List of multiple Olympic medalists

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This article provides a list of multiple Olympic medalists, i.e. those athletes who have won multiple Olympic medals at either the Summer Olympic Games or the Winter Olympic Games.

American swimmer Michael Phelps is the most decorated Olympian, having won a total of 28 medals in both individual and team events (23 gold, 3 silver, and 2 bronze). Phelps has also won more individual events than any other Olympian, with 16 medals (13 gold, 2 silver, and 1 bronze).

Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen is the most decorated Winter Olympian, with a total of 15 medals (8 gold, 4 silver, and 3 bronze).

List of Olympic medals over career[edit]

This list includes athletes who have won seven or more Olympic medals over their sporting career. It includes top-three placings in the 1896 Olympic Games and 1900 Olympic Games, before medals were actually awarded for those placings. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included.

For simplicity, when an athlete has won medals for more than one nation, their entry in this list only mentions the last Nation represented. The Years listed for each athlete only include the Games in which they won medals. More detailed information is provided in the linked articles for the individual athletes.

In cases where two or more athletes have the same number of total medals, the first tiebreaker is the number of gold medals, followed by the number of silver medals. If the tied athletes have exactly the same number of gold, silver and bronze medals, the ranking is given as a tie and the athletes are listed in order first by career years and then alphabetically by surname.

No. Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Gender Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Michael Phelps  United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 23 3 2 28
2 Larisa Latynina  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 9 5 4 18
3 Marit Bjørgen  Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2018 Winter F 8 4 3 15
4 Nikolai Andrianov  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 7 5 3
5 Ole Einar Bjørndalen  Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 8 4 1 13
6 Boris Shakhlin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 7 4 2
7 Edoardo Mangiarotti  Italy Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 5 2
8 Takashi Ono  Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 5 4 4
9 Paavo Nurmi  Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 9 3 0 12
10 Birgit Fischer  East Germany
 Germany
Canoeing 1980–2004 Summer F 8 4 0
Bjørn Dæhlie  Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 8 4 0
12 Sawao Kato  Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 8 3 1
Jenny Thompson  United States Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 8 3 1
14 Ryan Lochte  United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 6 3 3
15 Dara Torres  United States Swimming 1984–2008 Summer F 4 4 4
16 Alexei Nemov  Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 4 2 6
17 Natalie Coughlin  United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 3 4 5
18 Mark Spitz  United States Swimming 1968–1972 Summer M 9 1 1 11
19 Matt Biondi  United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 8 2 1
20 Věra Čáslavská  Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 4 0
21 Viktor Chukarin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 7 3 1
22 Ireen Wüst  Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 5 5 1
23 Carl Osburn  United States Shooting 1912–1924 Summer M 5 4 2
24 Carl Lewis  United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 9 1 0 10
25 Aladár Gerevich  Hungary Fencing 1932–1960 Summer M 7 1 2
26 Isabell Werth  Germany Equestrian 1992–2016 Summer F 6 4 0
27 Akinori Nakayama  Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 6 2 2
28 Vitaly Scherbo  Unified Team
 Belarus
Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 6 0 4
29 Ágnes Keleti  Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 5 3 2
Gary Hall Jr.  United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer M 5 3 2
31 Polina Astakhova  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 5 2 3
32 Raisa Smetanina  Soviet Union
 Unified Team
Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 4 5 1
33 Alexander Dityatin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 3 6 1
34 Stefania Belmondo  Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 Winter F 2 3 5
35 Franziska van Almsick  Germany Swimming 1992–2004 Summer F 0 4 6
36 Hubert Van Innis  Belgium Archery 1900–1920 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Lyubov Yegorova  Unified Team
 Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 Winter F 6 3 0
Allyson Felix  United States Athletics 2004–2016 Summer F 6 3 0
39 Valentina Vezzali  Italy Fencing 1996–2012 Summer F 6 1 2
40 Nadia Comăneci  Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 3 1
Ian Thorpe  Australia Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 5 3 1
42 Claudia Pechstein  Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 5 2 2
43 Mitsuo Tsukahara  Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 1 3
44 Alexander Popov  Unified Team
 Russia
Swimming 1992–2000 Summer M 4 5 0
45 Sixten Jernberg  Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 4 3 2
Ludmilla Tourischeva  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer F 4 3 2
47 Sven Kramer  Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter M 4 2 3
48 Charlotte Kalla  Sweden Cross-country skiing 2010–2018 Winter F 3 6 0
49 Anky van Grunsven  Netherlands Equestrian 1992–2012 Summer F 3 5 1
Leisel Jones  Australia Swimming 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 1
51 Giulio Gaudini  Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 3 4 2
52 Alfred Swahn  Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 3 3 3
53 Mikhail Voronin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 6 1
54 Uschi Disl  Germany Biathlon 1992–2006 Winter F 2 4 3
55 Heikki Savolainen  Finland Gymnastics 1928–1952 Summer M 2 1 6
56 Yuri Titov  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 1 5 3
57 Merlene Ottey  Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 3 6
58 Ray Ewry  United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
Usain Bolt  Jamaica Athletics 2008–2016 Summer M 8 0 0
60 Gert Fredriksson  Sweden Canoeing 1948–1960 Summer M 6 1 1
61 Reiner Klimke  United Team of Germany
 West Germany
Equestrian 1964–1988 Summer M 6 0 2
Ahn Hyun-Soo
Viktor Ahn
 South Korea
 Russia
Short track speed skating 2006–2014 Winter M 6 0 2
63 Ville Ritola  Finland Athletics 1924–1928 Summer M 5 3 0
64 Elisabeta Lipă  Romania Rowing 1984–2000 Summer F 5 2 1
65 Bradley Wiggins  Great Britain Cycling 2000–2016 Summer M 5 1 2
Nathan Adrian  United States Swimming 2008–2016 Summer M 5 1 2
