pariaman Regency (1670)
- Masjid Raya Lima Kaum, Agam Regency (1710)
- Grand Mosque of Ganting, Padang (1805)
- Mosque of Bingkudu, Agam Regency (1823)
- Old Mosque of Koto Nan Ampek, Payakumbuh (1840)
- Muhammadan Mosque, Padang (1843)
- Jami Mosque of Taluak, Agam Regency (1860)
- Nurul Yaqin Mosque, Pasaman Barat Regency (1860)
- Grand Mosque of Teluk Bayur, Padang (1888)
- Great Mosque of Sawahlunto, Sawahlunto (1894, 1952 (turned into a Mosque))
- Masjid Kurai Taji, Pariaman (1900s)
- Saadah Mosque, Tanah Datar Regency (1910)
- Grand Mosque of Balai Gadang Mungo, Limapuluh Koto Regency (1914, 1920 (rebuilt))
- Baiturrahman Mosque of Sungayang, Tanah Datar Regency (1916)
- Mosque of Rao Rao, Tanah Datar Regency (1918)
- Nurul Huda Mosque, Sawahlunto (1921)
- Mutaqaddimin Mosque, Limapuluh Koto Regency (1930)
- Grand Mosque of Koto Baru, South Solok Regency (1933)
- Syekh Sampu Mosque, Solok Selatan Regency (1936)
- Old Mosque of Bawan, Agam Regency (1942)
- Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, Padang (unfinished) (1988)
- Grand Mosque of Nanggalo, Padang (1989)
- Nurul Amin Mosque of Pagaruyung, Tanah Datar Regency (1992)
- Grand Mosque of Bayur, Agam Regency (1999)
- Surau Baitul Jalil, Bukittinggi (2004)
- Nurul Iman Mosque, Padang (2007)
- Great Mosque of Natuna, Natuna Regency (2009)
- Grand Mosque of Andalas, Padang (2012)
- Jami Mosque of Sungai Jambu, Tanah Datar Regency
- Al-Karim Grand Mosque, Agam Regency
A mosque in Bukittinggi.
- North Sumatra
- Riau and Riau Islands
- South Sumatra
- Bangka–Belitung Islands
- Grand Mosque of Tuatunu, Bangka Belitung (2006, largest mosque in Bangka-Belitung Islands Province)
The kingdom of Banjar in South Kalimantan was the first Hindu Kingdom in Borneo to convert into Islam after its influence from the Sultanate of Demak. The architectural style shares similarities with the mosques of the Demak sultanates, especially the Great Mosque of Demak. During the course history, the Banjar develops its own architectural style. One of the main characteristic of Banjar mosque is the three- or five-tiered roof with steep top roof, compared to the relatively low-angled roof of Javanese mosque. Other characteristic is the absent of serambi (roofed porch) in Banjarese mosques, a traditional feature in Javanese mosques. The Banjarese mosque style is similar with the mosques of West Sumatra and are possibly related to other examples from peninsular Malaysia.
Other characteristics are the employment of stilts in some mosques, a separate roof on the mihrab, the peaks of the roof are decorated with finials called pataka (the mustoko/memolo of Demak Sultanates) made of Borneo ironwood, ornaments on the corner of the roofs called jamang, and fences within the perimeter of the mosque area called kandang rasi. Other differences with the mosques of Java is that the Banjarese mosques contains no serambi (roofed porch), a traditional feature in Javanese mosques.
- South Kalimantan
- Heritage Mosque of Banua Lawas, Banua Lawas (1625)
- Jami Mosque of Datu Abulung, Sungai Batang, Banjar Regency (18th century)
- Holy Mosque of Banua Halat, Tapin Regency (1840)
- Sultan Suriansyah Mosque (1879)
- Ba'angkat Mosque, Simpur (1908)
- Jami Mosque of Banjarmasin, Banjarmasin (1934 (present building), 1777 (established))
- Jami Mosque of Sungai Banar, Amuntai, Hulu Sungai Utara Regency
- Kanas Mosque, Alalak, Banjarmasin (1980, established in 1938)
- Kelayan Muhammadiyah Mosque, Banjarmasin
- Grand Mosque of Sabilal Muhtadin, Banjarmasin (1981)
- Al-Karomah Great Mosque, Martapura (2004)
- West Kalimantan
- Jami Mosque of Sultan Nata, Sintang Regency (1672)
- Jami Mosque of Sambas, Sambas (1702)
- Jami Mosque of Pontianak, Pontianak (1821, first constructed in 1771)
- Jami Mosque of Landak, Landak Regency (1895)
- Nurul Huda Mosque of Sungai Jawi, Ketapang Regency (1932)
- Babul Chair Mosque, Ketapang Regency (1953)
- East Kalimantan
- Central Kalimantan
Mosques in Sulawesi follows the architectural style of Javanese mosque with multiple (usually three) tiered roofs.
