List of multimedia franchises

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A multimedia franchise is a media franchise for which installments exist in multiple forms of media, such as books, comic books, films, television series, and video games. Multimedia franchises usually develop due to the popularization of an original creative work, and then its expansion to other media through licensing agreements, with respect to intellectual property in the franchise's characters and settings,[1] although the trend later developed wherein franchises would be launched in multiple forms of media simultaneously.[2]

In order to qualify for this list, a franchise must have works in at least three forms of media, and must have two or more separate works in at least two of those forms of media (a television series or comic book series is considered a single work for purposes of this list; multiple spin-off series or reboots of a previously ended series are considered multiple works). For example, a television series that spawned one film and one novelization would not qualify; a television series that had a spin-off series, or was remade as a new series, and which spawned two films and one novelization does qualify. This list does not include public domain works from which adaptations have been made in multiple media, but which do not involve licensing or other means by which an author or owner controls the franchise. A franchise may be included if it obtained multimedia franchise status prior to works within the collection entering the public domain.

Note: In the following table, the initial media through which the franchise characters or settings became known is shown in boldface. Only works of fiction are only considered part of the series; a book or a documentary film about the franchise is not itself an installment in the franchise.

Franchises originating in literary works[edit]

These franchises began as novels, short stories, and other forms of purely literary works.

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
A Song of Ice and Fire
(George R. R. Martin)
A Game of Thrones (1996)
several sequels
A Game of Thrones (comics) no no no Game of Thrones (2011-) several, beginning in 2007 board games, role-playing games
American Psycho
(Bret Easton Ellis)
American Psycho (1991)
Budapesti skizo (1997)
no no American Psycho (2000)
American Psycho 2 (2002)
no no no musical
Blade Runner
(Philip K. Dick)
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968)
three sequels by another writer
several no Blade Runner (1982) no no Blade Runner (1985)
Blade Runner (1997)
The Chronicles of Narnia[2]
(C. S. Lewis)
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)
several sequels
no The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1979) The Chronicles of Narnia film series (2005–present) no The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1967)
The Chronicles of Narnia (1988– 1990)
various radio dramatisation, audiobooks
Conan the Barbarian
(Robert E. Howard)
Original Robert E. Howard Conan stories (published from 1932 to 1936); various later publications Conan the Barbarian (comics) no Conan the Barbarian (1982), and several others Conan the Adventurer (1992-1993)
Conan and the Young Warriors (1994)
Conan The Adventurer (1997-1998) several, beginning with Conan: Hall of Volta (1984) -
Curious George
(Hans Augusto Rey and Margret Rey)
Curious George (1941); numerous sequels no Curious George (2006); various no Curious George TV series (2006); various no Curious George video game (2006 ) -
Die Hard
(Roderick Thorp)
The Detective (1966)
Nothing Lasts Forever (1979)
yes no Die Hard (1988)
Die Hard 2 (1992)
Die Hard with a Vengeance (1995)
Live Free or Die Hard (2007)
A Good Day to Die Hard (2013)
no no several
(Terry Pratchett)
The Colour of Magic (1983); several sequels and spin-offs yes no Hogfather (2006)
The Colour of Magic (2008)
Going Postal (2010)
Soul Music (1997)
Wyrd Sisters (1998)
The Watch (upcoming) several stage and radio plays
board games
(Frank Herbert)
Dune (1965); numerous prequel and sequel novels Dune: The Official Comic Book no Dune (1984) no Frank Herbert's Dune (2000)
Frank Herbert's Children of Dune (2003)
Dune (1992); several others Dune board game (1979); other games, soundtracks
Ender's Game
(Orson Scott Card)
Ender's Game (1985)
several prequels, sequels, and spinoffs
several no Ender's Game (2013) no no no audioplay
(Frederick Kohner)
Gidget, the Little Girl with Big Ideas (1957)
seven sequels
yes, two issues published in 1966 Gidget Makes the Wrong Connection (1972; made for TV) Gidget (1965)
Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961)
Gidget Goes to Rome (1963)
no Gidget (1965)
The New Gidget (1986-1988)
no Stage productions in 2000 and 2007
Hannibal Lecter
(Thomas Harris)
Red Dragon (1981)
several sequels
no no Manhunter (1986)
The Silence of the Lambs (1991)
Hannibal (2001)
Red Dragon (2002)
Hannibal Rising (2007)
no Hannibal (2013-) no -
Harry Potter[2][3]
