List of mosques in Indonesia

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This modern mosque in the University of Indonesia with its multi-tiered roofs follows the traditional architecture of a mosque found in the Indonesian archipelago.

These are lists of mosques in Indonesia, based on

  • The completion year of the building.
  • The capacity of the building.
  • Grouped into regions

These lists only include notable mosques.

The Indonesian Mesjid Agung is translated as "Great Mosque", while Mesjid Raya is translated as "Grand Mosque".

Mesjid Keramat is translated as "Holy Mosque".

Mesjid Jami is translated as Jami Mosque, which refers to the mosque where the weekly Friday prayer take

History[edit]

Islam spread gradually in Indonesia from the 12th century onwards, and especially during the 14th and 15th century. The advent of Islam did not lead to the introduction of a new building tradition, but saw the appropriation of existing architectural forms, which were reinterpreted to suit Muslim requirements.

Early Islamic architecture[edit]

This multi-tiered pavilion in Bali is similar in form with some of the earliest mosques in Indonesia.

Early Islamic architecture resembles a Majapahit era candi or gates. Most of the early Islamic mosques can still be found in Java, and the architectural style follows the existing building tradition in Java, in which four central posts support a soaring pyramidal roofs. None of the earliest Islamic structures in Sumatra survives. The characteristic of Islamic architecture include multi-tiered roofs, ceremonial gateways, and a variety of decorative elements such as elaborate clay finials for roof peaks. The multi-tiered roofs are derived from the tiered meru roof found in Balinese temple.[1]

The oldest surviving Indonesian mosques are quite large and in most cases were closely associated with palaces.[2] The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia is the Great Mosque of Demak which is the royal mosque of the Sultanate of Demak, although this is not the oldest Islamic structure. The oldest Islamic structure in Indonesia are parts of the royal palace in Sultanate of Cirebon, Cirebon. The palace complex contains a chronogram which can be read as the Saka equivalent of AD 1454. Early Islamic palaces retain many features of pre-Islamic architecture which is apparent in the gates or drum towers. The Kasepuhan Palace was probably begun in the late pre-Islamic period, and continued to grow during the Hinduism-to-Islam transitional period. The complex contains clues to the stages of the process of the gradual changes as Islam become incorporated into Indonesian architecture. Two of the Hindu features adopted into Islam in the Palace is the two types of gateways - the split portal (candi bentar) which provides access to the public audience pavilion and the lintel gate (paduraksa) which leads to the front court.

The unique minaret (also drum tower) of Kudus Mosque in Central Java was built in the 16th century following the Hindu-Buddhist style of the Majapahit era. In Indonesia, the previous Hindu-Buddhist and traditional architectural elements are preserved.

Minarets was not originally an integral part in Indonesian mosque.[1] The Menara Kudus Mosque's tower was built in a Javanese Hindu brick temple style,[3] This tower is not used as a minaret, but as a place for bedug, a huge drum which is beaten to the summons to prayer in Indonesia. This tower is similar to the Drumtowers of Hindu Balinese temples called kul-kul. These suggest a continuation of an earlier Hindu-Buddhist period into the Islamic era in Indonesia.[1]

Intensive spice trade had strong influence on the Indonesian archipelago. As a result, the multi-storied roof architecture of mosques can be found from Aceh to Ambon.[4] The spread of Islam through the Indonesian archipelago can be divided into three distinct historical processes. In Sumatra, the establishment of early Islamic states reflected the emergence of new polities rather than the subjugation of existing kingdoms. In Java, Muslim rulers succeeded to the political power base of Hindu kings; instead of eliminating the earlier ideology, they maintained a high degree of continuity with the past while extending their dominion. In eastern Indonesia (Borneo, Celebes, and Maluku) established rulers simply converted to Islam. These three distinct processes are reflected in the architecture of mosques in different part of the Indonesian Archipelago. In Sumatra, mosques do not occupy a significant position in terms of their spatial relation to the palace of the ruler, rather provides the focus for a wider area which includes the palace complex. In Java, there is a strong relationship between mosque and the ruler's palace, even when they are located far away from each other. This is particularly significant in the case of Masjid Agung (Great Mosques) of Java which are situated within the palace complex. In eastern Indonesia, conversion to Islam simply involved the appropriation of existing religious buildings to serve as mosques.