- South Sulawesi
- Mosque of Katangka, Katangka, Gowa Regency (1603 (established), current building from 1816, 1963 renovated)
- Palopo Old Mosque, Palopo (1604)
- Nurul Hilal Dato Tiro Mosque, Bulukumba Regency (1605)
- Nur Mosque of Balangnipa, Sinjai Regency (1660)
- Grand Mosque of Makassar, Makassar (1949)
- Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque, Makassar (1996)
- Southeast Sulawesi
Lesser Sunda Islands
- West Nusa Tenggara
- Bayan Beleq Mosque, Bayan, Lombok Utara
An early 20th-century photograph of a mosque in Bima.
Maluku and Papua
Islam came to Maluku in the late 15th century via Java, with the strongest impact was felt in the spice islands of Ternate and Tidore. Features in the oldest mosque in the islands, such as the Sultan's Mosque of Ternate, imitate feature in the oldest Javanese mosques. However, mosques in Maluku lack a peristyle, terrace, courtyard and gate, but retain the multi-tiered roof and centralized ground plan of Javanese mosques.
The region of Papua contains few significant mosques being largely Christian.
- North Maluku
- Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 981-3018-30-5.
- Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 981-3018-30-5.
- Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 981-3018-30-5.
- Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 981-3018-30-5.
- Mukhlis PaEni (2009). Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia: Arsitektur (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. pp. 251–255. ISBN 9789797692704.
- Tuti Nonka (August 2008). "The Old Wapauwe Mosque". Balai Pengajian dan Pengembangan Budaya Melayu. wisatamelayu.com. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Petersen, Andrew (2002). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. pp. 131–134. ISBN 9780203203873. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Turner, Peter (November 1995). Java. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0-86442-314-4.
- Djajadiningrat, Hoesein (1983). Tinjauan Kritis Tentang Sadjarah Banten [Critical Review on the History of Banten] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Djambatan. p. 39. ISBN 9789790758476.
- Backshall, Stephen (2003). Rough Guide to Indonesia 2. Rough Guides. p. 134. ISBN 9781858289915. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Masjid Kayu Jao Dijadikan Destinasi Wisata Religius". Media Indonesia. 2011-08-08. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- "Masjid Kayu Jao yang Berusia 412 Tahun". Harian Haluan. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
- Analiansyah, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Jamiʾah ar-Raniry (2004). Ensiklopedi pemikiran ulama Aceh (in Indonesian). Ar-Raniry Press. p. 106. ISBN 9789793717036.
- Uka Tjandrasasmita (2009). Arkeologi Islam Nusantara (in Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. p. 316. ISBN 9789799102126. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Asnan Haroen (February 21, 2009). "Masjid Pusaka Tabalong Jadi Saksi Sejarah". Kaltim Post (in Indonesian). Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- zal (2010). "Masjid Sultan Nata". Dinas Budaya dan Pariwisata Kalimantan Barat. Dinas Budaya dan Pariwisata Kalimantan Barat. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Windoro Adi (2010). Batavia, 1740: menyisir jejak Betawi [Batavia, 1740: sweeping up the footsteps of Betawi] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. pp. 172–174. ISBN 9789792254518.
- According to conversion of inscription in the door, which mentions the Hijri Year 1159, which is 1746 civil year.
- According to an inscription in the mosque which mentions the Hijri year of 1170.
- "Masjid Jami Sultan Syarif Abdurrahman". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre dan 27th ISLAND. duniamasjid.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "Masjid Saka Tunggal dan Taman Kera". Biro Humas Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Promo Jateng - Pemprov Jateng. 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Iskandar Zulkarnaen (2003). Sejarah Sumenep (in Indonesian). Sumenep: Dinas Pariwisata dan kebudayaan kabupaten Sumenep.
- Athonul Afif (July 2008). "Masjid Sultan Riau di Pulau Penyengat". Wisata Melayu. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Noor Faddli Marh (November 2008). "Masjid Azizi Langkat". Wisata Melayu. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- http://www.istiqlal.or.id Istiqlal Official Site
- "Masjid Al-Akbar". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Masjid Al-Markaz Al-Islami". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Masjid Islamic Senter Samarinda". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Masjid Agung Jawa Tengah". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Masjid Agung Palembang". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Masjid Raya Sabilal Muhtadin". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Masjid Raya Bandung". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Masjid Raya Makassar". Humas Jakarta Islamic Centre and 27th ISLAND (in Indonesian). DuniaMasjid.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- Fenny Melisa (June 3, 2012). "Pertumbuhan Masjid di Indonesia Rendah". Republika. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Miksic, John (1996). Ancient History. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 981-3018-26-7.
- "Al Makmur Raden Saleh, Masjid". Ensiklopedi Jakarta. Department of Communication, Informatics and Public Relations of Jakarta Capital City. 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- Yeyen Rostiyani (February 14, 2012). "Mosques in Bali is potential as tourist destination". PRepublika. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Masjid Nurul Amin". Dunia Masjid. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mosques in Indonesia.|