(J.K. Rowling)
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997)
several sequels
no no Harry Potter (film series) (eight films released between 2001 and 2011) no no yes The Wizarding World of Harry Potter theme parks
Hercule Poirot
(Agatha Christie)
The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1920)
several other novels and short stories
Great Detectives Poirot and Marple (2004-2005)
graphic novel adaptations
no yes Great Detectives Poirot and Marple (2004-2005) Poirot (1989-2013) Murder on the Orient Express (2006)
3 sequels
stage and radio plays
How to Train Your Dragon
(Cressida Cowell)
How to Train Your Dragon (2003)
several sequels
no How to Train Your Dragon (2010)
How to Train Your Dragon 2 (2014)
4 short films
no DreamWorks Dragons (2012-2014) no yes live stage show
James Bond[4]
(Ian Fleming)
14 novels
over 30 other novels and published stories by other authors
various no James Bond in film
over 20 films
James Bond Jr. (1991–1992) no James Bond in video games -
(Robert Ludlum)
The Bourne Identity (1980)
several sequels
no no The Bourne Identity (1988 TV movie), The Bourne Identity (2002), and several sequels no no Robert Ludlum's The Bourne Conspiracy (2008) -
Jurassic Park
(Michael Crichton)
Jurassic Park (1990)
The Lost World (1995)
various no Jurassic Park (1993)
The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
Jurassic Park III (2001)
Jurassic World (2015)
no no Jurassic Park video games List of Jurassic Park water rides
Megami Tensei
(Aya Nishitani)
Digital Devil Story (1986)
two sequels and video game adaptations
List of Megami Tensei manga Persona 3 The Movie: Chapter 1, Spring of Birth (2013) no List of Megami Tensei anime no List of Megami Tensei video games various media
(Tove Jansson)
The Moomins and the Great Flood (1945)
several sequels and other books
Moomin comic strips
comic book
Comet in Moominland (1993)
Moomins on the Riviera (2014)
two compilation movies
no several several several Moomin World theme park
Moomin Museum
other merchandise
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
(Dodie Smith)
The Hundred and One Dalmatians (1956)
The Starlight Barking (1967)
- One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961)
101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure (2003)
101 Dalmatians (1996)
102 Dalmatians (2000)
101 Dalmatians: The Series (1997–1998) no 101 Dalmatians: Escape from DeVil Manor (1997) The 101 Dalmatians Musical (2009)
Perry Mason
(Erle Stanley Gardner)
The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933); 81 other novels no no no no Perry Mason (1957 to 1966)
The New Perry Mason (1973–1974)
Perry Mason TV movies (1985–1995)
no Perry Mason radio show
Planet of the Apes
(Pierre Boulle)
La Planète des singes (1963)
several sequels
Planet of the Apes (comics) no Planet of the Apes (1968); numerous sequels, and a reboot series. Return to the Planet of the Apes (1975) Planet of the Apes (1974) yes various
(David Morrell)
First Blood (1972) several no First Blood (1982)
Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985)
Rambo III (1988)
Rambo (2008)
Rambo: The Force of Freedom (1986) no various
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
(Robert L. May)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (1939)
several sequels
yes Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie (1998)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys (2001)
no various TV specials no no Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (song, 1959)
Sex and the City
(Candace Bushnell)
Sex and the City
The Carrie Diaries
no no Sex and the City
Sex and the City 2
no Sex and the City
The Carrie Diaries
no no
Starship Troopers
(Robert A. Heinlein)
Starship Troopers (1959) no Starship Troopers: Invasion (2012) Starship Troopers (1997)
2 direct-to-DVD sequels
Roughnecks: Starship Troopers Chronicles (1999-2000) no yes several table-top games
original video animation
(J. R. R. Tolkien)
The Hobbit (1937)
The Fellowship of the Ring (1954)
The Two Towers (1954)
The Return of the King (1954)
other literature
various The Hobbit (1977)
The Lord of the Rings (1978)
The Return of the King (1980)
The Lord of the Rings film series (2001−2003)
The Hobbit film series (2012−2014)
no no Middle-earth in video games various media
(A. A. Milne)
When We Were Very Young
Winnie the Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner
Featured in two others
no various Not primarily. A bit of live-action was used in some of the animated films. various yes various Consisted of audio stories, specials, songs and theme rides etc.
The Witcher
(Andrzej Sapkowski)
The Witcher Stories
The Saga novels
various no The Hexer (2001) no The Hexer (2002) The Witcher (2007)
The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (2011)
The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt (2014)
board and card games
The Wizard of Oz[2]
(L. Frank Baum )
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900)
several sequels
yes yes yes yes yes yes