See also explanations in the section By regions below.

Colonial period[edit]

Domes and pointed arches, a well-known features in central, south and southwest Asia did not appear in Indonesia until the 19th century, when they were introduced by Dutch influence over local rulers. Indonesian scholars became familiar with the Near Eastern influence as they began to visit Islamic centers in Egypt and India.[4]

Domes in Indonesia follows the form of the Indian and Persian's onion-shaped dome. These domes first appear in Sumatra. The Grand Mosque of Riau Sultanate in Penyengat Island is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia with a dome. There is an indication that the Rao Rao Mosque of West Sumatra employs a dome in its early design.[5] The adoption of dome in mosques of Java was slower than it is in Sumatra.[5] The oldest domed mosque in Java is probably Jami Mosque of Tuban (1928), followed by Great Mosque of Kediri and Al Makmur Mosque of Tanah Abang in Jakarta.[5]

Post-independence[edit]

Al Azhar Mosque (1958) in Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta is influenced by the Near East more strongly than the vernacular style.

After the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, many older mosques built in traditional style were renovated and small domes were added to their square hipped roofs. Probably it was built in imitation of similar modifications made to the main mosque in the regional capital nearby.[4]

Since the 1970s, the appropriateness of traditional buildings has been politically acknowledged, and some layered hipped forms have been reinstated. President Soeharto contributed to this trend during the 1980s by instigating the Amal Bakti Muslim Pancasila Foundation which subsidized the erection of small mosques in less prosperous communities. The standardized design of these mosques includes three hipped roofs above a square prayer hall, reminiscent of the Great Mosque of Demak.[4]

Today, mosque architecture in Indonesia breaks apart from the multi-tiered traditions of traditional Javanese mosque. Most mosques in Indonesia today follows the Near Eastern influence e.g. Persian, Arabic, or Ottoman style architecture.

Oldest mosques in Indonesia[edit]

The list is divided into two based on form: traditional mosques and eclectic mosques.

Traditional mosques[edit]

Traditionally, mosque establishment in Indonesia began with the opening or purchase of land for the mosque. Next is the first construction of the mosque, often using traditional material such as bamboo and thatched roof. The mosque will eventually be made into a permanent mosque and later gradually extended to accommodate the increasing population.

Many of the year of establishment for traditional mosques refer to the land opening for the mosque which may create confusion as to which mosque is the oldest. To be included in the list, the year should be the year of the building's completion and not the opening of the land.

To be listed in this category, the architecture of the mosque has to be earlier than the beginning of the 20th century and has not undergone major alteration in the later periods. Architecture of the mosque has to show traditional style absent of Western or Middle-Eastern influence, such as multi-tiered roofs.

Name Images Location Year Architectural style Remarks
Wapauwe Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Gelovigen voor de moskee in Kaitetoe TMnr 10016552.jpg
Kaitetu, Leihitu Subdistrict, Central Maluku Regency 1414? (established)[6] Javanese Myth surrounds the year of establishment. The original structure and material has been replaced several times to maintain the mosque, but the architecture is kept similar.[6]
Ampel Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Poort bij de Ampel Moskee in de Arabische wijk van Soerabaja TMnr 60037907.jpg
Surabaya, East Java 1421 (original column, mosque has been restored several times) Javanese Oldest mosque in Surabaya
Great Mosque of Demak
Masjid demak.jpg
Demak, Central Java 1466, 1506[7] Javanese One of the oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia[3]
Mosque of Panjunan Panjunan, Lemahwungkuk Subdistrict, Cirebon 1480 Javanese
Great Mosque of Cirebon
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee Cheribon TMnr 60005173.jpg
Cirebon, West Java