67 Dawn Fraser  Australia Swimming 1956–1964 Summer F 4 4 0
Kornelia Ender  East Germany Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 4 4 0
69 Otto Olsen  Norway Shooting 1920–1924 Summer M 4 3 1
Georges Miez  Switzerland Gymnastics 1924–1936 Summer M 4 3 1
Ricco Groß  Germany Biathlon 1992–2006 Winter M 4 3 1
Emil Hegle Svendsen  Norway Biathlon 2010–2018 Winter M 4 3 1
73 Roland Matthes  East Germany Swimming 1968–1976 Summer M 4 2 2
Allison Schmitt  United States Swimming 2008–2016 Summer F 4 2 2
Galina Kulakova  Soviet Union Cross-country skiing 1972–1980 Winter F 4 2 2
Kjetil André Aamodt  Norway Alpine skiing 1992–2006 Winter M 4 2 2
Sven Fischer  Germany Biathlon 1994–2006 Winter M 4 2 2
Inge de Bruijn  Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer F 4 2 2
Jason Lezak  United States Swimming 2000–2012 Summer M 4 2 2
80 Giovanna Trillini  Italy Fencing 1992–2008 Summer F 4 1 3
81 Katalin Kovács  Hungary Canoeing 2000–2012 Summer F 3 5 0
82 Roger Ducret  France Fencing 1920–1928 Summer M 3 4 1
Philippe Cattiau  France Fencing 1920–1936 Summer M 3 4 1
Karin Enke  East Germany Speed skating 1980–1988 Winter F 3 4 1
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann  Germany Speed skating 1992–1998 Winter F 3 4 1
Petria Thomas  Australia Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 3 4 1
87 Veronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica Athletics 2000–2016 Summer F 3 3 2
88 Shirley Babashoff  United States Swimming 1972–1976 Summer F 2 6 0
89 Susie O'Neill  Australia Swimming 1992–2000 Summer F 2 4 2
90 Margit Korondi  Hungary Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer F 2 2 4
Sofia Muratova  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1960 Summer F 2 2 4
Dmitri Sautin  Unified Team
 Russia
Diving 1992–2008 Summer M 2 2 4
Apolo Ohno  United States Short track speed skating 2002–2010 Winter M 2 2 4
94 Arianna Fontana  Italy Short track speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 1 2 5
95 Chris Hoy  Great Britain Cycling 2000–2012 Summer M 6 1 0 7
Jason Kenny  Great Britain Cycling 2008–2016 Summer M 6 1 0
97 Pál Kovács  Hungary Fencing 1936–1960 Summer M 6 0 1
98 Yukio Endo  Japan Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer M 5 2 0
Aaron Peirsol  United States Swimming 2000–2008 Summer M 5 2 0
Martin Fourcade  France Biathlon 2010–2018 Winter M 5 2 0
101 Willis Augustus Lee  United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 5 1 1
Clas Thunberg  Finland Speed skating 1924–1928 Winter M 5 1 1
Hans Günter Winkler  United Team of Germany
 West Germany
Equestrian 1956–1976 Summer M 5 1 1
Tom Jager  United States Swimming 1984–1992 Summer M 5 1 1
Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1
Larisa Lazutina  Unified Team
 Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 5 1 1
Dana Vollmer  United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 5 1 1
Minxia Wu  China Diving 2004–2016 Summer F 5 1 1
109 Ivan Patzaichin  Romania Canoeing 1968–1984 Summer M 4 3 0
110 Einar Liberg  Norway Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 4 2 1
Ivar Ballangrud  Norway Speed skating 1928–1936 Winter M 4 2 1
112 Charles Daniels  United States Swimming 1904–1908 Summer M 4 1 2
Lloyd Spooner  United States Shooting 1920 Summer M 4 1 2
Kosuke Kitajima  Japan Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 4 1 2
Libby Trickett  Australia Swimming 2004–2012 Summer F 4 1 2
116 Vilhelm Carlberg  Sweden Shooting 1908–1924 Summer M 3 4 0
Kōhei Uchimura  Japan Gymnastics 2008–2016 Summer M 3 4 0
118 Veikko Hakulinen  Finland Cross-country skiing 1952–1960 Winter M 3 3 1
119 Eero Mäntyranta  Finland Cross-country skiing 1960–1968 Winter M 3 2 2
Irena Szewińska  Poland Athletics 1964–1976 Summer F 3 2 2
Agneta Andersson  Sweden Canoeing 1984–1996 Summer F 3 2 2
Pieter van den Hoogenband  Netherlands Swimming 2000–2004 Summer M 3 2 2
123 Shirley Strickland  Australia Athletics 1948–1956 Summer F 3 1 3
Simona Amânar  Romania Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer F 3 1 3
Felix Gottwald  Austria Nordic combined 2002–2010 Winter M 3 1 3
126 Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi  Finland Cross-country skiing 1984–1994 Winter F 3 0 4
Yelena Välbe  Unified Team
 Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 3 0 4
128 Gustavo Marzi  Italy Fencing 1928–1936 Summer M 2 5 0
Maria Gorokhovskaya  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952 Summer F 2 5 0
130 Amanda Beard  United States Swimming 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1
Svetlana Khorkina  Russia Gymnastics 1996–2004 Summer F 2 4 1
Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1
133 Ildikó Újlaky-Rejtő  Hungary Fencing 1960–1976 Summer F 2 3 2
Karin Janz  East Germany Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer F 2 3 2
135 Shannon Miller  United States Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer F 2 2 3
Manuela Di Centa  Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter F 2 2 3
Aliya Mustafina  Russia Gymnastics 2012–2016 Summer F 2 2 3
138 Andrea Ehrig-Mitscherlich  East Germany Speed skating 1976–1988 Winter F 1 5 1
139 Vladimir Smirnov  Kazakhstan Cross-country skiing 1988–1998 Winter M 1 4 2