Franchises originating in comic books, manga, and printed cartoons[edit]

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
The Addams Family
(Charles Addams)
several cartoons in The New Yorker (1938-1988)
no The Addams Family (1991)
Addams Family Values (1993)
The Addams Family (1973-1975)
The Addams Family: The Animated Series (1992–1993)
The Addams Family (1964–1966)
The New Addams Family (1998–1999)
The Addams Family (video game series) The Addams Family, a Broadway musical
Alien vs. Predator[5]
(see Aliens and Predator sections below)
Aliens vs. Predator novel series Aliens vs. Predator comics no Alien vs. Predator (2004)
Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem (2007)
no no various -
Archie Comics
(John L. Goldwater)
no Archie Comics, various series, beginning in 1941 no Archie: To Riverdale and Back Again (TV movie) The Archie Show (1968-1969)
Archie's Weird Mysteries (1999-2000)
no no Radio show
(René Goscinny)
no Asterix the Gaul (1961)
several sequels
List of Asterix films Asterix films (live action) no no yes Parc Astérix theme park
board games and gamebooks
(Tite Kubo)
2 light novels List of Bleach volumes Bleach: Memories of Nobody (2006)
Bleach: The DiamondDust Rebellion (2007)
Bleach: Fade to Black (2008)
Bleach: Hell Verse (2010)
no Bleach (2004–2012) no several musicals
Bleach Trading Card Game
DC Universe
(DC Comics)
(includes Superman,[6] Batman, and many others)
yes DC Comics yes Superman and the Mole Men (1951) and numerous others yes yes yes Vertigo. (Sandman, Hellblazer, etc.) Imprint of DC. Has connections to the universe sometimes.
Death Note
(Tsugumi Ohba)
several light novels Death Note (beginning in 2003) no Death Note (2008); several others yes no several -
Detective Conan
(Gosho Aoyama)
no volumes 18, films no part 1-15
part 16-present
yes yes, video games Trade cards
(Fujiko Fujio)
no List of Doraemon chapters
The Doraemons
several no Doraemon (1973)
Doraemon (1979−2005)
Doremon (2005−ongoing)
no various musical
Dragon Ball
(Akira Toriyama)
yes List of Dragon Ball manga volumes yes Dragon Ball: The Magic Begins (1989); several others Dragon Ball (1986−1989)
Dragon Ball Z (1989−1996)
Dragon Ball GT (1996−1997)
no List of Dragon Ball video games -
(Jim Davis)
no Garfield (comic strip) yes Garfield: The Movie (2004)
Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties (2006)
Garfield and Friends (1988-1994) no yes -
Ghost in the Shell
(Masamune Shirow)
no Ghost in the Shell (1989-1990) Ghost in the Shell (1995)
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence (2004)
upcoming Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (2002-2003) no Ghost in the Shell (1997)
Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (PS2) (2004)
original video animation
(Mike Mignola)
various List of Hellboy comics (1993−present) Hellboy: Sword of Storms (2006)
Hellboy: Blood and Iron (2007)
Hellboy (2004)
Hellboy II: The Golden Army (2008)
no no various -
Marvel Universe
(Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, et al.)
(includes Spider-Man,[2] The Hulk,[2] Iron Man, X-Men, Fantastic Four, and many others)
yes Marvel Comics yes Captain America (1944); X-Men (2000); Spider-Man (2002); various
See also Marvel Cinematic Universe
The Marvel Super Heroes (1966), numerous others The Amazing Spider-Man (1977–1979); The Incredible Hulk (1977–1982)
several others
Spider-Man (1982) and numerous others Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark (Broadway musical)
Men in Black
(Lowell Cunningham)
no The Men in Black (comics) no Men in Black (film series) Men in Black: The Series no several Men In Black: The Roleplaying Game
(Masashi Kishimoto)
several List of Naruto manga volumes yes no Naruto (2002–2007)
Naruto Shippuuden (2007 – ongoing)
Rock Lee & His Ninja Pals (2012–2013)
no several Original video animations
Trading card game
One Piece
(Eiichiro Oda)
several List of One Piece manga volumes (1997 - ongoing) 12 films no One Piece (1999 - ongoing) no several Original video animations
Trading card game
(Charles M. Schulz)
no Peanuts (1950-2000); numerous compilation books A Boy Named Charlie Brown (1969); three other films no The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show (1983-1986) no several A Charlie Brown Christmas (1965 album)
Ranma ½
(Rumiko Takahashi)
no Ranma ½ (1987-1996) 3 films TV special (2011) yes no List of Ranma ½ video games original video animations
Popeye the Sailor
(Elzie Crisler Segar)
no Thimble Theatre comic strips;
yes Popeye (1980) numerous no yes -
Sailor Moon
(Naoko Takeuchi)
no List of Sailor Moon chapters (1993–1997) Sailor Moon R: The Movie (1993)
Sailor Moon S: The Movie (1994)
Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie (1995)
no Sailor Moon (1992–1993)
Sailor Moon R (1993–1994)
Sailor Moon S (1994–1995)
Sailor Moon SuperS (1995–1996)
Sailor Moon Sailor Stars (1995–1996)
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (2003-2004) several musicals
Saint Seiya
(Masami Kurumada)
yes List of Saint Seiya chapters (series)
several others
5 no Saint Seiya (1986−1989)
Saint Seiya Omega (2012 − ongoing)
no several Original video animations
The Smurfs
yes Johan and Peewit
The Smurfs (comics)
Les Aventures des Schtroumpfs (1965)
The Smurfs and the Magic Flute (1976)
The Smurfs (2011)
The Smurfs 2 (2013)
The Smurfs (1981–89) no yes yes
(Todd McFarlane)
no Spawn (1992–present)
Shadows of Spawn (1998-1999)
no Spawn (1997) Todd McFarlane's Spawn (1997-1999) no several The Dark Saga (1996)
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
(Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird)
no Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1984-2009)
yes yes yes Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation (1997-1998) yes -
(Rex Maxon)
4 novels Turok: Son of Stone (1956-1982; 2010-2011)
Turok: Dinosaur Hunter (1993-1996; 2014-)
Turok (1998)
yes no no no Turok (series) -
The Walking Dead
(Robert Kirkman and Tony Moore)
3 novels The Walking Dead (2003 – present) yes no no The Walking Dead TV series (2010 – present) The Walking Dead (2012)
The Walking Dead: Survival Instinct (2013)
(Kazuki Takahashi)
yes Yu-Gi-Oh! (1996-2004)
Yu-Gi-Oh! R (2004-2008)
Yu-Gi-Oh! (1999)
Yu-Gi-Oh! The Movie: Pyramid of Light (2004)
Yu-Gi-Oh!: Bonds Beyond Time (2010)
no Yu-Gi-Oh! (1998)
Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters (2000-2004)
no several Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game
YuYu Hakusho
(Yoshihiro Togashi)
no List of YuYu Hakusho chapters (1990–1994) YuYu Hakusho (1993)
YuYu Hakusho - Chapter of Underworld's Carnage - Bonds of Fire (1994)
no YuYu Hakusho (1992–1995) no several CDs
Yu Yu Hakusho Trading Card Game
various merchandise