6°43′32″S 108°34′12″E / 6.725547°S 108.569919°E / -6.725547; 108.569919 (Great Mosque of Cirebon)

1489 Javanese
Menara Kudus Mosque
Masjid Menara Kudus.jpg
Kudus, Central Java 1549[8] Majapahit-style (minaret), Persian architecture (mosque) The year refers to the establishment of the mosque. The current mosque was built in the 20th century.
Kasunyatan Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee Kasunyatan TMnr 60016490.jpg
Kasunyatan, Serang Regency, Banten Between 1570 and 1596[9] Javanese The main mosque shows eclectic influence.
Mosque of Mantingan Mantingan, Jepara Regency, Central Java 1556-1559 Javanese
Great Mosque of Banten
Masjid Banten 111225 0560 mer.JPG
Banten, Banten 1560[10] Javanese
Tuo Kayu Mosque Jorong Kayu Jao, Solok Regency 1599[11][12] Minangkabau
Indrapuri Old Mosque
Meuseujid Indra Puri.JPG
Indrapuri, Aceh Besar Regency, Aceh between 1607-1636[13] Acehnese, Hindu The mosque was built on top of a 12th-century Hindu temple. Renovation occur in 1696 and later in 1879.[14]
Heritage Mosque of Banua Lawas
Masjid Pusaka Banua Lawas.jpg
Banua Lawas, Tabalong Regency, South Kalimantan 1625[15] Banjar Oldest mosque in Kalimantan.
Kiai Gede Mosque Kotawaringin Barat Regency, Central Kalimantan 1632[citation needed] Javanese The construction of the mosque was initiated by the Sultanate of Banjar[citation needed]
Grand Mosque of Sheik Burhanuddin Padang Pariaman Regency 1670 Minangkabau
Jami Mosque of Sultan Nata Sintang, Sintang Regency 1672[16] Javanese
Sultan of Ternate Mosque
Early 20th century picture of the Sultan of Ternate Mosque
Ternate, North Maluku 17th century[citation needed] Javanese The construction of the mosque was initiated by the Sultanate of Ternate[citation needed]
Al-Mansur Mosque Jakarta 1717[17] Javanese
Sultan Suriansyah Mosque
Samping Masjid Suriansyah.jpg
Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan 1746[18] Javanese-Banjar Established in the 16th century, it is the oldest mosque in Borneo based on its year of establishment. The form of the building has been altered in the 18th century.
Kampung Baru Mosque of Bandengan Jakarta 1748[17] Javanese-Western
Kauman Mosque of Semarang Semarang, Central Java 1749[19] Javanese
Angke Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee te Angke bij Batavia TMnr 60048715.jpg
Jakarta 1761 Javanese-Chinese
Great Mosque of Surakarta
Great Mosque of Solo.jpg
Surakarta, Central Java 1768 Javanese The royal mosque of Surakarta Sunanate
Kauman Great Mosque
GrandMosqueYogya.JPG
Yogyakarta (city), Special Region of Yogyakarta 1773 Javanese The royal mosque of Yogyakarta Sultanate
Ganting Grand Mosque
Masjid Raya Gantiang.JPG
Padang, West Sumatra 1805 Javanese Oldest mosque in Padang and one of the largest in the city.
Jami Mosque of Pontianak Pontianak, West Kalimantan 1821 (construction started)[20] Javanese The first mosque of West Kalimantan and the largest in the province.[20]
Jami Mosque of Taluak
Masjid-Taluak-Sumatera-Barat.jpg
Agam Regency 1860 Minangkabau
Saka Tunggal Mosque
Saka Tunggal Mosque (exterior, HDR), Banyumas Regency, 2015-03-22.jpg
Purwokerto, Central Java 1871[21] Javanese
Great Mosque of Malang
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Gelovigen op weg naar de moskee TMnr 10016521.jpg
Malang, East Java 1890, 1903 Javanese, Arabic The serambi (front porch) of the building was heavily altered, concealing the original architecture of the mosque just behind it.