Franchises originating in television series[edit]

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
Avatar: The Last Airbender
(Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko)
no Avatar: The Last Airbender (comics series)
The Last Airbender Prequel: Zuko's Story
no The Last Airbender Avatar: The Last Airbender
The Legend of Korra
no various Trading Card Game
Roller Coaster ride
Lego theme
Babylon 5
(J. Michael Straczynski)
various various no no no Babylon 5 (102 episodes, 1994–1998)
Crusade (1999) and six TV films (1998–2007)
no -
Battlestar Galactica
(Glen A. Larson)
various Battlestar Galactica (comics) no no no Battlestar Galactica (1978-1979)
Battlestar Galactica (2004-2009)
List of Battlestar Galactica video games -
Doctor Who[7]
(Sydney Newman, C. E. Webber, and Donald Wilson)
List of Doctor Who novelisations (1965-2012)
List of Doctor Who comic stories no Dr. Who and the Daleks (1965)
Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D. (1966)
The Infinite Quest (2007)
Dreamland (2009)
Doctor Who (26 seasons from 1963–1989, new series 2005–present); one TV film and several spin-offs various Website animated series
Radio and audio serials
Stage productions
The Flintstones
no yes The Man Called Flintstone (1966)
The Flintstones & WWE: Stone Age SmackDown! (2015)
several TV specials and movies
The Flintstones (1994)
The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas (2000)
The Flintstones (1960-1966)
several other animated series
no yes 2 theme parks
live stage show
(Yoshiyuki Tomino)
numerous List of Gundam manga and novels Over 6 depending on criteria G-Saviour (2000) Mobile Suit Gundam (1979-1982), and 15 additional series no List of Gundam video games Hundreds of model kits, traditional merchandise and exotic specials including a car.
Mission: Impossible
(Bruce Geller)
yes several no Mission: Impossible film series no Mission: Impossible (1966–1973, 1988–1990) yes -
Monty Python various no no several no Monty Python's Flying Circus
several TV specials
various Record albums
The Muppets
(Jim Henson)
no The Muppet Show (comics)
no The Muppet Movie (1979), and seven additional films Muppet Babies (1984-1991) The Muppet Show (1976-1981)
Muppets Tonight (1996-1998)
yes Discography, live shows
Neon Genesis Evangelion
(Hideaki Anno)
no Neon Genesis Evangelion (manga) (1994-2013) Five films no Neon Genesis Evangelion (1995–1996) no several Petit Eva: Evangelion@School
Power Rangers/Super Sentai
(Haim Saban and Shuki Levy/Shotaro Ishinomori)
no yes no various Sentai Films
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995)
Turbo: A Power Rangers Movie (1997)
no Himitsu Sentai Gorenger (1975-1977)
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (1993-1995)
various Power Rangers Collectible Card Game
various stage shows
yes yes various Scooby-Doo (2002), Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed (2004) Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! (1969-1970), 11 others no yes -
The Simpsons
(Matt Groening)
yes List of The Simpsons comics The Simpsons Movie (2007) no The Simpsons (1989-) no yes The Simpsons Ride
Space Battleship Yamato
(Yoshinobu Nishizaki)
no Cosmoship Yamato manga (1974-1975)
Great Yamato manga (2000-2001)
Space Battleship Yamato (1977)
and various sequels (1978-2002)
Space Battleship Yamato (2010) Space Battleship Yamato (1974-1980)
Star Blazers (1979-1984)
Space Battleship Yamato 2199 (2013)
no Space Battleship Yamato (1999) and sequels Toys
Action figures
pre-fabricated kits
Star Trek[8]
(Gene Roddenberry)
List of Star Trek novels Star Trek (comics) no Twelve feature films (beginning in 1979) Star Trek: The Animated Series (1973–74) Star Trek: The Original Series (1966–69)
Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987–1994)
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993–99)
Star Trek: Voyager (1995–2001)
Star Trek: Enterprise (2001–05)
numerous -
Winx Club
(Iginio Straffi)
yes[9] yes[10] Winx Club: The Secret of the Lost Kingdom (2007)
Winx Club 3D: Magical Adventure (2010)
Winx Club: The Mystery of the Abyss (2014)[11]
no Winx Club (2004–Present)
PopPixie (2011)
Winx Club WOW: World of Winx (2016)[12]
no various Theme park[13]
Winx on Ice (2008-2010)
The X-Files
(Chris Carter)
no The X-Files (comics) no The X-Files (1998)
The X-Files: I Want to Believe (2008)
no The X-Files (1993-2002) yes -

Franchises originating in films[edit]

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
(Dan O'Bannon and Ronald Shusett)
Alien novel series various no Alien (1979)
Aliens (1986)
Alien 3 (1992)
Alien: Resurrection (1997)
no no various -
Back to the Future
(Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale)
novelizations of the films several no Back to the Future (1985)
Back to the Future Part II (1989)
Back to the Future Part II (1990)
Back to the Future (1991-92) no yes -
(Joss Whedon)
List of Buffyverse novels List of Buffyverse comics no Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1992) Animated pilot Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997-2003)
Angel (1999-2004)
Buffy the Vampire Slayer video games -
The Chronicles of Riddick
(David Twohy)
yes no The Chronicles of Riddick: Dark Fury (2004) Pitch Black (2000)
The Chronicles of Riddick (2004)
Riddick (2013)
no no several -
Despicable Me
(Sergio Pablos)
children's novels no
no no no
short films
Evil Dead
(Sam Raimi)
no Army of Darkness comic book
no Ash vs. Evil Dead several Evil Dead: The Musical
Final Destination
(Jeffrey Reddick)
numerous novels Final Destination: Sacrifice (2006)
Final Destination: Spring Break (2006)
no no no no -
(Dan Aykroyd and Harold Ramis)
no Ghostbusters (comics) no Ghostbusters (1984)
Ghostbusters II (1989)
yes no[16] yes
(Ishirō Honda)
Novels by Marc Cerasini Godzilla (comics) no Godzilla (1954)
numerous others
yes yes yes -
(Gregory Widen)
various various Highlander: The Search for Vengeance (2007) Highlander (1986)
Highlander II: The Quickening
Highlander III: The Sorcerer
Highlander: Endgame
Highlander: The Source (2007)
Highlander: The Animated Series Highlander: The Series
Highlander: The Raven
Highlander (1986)
Highlander: The Last of the MacLeods (1995)
Highlander: The Card Game
Ice Age
(Michael J. Wilson)
no no Ice Age (2002), The Meltdown (2006), Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009), Continental Drift (2012) no no no Ice Age (2002)
Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009)
Ice Age Live! A Mammoth Adventure (live arena ice show)
Indiana Jones
(George Lucas)
yes Indiana Jones (comics) no Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)
no The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles various The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game by TSR and The World of Indiana Jones by West End Games
King Kong
(Merian C. Cooper)
no various no King Kong (1933); numerous others The King Kong Show (1966–1969)
The Mighty Kong (1998)
Kong: The Animated Series (2000)
no various King Kong musical (2013); amusement park rides
Lilo & Stitch
(Chris Sanders and Dean DeBlois)
Lilo & Stitch
various straight to video sequels
no Lilo & Stitch: The Series
Stitch! (anime)
no various various attractions
Looney Tunes no various Theatrical short films, beginning in 1930 Space Jam (1996)
Looney Tunes: Back in Action (2003)
numerous no List of Looney Tunes video games Music albums, theme park rides.
The Matrix[2][17]
(The Wachowskis)
yes The Matrix Comics The Animatrix (2003) The Matrix (1997), and two sequels no no Enter the Matrix (2003)
several others
Marvel Cinematic Universe
no Marvel Cinematic Universe tie-in comics no Iron Man (2008)
The Incredible Hulk (2008)
Iron Man 2 (2010)
Thor (2011)
Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)
The Avengers (2012)
Iron Man 3 (2013)
Thor: The Dark World (2013) Captain America: The Winter Soldier
no Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.
Agent Carter
Jessica Jones
yes several short films and additional merchandise
Mickey Mouse and Friends
(Walt Disney)
no Mickey Mouse and Friends (comic book)
Theatrical short films, beginning in 1929
Saludos Amigos (1942)
The Three Caballeros (1944)
numerous Walt Disney anthology television series various numerous
(Jim Thomas and John Thomas)
Predator novel series List of Predator comics no Predator (1987)
Predator 2 (1990)
Predators (2010)
no no various -
(Edward Neumeier and Michael Miner)
no RoboCop (comics) no RoboCop (1987)
RoboCop 2 (1990)
RoboCop 3 (1993)
RoboCop (2014)
RoboCop: The Animated Series (1988)
RoboCop: Alpha Commando (1998−1999)
RoboCop: The Series (1994)
RoboCop: Prime Directives (2001)
List of video games based on RoboCop -
(James Wan & Leigh Whannell)
no yes no Saw (2004); numerous sequels no no Saw (2009)
Saw II: Flesh & Blood (2010)
various theme parks, attractions and additional merchandise
(Roland Emmerich & Dean Devlin)
yes List of Stargate comics no Stargate (1994) Stargate Infinity Stargate SG-1
Stargate Atlantis
Stargate Universe
Stargate: Resistance -
Star Wars[2]
(George Lucas)
List of Star Wars books List of Star Wars comic books Star Wars: The Clone Wars Star Wars (1977)
six additional live action films, more planned
numerous Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984)
Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985)
List of Star Wars video games numerous
(James Cameron)
various List of Terminator comics no The Terminator (1984)
numerous sequels
no Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles (2008–2009) List of Terminator video games park attraction
Toy Story
(John Lasseter, and various)
yes various Toy Story (1995)
Toy Story 2 (1999)
Toy Story 3 (2010)
no yes no various other media
(Steven Lisberger)
yes various no Tron (1982)
Tron: Legacy (2010)
Tron: Uprising no various -