Eclectic mosques[edit]

To be listed in this category, the building has to be completed before the independence of Indonesia (pre-1950s). Architecture of the mosque has to show prominent foreign features such as pointed arches and domes during the time of its completion. Ancient Javanese mosque which in later years modified to include eclectic element should be placed on the Traditional mosques list instead.

Civic buildings that are converted into a mosque can also be listed in the category. The year should be then the year of the completion of the building, and not the year of the establishment of the building as a mosque.

Name Images Location Year Architectural style Remarks
Al Anshor Mosque Jakarta 1648[17] Mixed Indian, Western, Javanese The oldest mosque of Jakarta and the second mosque built in Jakarta (the oldest native Javanese mosque was the mosque of Jayakarta, which was destroyed by the colonial government during the exhumation of Jayakarta). There are few pure native-style mosques in Jakarta due to Dutch policy over restricting the amount of native Javanese people in Batavia. Al Anshor Mosque was built by the Moors (merchants from Hejaz and Gujarat).[17]
Luar Batang Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee Luar Batang (Batavia) TMnr 60046455.jpg
Jakarta 1736[17] Western, Javanese Heavily altered
An-Nawier Mosque of Bandengan Jakarta 1760[17] Western, Javanese
Great Mosque of Sumenep
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee Madoera TMnr 60022649.jpg
Sumenep, East Java 1787[22] Mixed Chinese, Western, Javanese, Madurese A mosque that exemplify Portuguese characteristics, not different with mosques in Sri Lanka.
Manonjaya Grand Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee in Manondjaja TMnr 10016652.jpg
Manonjaya, Tasikmalaya, West Java 1834-1837 Western, Javanese
Grand Mosque of Riau Sultan Penyengat Island, Riau Islands 1844 (first built in the 18th century, major alternation started in 1831)[23] Malay, Indian, Turkish[23] Reputedly the first mosque in Indonesia which employs a dome.[23]
Al-Osmani Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee in Laboehandeli TMnr 10016536.jpg
Medan, North Sumatra 1872 (first wooden construction in 1854, alteration began in 1870) Moorish
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Meuseujid Raya.JPG
Banda Aceh, Nanggröe Aceh Darussalam 1881 Indo Islamic, Moorish One of the oldest mosque in Aceh, the building survived the 2004 Tsunami
Great Mosque of Palembang
Masjid Agung Palembang.jpg
Palembang, South Sumatra 1893 (established in 1748; major renovations in 1893, 1916, 1950s, and the 1970s; major expansion in the 1990s) European, Malay, Chinese The royal mosque of Palembang Sultanate
Great Mosque of Sawahlunto Sawahlunto, West Sumatra 1894 Originally a steam powered power station
Azizi Mosque
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De Azizi Moskee Tandjoengpoera TMnr 60021732.jpg
Tanjung Pura, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra 1902[24] Malay, Persian, Middle East, Chinese[24] The royal mosque of the Langkat Sultanate[24]
Medan Grand Mosque
Great mosque in Medan.JPG
Medan, North Sumatra 1906 Indo Islamic, Moorish The royal mosque of Deli Sultanate
Nurul Huda Mosque Sawahlunto, West Sumatra 1921
Cut Mutiah Mosque
Cut-Mutiah1.jpg
Jakarta 1922 Dutch Rationalist Originally an architecture office
Baiturrahim Mosque
Meuseujid Bayturrahim Ulèë Lheuë.JPG
Ulee Lheue, Banda Aceh 1922, 1993 (expanded) Moorish The building has been fully restored after it was seriously damaged by the 2004 Tsunami.

Largest mosques in Indonesia[edit]

Below is a list of large mosques of Indonesia. To be listed here, the building capacity has to exceed 10,000 people.