Franchises originating in video games[edit]

Including film and/or television works[edit]

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
Angry Birds
(Rovio Entertainment)
yes yes Angry Birds (2016) no Angry Birds Toons (2013-)
Piggy Tales (2014)
no Angry Birds (2009)
several sequels and spin-offs
theme parks, toys, food products
Assassin's Creed
(Ubisoft Montreal)
Assassin's Creed (book series)
various animated shorts Assassin's Creed: Lineage (2009) (short)
Assassin's Creed (2016)
no no Assassin's Creed (2007)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Dead Space
(Glen Schofield)
2 novels various Dead Space: Downfall (2008)
Dead Space: Aftermath (2011)
no no no Dead Space (2008)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Devil May Cry
(Hideki Kamiya)
Devil May Cry novels Devil May Cry manga series
Devil May Cry comic book series
no no Devil May Cry: The Animated Series (2007) no Devil May Cry (2001)
several sequels
(id Software)
Doom novels various no Doom (2005) no no Doom (1993)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Doom: The Boardgame
Dragon Age
4 novels various Dragon Age: Dawn of the Seeker (2012) no no Dragon Age: Redemption (2011) Dragon Age: Origins (2009)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
other media
Final Fantasy
(Hironobu Sakaguchi)
various various Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals (1994)
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within (2001)
Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children (2005)
Last Order: Final Fantasy VII (2005)
no yes no Final Fantasy (1987)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
12 novels various Halo Legends (2010) no no Halo 4: Forward Unto Dawn (2012)
upcoming series planned
Halo: Combat Evolved (2001)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Music, board game, action figures other media
The King of Fighters
no various no The King of Fighters (film) (2010) The King of Fighters: Another Day (2005-2006) no The King of Fighters '94 (1994)
numerous sequels and spinoffs
cds, collectible card game, pachinko games
The Legend of Zelda
(Shigeru Miyamoto, Takashi Tezuka)
various The Legend of Zelda (manga) no no The Legend of Zelda (1989) no The Legend of Zelda (1986)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
other media
Mario Bros.[18]
(Shigeru Miyamoto)
Nintendo Gamebooks Nintendo Comics System
Super Mario Adventures (comics)
Super Mario-kun (manga)
Super Mario Brothers: The Great Mission to Rescue Princess Peach! (1986) Super Mario Bros. (1993) several The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! Mario Bros. (1983)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Music theme
Mass Effect Mass Effect: Revelation (2007)
several sequels
various Mass Effect: Paragon Lost (2012) no no no Mass Effect (2007)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
board games, action figures
Mega Man Mega Man 2 various no no Mega Man (1994–1995)
MegaMan NT Warrior (2002–2003)
Mega Man Star Force (2006–2007)
no Mega Man (1987)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Mortal Kombat
(Ed Boon, John Tobias)
yes Mortal Kombat (comics) no Mortal Kombat (1995)
Mortal Kombat: Annihilation (1997)
Mortal Kombat: Defenders of the Realm (1996) Mortal Kombat: Konquest (1998)
Mortal Kombat: Legacy (2011)
Mortal Kombat (1992),
numerous sequels
collectible card game, live show, action figures
(Satoshi Tajiri)
yes Pokémon (manga) numerous no Pokémon (anime) no Pokémon, various series beginning in 1996 collectible card game, collectible miniatures game
Ratchet & Clank
(Insomniac Games)
no Ratchet & Clank: Bang Bang Bang! Critical Danger of the Galaxy Legend (2004-2008)
Ratchet & Clank (comic) (2010-2011)
Ratchet & Clank (2015) no no no Ratchet & Clank (2002)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
various merchandise
Resident Evil
(Shinji Mikami)
various various Resident Evil: Degeneration (2008)
Resident Evil: Damnation (2012)
Resident Evil film series no no Resident Evil (1996)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
various merchandise
Silent Hill
yes Silent Hill (comics) no Silent Hill (2006)
Silent Hill: Revelation (2012)
no no Silent Hill (1999)
numerous sequels
various merchandise
Sonic the Hedgehog yes various no no yes no Sonic the Hedgehog (1991)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Street Fighter yes Street Fighter (1993; 2003-2005)
numerous manga
yes Street Fighter (1994)
Street Fighter: The Legend of Chun-Li (2009)
yes Street Fighter: Assassin's Fist (2014–Present) Street Fighter (1987)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Card game.
Tekken no Tekken Comic (manga) Tekken: The Motion Picture (1998)
Tekken: Blood Vengeance (2011)
Tekken (2010) no no Tekken (1994)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
Tomb Raider various Tomb Raider (comics) no Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001)
Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life (2003)
Revisioned: Tomb Raider Animated Series (2007) no Tomb Raider (1996)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
amusement park rides, other media
Warcraft various various no Warcraft (2016) no no Warcraft: Orcs & Humans (1994)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
tabletop games
Wing Commander
(Origin Systems)
various no no Wing Commander (1999) Wing Commander Academy (1996) no Wing Commander (1990)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
collectible card game