Name Images Building capacity Area Year Location Remarks
Istiqlal Mosque 200,000 93,200 m2,[25] 10,000 m2 (building)[25] 1975 Central Jakarta, Jakarta A national mosque and the largest mosque in Southeast Asia.
Great Mosque of Surabaya 59,000[26] 18,800 m2 (building) 2000 Surabaya, East Java A national mosque and the second largest mosque in Indonesia.
Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque 50,000 10,000 m2, 6,932 (building) m2[27] 2005 Makassar, South Sulawesi
An-Nur Great Mosque Pekanbaru
Masjid Agung Pekanbaru.jpg
45,000 2000 Pekanbaru, Riau A Second largest Mosque in Sumatra[28]
Mosque of Samarinda Islamic Center
IslamicCenter1.jpg
40,000[29] 2008 Samarinda, East Kalimantan
Dian Al-Mahri Mosque 20,000 50,000 m2, 8,000 m2 (building) Depok, West Java
Grand Mosque of West Sumatra 20,000 (estimated) not yet completed Padang, West Sumatra

0°55′26″S 100°21′44″E / 0.92380°S 100.3623°E / -0.92380; 100.3623 (Grand mosque of West Sumatra)

Great Mosque of Central Java
Mesjid Agung Semarang 2009.jpg
16,000[30] 10,000 m2, 7,669 m2 (building)[30] 2006 Semarang, Central Java Largest mosque in Central Java
Great Mosque of Palembang
Masjid Agung Palembang.jpg
15,000[31] 29,305 m2, 7,512 m2 (building)[31] 1893 (established in 1748, major renovations in 1893, 1916, 1950s, 1970s, and 1990s) Palembang, South Sumatra The royal mosque of Palembang Sultanate
Sabilal Muhtadin Grand Mosque
Sabilal Muhtadin.JPG
15,000[32] 100.000 m2, 5,250 m2 (building)[32] 1979[citation needed] Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan Largest mosque in South Kalimantan.[citation needed]
Grand Mosque of Bandung
Mesjid Agung Bandung.JPG
12,412[33] 23,448 m2, building: 8,575 m2[33] 1812, 2003 (renovated to current form) Bandung, West Java Originally built in Sundanese-Javanese style in 1812, renovated to present condition in 2001-2003
Grand Mosque of Makassar
Masjid Raya Makassar.JPG
10,000[34] 10,500 m2, 1,700 m2[34] 1949, 1999 (renovated to current form) Makassar, South Sulawesi The main mosque of South Sulawesi.

By regions[edit]

There are 239,497 registered mosques in Indonesia (2012).[35] To be included in this list, the mosque has to be a landmark of particular region, and most importantly, historically notable.

Mosques in bold have been listed in the table above.

Java[edit]

The mosque of Demak, the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, shows the typical Javanese architecture for mosque with its multi-tiered roof, a style which will be emulated across the Indonesian archipelago.

The earliest mosques in Java were built in the mid-15th century onwards, although there is an earlier reference to mosques in the 14th-century Majapahit capital.

Most of the earliest mosques in Java typically include multi-tiered roof. A serambi (roofed porch) attached to the front of the mosque. The minimum number of tiers is two whilst the maximum is five. The top of the roof is decorated with a clay decoration called the mustoko or memolo. Sometimes the roof tiers represent a division into separate floors each of which is used for a different function: the lower floor for prayer, middle floor for study, and top floor for the call to prayer.[7] Minarets were not introduced into Java until the 19th century so that in a one-storeyed mosque, the call to prayer is made from the attached serambi. The highest roof tier is supported by four main pillars, called soko guru. In several of the oldest mosques, one of these pillars is made of wooden splinters held together by metal bands (the significant of which is unknown).