Not including film and/or television works[edit]

Literature Comic books Video games Other media
Diablo various various Diablo (1996)
Diablo II (2000)
Diablo III (2012)
Gears of War Gears of War: Aspho Fields (2008)
several sequels
Gears of War (comics) Gears of War (2006)
Gears of War 2 (2008)
Gears of War 3 (2011)
Gears of War: Judgment (2013)
board game
Metal Gear
(Hideo Kojima)
yes several Metal Gear (1987)
numerous sequels and spin-offs
other media
Starcraft yes yes StarCraft (1998)
StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty (2010)
tabletop games

Franchises originating in other media[edit]

Literature Comic books Animated films Live action films Animated TV series Live action TV series Video games Other media
Alvin and the Chipmunks
(Ross Bagdasarian, Sr.)
no yes The Chipmunk Adventure (1987)
Alvin and the Chipmunks Meet Frankenstein (1999)
Alvin and the Chipmunks Meet the Wolfman (2000)
several TV specials
Little Alvin and the Mini-Munks (2004)
Alvin and the Chipmunks (film series) (2007-2015)
The Alvin Show (1961-1962)
Alvin and the Chipmunks (1983-1990)
ALVINNN!!! and the Chipmunks (2010)
no yes The Chipmunk Song (Christmas Don't Be Late); Alvin and the Chipmunks discography
live stage show
The Amory Wars
(Claudio Sanchez)
Year of the Black Rainbow (2010) several no upcoming no no yes Albums by Coheed and Cambria
American Girl
(Pleasant Rowland)
numerous no no several no no several American Girl dolls
(Ruth Handler)
numerous yes numerous direct to video no Barbie: Life in the Dreamhouse (2012–) no several Barbie fashion dolls
(Jordan Weisman, L. Ross Babcock III)
List of BattleTech novels yes no no BattleTech: The Animated Series (1994) no yes Classic BattleTech wargame
several other table-top games
(Carter Bryant)
several no several direct to video Bratz: The Movie (2007) Bratz (2005–2006) Bratz Design Academy (2008) several Bratz fashion dolls
Bratz Fashion Party Fever Game
Car Wars
(Steve Jackson Games)
3 novels yes no no no no Autoduel Car Wars table-top game
other table-top games
Care Bears
(Elena Kucharik, Linda Denham)
several yes several no several no several Care Bears greeting cards
various merchandise
no several 9 no 6 no several Virtual pet
Card game
Dungeons & Dragons
(Gary Gygax)
Dungeons & Dragons (novels) Dungeons & Dragons (comics) Dragonlance: Dragons of Autumn Twilight (2008) Dungeons & Dragons (2000)
two sequels
Dungeons & Dragons (1983-1985) no List of Dungeons & Dragons video games Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game
board games
G.I. Joe
no G.I. Joe (comics) G.I. Joe: The Movie (1987) G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra (2009)
G.I. Joe: Retaliation (2013)
G.I. Joe (TV series) (various productions from 1985-2011) no List of G.I. Joe video games List of G.I. Joe action figure series
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
(Douglas Adams)
5 original novels (1979-1992)
And Another Thing... (2006)
yes no The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (2005) no The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1981) several The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series (1978-1980)
stage play
(Ole Kirk Christiansen)
several no The Lego Movie (2014); several others no no no several Lego building blocks; Legoland theme park
Lone Ranger
(George W. Trendle or Fran Striker)
The Lone Ranger (1936), and numerous others various| no The Lone Ranger (1938 film serial); The Lone Ranger (1966-1968) The Lone Ranger (1949-1957); numerous others The Lone Ranger (1991) The Lone Ranger (1933 radio show)
Magic: The Gathering
(Richard Garfield)
several several no no no no several Magic: The Gathering trading card game
Mutant Chronicles
(Target Games)
3 novels yes no Mutant Chronicles (2008) no no Doom Troopers (1995) Mutant Chronicles role-playing game
several table-top games
My Little Pony
yes yes My Little Pony: The Movie (1986)
Various direct-to-video films produced in 2000s
My Little Pony: Equestria Girls (2013) and two sequels
Upcoming theatrical film (2017)
no My Little Pony (1984 TV special)
My Little Pony: Escape from Catrina (1985 TV special)
My Little Pony (1986, part of My Little Pony 'n Friends anthology series)
My Little Pony Tales (1992)
My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic (2010)
no yes My Little Pony (toy line)
The Odd Couple
(Neil Simon)
no no no The Odd Couple (1968)
The Odd Couple II (1998)
The Oddball Couple (1975 to 1977) The Odd Couple (1970 to 1975)
The New Odd Couple (1982 to 1983)
The Odd Couple (2015)
no The Odd Couple (1965 stage play)
Pirates of the Caribbean[2]
(The Walt Disney Company)
Pirates of the Caribbean: Jack Sparrow (12 books)
Pirates of the Caribbean: Legends of the Brethren Court (5 books)
Pirates of the Caribbean: The Price of Freedom
no no Pirates of the Caribbean (film series) (2003-2017) no no List of Pirates of the Caribbean video games Disney theme park ride, beginning in 1967
(FASA Corporation)
several no no no no no several Shadowrun role-playing game
several other table-top games
Strawberry Shortcake
(Muriel Fahrion)
yes yes several no several no List of Strawberry Shortcake video games Strawberry Shortcake greeting cards
various merchandise
(Hasbro, based on two existing toy lines created by Takara)
List of Transformers books Transformers (comics) The Transformers: The Movie (1986) Transformers (film series) (2007-) The Transformers (1982-1987); various series no List of Transformers video games Transformers (toy line)
Warhammer (Games Workshop) List of Warhammer Fantasy novels
List of Warhammer 40,000 novels
Warhammer Fantasy comics
Warhammer 40,000 comics
Ultramarines: A Warhammer 40,000 Movie (2010) no no no Warhammer video games Warhammer Fantasy Battle miniature wargame
several other table-top games
World of Darkness (White Wolf Publishing) several yes no no no Kindred: The Embraced (1996) yes Vampire: The Masquerade role-playing game
several other table-top games