Inside the mosque there is a mihrab in the qibla wall and a wooden minbar. The mihrab niche is made of brick and are highly decorated with deep wood-carving derived from the pre-Islamic art of the area.[7] The enclosure walls are fairly low and decorated with inset bowls and plates from China, Vietnam and elsewhere. In the middle of the east side there is a monumental gate. Some mosques, such as the mosque in Yogyakarta, is further enclosed by a moat.[7]

Other characteristics of these early mosques are a peristyle, courtyard, and gates.[36]

See also Early Islamic architecture in Java

Sumatra[edit]

Similar to the mosques of Java, Sumatran mosques share the attributes of Javanese mosque, although it is unfortunate that none of the earliest Islamic structures in Sumatra survived.[1]

The 17th century Jami Mosque of Indrapuri in Aceh stands on a former Hindu temple of Indrapuri.

In Aceh, royal mosque was a center of armed resistance to the Dutch in the 1870s, and therefore was destroyed in battle. Early prints show it as a structure with wide hipped roofs similar to those of a mosque still standing in the 17th century citadel of Sultan Iskandar Muda.

In West Sumatra, mosques, known as surau, conform the local style with the similar three- or five-tiered roofs as the Javanese mosque, but with the characteristic Minangkabau 'horned' roof profile. The roof is supported on ranks of concentric columns, often focusing on a towering central support which reaches the apex of the building. Some mosques are built on islands in artificial ponds. Traditional Minangkabau woodcarvings may be implemented in the facade.[4]

Many mosques in Pekanbaru and Riau adopts a three- or five-tiered roofs similar to West Sumatra, but with lack of prominent 'horned' roof profile. This gives them appearance of a Javanese-style mosque but with a taller profile.

Borneo[edit]

A typical Banjarese mosque with its steep peak roof and stilts.

The kingdom of Banjar in South Kalimantan was the first Hindu Kingdom in Borneo to convert into Islam after its influence from the Sultanate of Demak. The architectural style shares similarities with the mosques of the Demak sultanates, especially the Great Mosque of Demak. During the course history, the Banjar develops its own architectural style. One of the main characteristic of Banjar mosque is the three- or five-tiered roof with steep top roof, compared to the relatively low-angled roof of Javanese mosque. Other characteristic is the absent of serambi (roofed porch) in Banjarese mosques, a traditional feature in Javanese mosques. The Banjarese mosque style is similar with the mosques of West Sumatra and are possibly related to other examples from peninsular Malaysia.[4]

Other characteristics are the employment of stilts in some mosques, a separate roof on the mihrab, the peaks of the roof are decorated with finials called pataka (the mustoko/memolo of Demak Sultanates) made of Borneo ironwood, ornaments on the corner of the roofs called jamang, and fences within the perimeter of the mosque area called kandang rasi. Other differences with the mosques of Java is that the Banjarese mosques contains no serambi (roofed porch), a traditional feature in Javanese mosques.

Banjar-style mosques can be found in Banjarmasin and Pontianak. The mosque Masjid Tinggi in Bagan Serai, Malaysia, is a Banjar-style mosque.

Sulawesi[edit]

Mosques in Sulawesi follows the architectural style of Javanese mosque with multiple (usually three) tiered roofs.

Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]

Maluku and Papua[edit]

Islam came to Maluku in the late 15th century via Java, with the strongest impact was felt in the spice islands of Ternate and Tidore. Features in the oldest mosque in the islands, such as the Sultan's Mosque of Ternate, imitate feature in the oldest Javanese mosques.[4] However, mosques in Maluku lack a peristyle, terrace, courtyard and gate, but retain the multi-tiered roof and centralized ground plan of Javanese mosques.[1]

The region of Papua contains few significant mosques being largely Christian.

References[edit]

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  3. ^ a b Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 981-3018-30-5. 
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  18. ^ According to conversion of inscription in the door, which mentions the Hijri Year 1159, which is 1746 civil year.
  19. ^ According to an inscription in the mosque which mentions the Hijri year of 1170.
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