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See, e.g., Barry Langford, Post-classical Hollywood: Film Industry, Style and Ideology Since 1945, p. 207, ISBN 074863858X: "For the studios, a home-run is a film from which a multimedia 'franchise' can be generated; the colossally expensive creation of cross-media conglomerates predicated on synergistic rewards provides an obvious imperative to develop such products".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Harry J. Brown, Videogames and Education (2008), p. 41, ISBN 0765629496:

    In one of the most celebrated ventures in media convergence, Larry and Andy Wachowski, creators of The Matrix trilogy, produced the game Enter the Matrix (2003) simultaneously with the last two films of the trilogy, shooting scenes for the game on the movie's sets with the movie s actors, and releasing the game on the same day as The Matrix: Reloaded. Likewise, on September 21, 2004, Lucasfilm jointly released a new DVD box set of the original Star Wars trilogy with Star Wars: Battlefront, a combat game in which players can reenact battles from all six Star Wars films. In 2005, Peter Jackson likewise produced his blockbuster film King Kong (2005) in tandem with a successful King Kong game designed by Michael Ancel and published by Ubisoft. In the last several years, numerous licensed videogame adaptations of major summer and holiday blockbusters were released a few days before or a few days after their respective films, including: all three Star Wars films (1999–2005); all five Harry Potter films (2001–2008); all three Spider-Man films (2002–2007); Hulk (2002); The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002); The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003); The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (2005); Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006); Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007); and Transformers (2007). These multimedia franchises have made it more difficult to distinguish the production of films and videogames as separate enterprises.

  3. ^ Nick Hunter, Popular Culture: 2000 and Beyond (2012), page 11, ISBN 1410946266: "The Harry Potter series was another huge multimedia franchise that triumphed at the box office".
  4. ^ John Sutherland, Lives of the Novelists: A History of Fiction in 294 Lives (2012), p. 195, ISBN 0300182430: "It was the films, beginning with Dr No in 1962, which made Bond into a multimedia franchise which continues to turn over more money per annum than any other literary creation of the twentieth century, with the possible exception of the Harry Potter films".
  5. ^ a b c Note: Alien vs. Predator is a crossover franchise established from the existing Alien and Predator franchises
  6. ^ Ian Gordon, Mark Jancovich, Matthew P. McAllister, Film and Comic Books (2007), p. 161, ISBN 160473809X: "[W]hen considering Superman as a multimedia franchise, and critical interpretations of him, it would seem that development and variety have been central to his longevity".
  7. ^ Miles Booy, Love and Monsters: The Doctor Who Experience, 1979 to the Present (2012), p. 155, ISBN 184885479X: "If treating the programme as a multimedia franchise – and at this point it becomes hard to think of it as anything else – is a good thing, then this was the point where the BBC began to connect the dots".
  8. ^ Mark Clark, Star Trek FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the First Voyages of the Starship Enterprise (2012), p. 1, ISBN 1557839638: "Star Trek, which once struggled to survive from one season to the next, has become immortal—and, beyond that, inescapable. The series, and the multimedia franchise that grew from it, is now woven inextricably into the fabric of America and the world".
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Winx Club Magazine (Volume) - Comic Vine". 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Winx Club Dolls Mattel - eBay". eBay. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ Note: The Ghostbusters franchise beginning with the 1984 film is unrelated to the 1975 TV series, The Ghost Busters, and its spin-off, the 1986 Ghostbusters animated series.
  17. ^ Lincoln Geraghty, American Science Fiction Film and Television (2009), p. 94, ISBN 1845207963: Multiple readings of the film are plentiful and highlight the polysemic nature of the text and subsequent multimedia franchise".
  18. ^ Roger Parry, The Ascent of Media: From Gilgamesh to Google Via Gutenberg (2011), p. 317, ISBN 1857885708: "Along with associated feature films, comic books, and character merchandise, Mario has become a hugely valuable global multimedia franchise".
  19. ^ Marc DiPaolo, War, Politics and Superheroes: Ethics and Propaganda in Comics and Film (2011), p. 39, ISBN 0786485795: "The multimedia franchise is bolstered by the imaginations of the Transformers fans that imbue the flimsy material with their own potent fantasies of family cars and household devices turning into robots".