Timeline[edit]

This is a progressive list of Olympians that have held the record for most medals won. Medals won in the 1906 Intercalated Games are not included. It includes top-three placings in 1896 and 1900, before medals were awarded for top-three placings. All record-holders have competed at Summer Games rather than Winter Games.

Medal count Date Athlete Nation Sport Record medal event Earlier medal events
1 6 April 1896[1] James Connolly  United States Athletics Triple jump G
Alexandre Tuffère  France Triple jump S
Ioannis Persakis  Greece Triple jump B
Robert Garrett  United States Athletics Discus G
Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos  Greece Discus S
Sotirios Versis  Greece Discus B
2 7 April 1896[1] Robert Garrett  United States Athletics Long jump S See above
James Connolly  United States Long jump B
3 Robert Garrett  United States Athletics Shot put G 18961 G, 2 S
9 April 1896[1] Carl Schuhmann  Germany Gymnastics Vault G 18961 G, 2 G
Hermann Weingärtner  Germany Vault B 18961 G, 2 G
4 Gymnastics Pommel horse S
5 Rings S
6 Horizontal bar G
16 July 1900 Robert Garrett  United States Athletics Standing triple jump B 18961 G, 2 S, 3 G, 4 S
19005 B
3 September 1904 Ray Ewry  United States Athletics Standing triple jump G 19001 G, 2 G, 3 G
19044 G, 5 G
7 20 July 1908 Athletics Standing long jump G
8 23 July 1908 Standing high jump G
29 July 1920 Carl Osburn  United States Shooting Team 300 m / 600 m military rifle, prone G 19121 B, 2 S, 3 S, 4 G
19205 B, 6 S, 7 G
9 30 July 1920 300 m military rifle, standing G
10 31 July 1920 Team free rifle G
11 27 June 1924 Shooting 600 m free rifle S
3 August 1928 Paavo Nurmi  Finland Athletics 5000 m S 19201 S, 2 G, 3 G, 4 G
19245 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G, 9 G
192810 G
12 4 August 1928 3000 m steeplechase S
2 September 1960 Edoardo Mangiarotti  Italy Fencing Team foil S 19361 G
19482 S, 3 S, 4 B
19525 S, 6 S, 7 G, 8 G
19569 G, 10 G, 11 B
13 9 September 1960 Team épée G
21 October 1964 Larisa Latynina  Soviet Union Gymnastics Team G 1956 – 1 G, 2 B, 3 G, 4 G, 5 G, 6 S
1960 – 7 G, 8 G, 9 S, 10 S, 11 B, 12 G
14 All-around S
15 22 October 1964 Vault S
16 Uneven bars B
17 23 October 1964 Balance beam B
18 Floor exercise G
31 July 2012 Michael Phelps  United States Swimming 200 m butterfly S 20041 G, 2 B, 3 B, 4 G, 5 G, 6 G, 7 G, 8 G
20089 G, 10 G, 11 G, 12 G, 13 G, 14 G, 15 G, 16 G
201217 S
19 4 × 200 m freestyle G
20 2 August 2012 200 m individual medley G
21 3 August 2012 100 m butterfly G
22 4 August 2012 4 × 100 m medley relay G
23 7 August 2016 4 × 100 m freestyle relay G
24 9 August 2016 200 m butterfly G
25 4 × 200 m freestyle relay G
26 11 August 2016 200 m individual medley G
27 12 August 2016 100 m butterfly S
28 13 August 2016 4 × 100 m medley relay G

Legend: G = Gold, S = Silver, B = Bronze.

List of most career medals in individual events[edit]

This list contains only medals won in individual events, no relays or team events count for this section.

No. Athlete Nation Sport Years Games Sex Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Michael Phelps  United States Swimming 2004–2016 Summer M 13 2 1 16
2 Larisa Latynina  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer F 6 5 3 14
3 Nikolai Andrianov  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1972–1980 Summer M 6 3 3 12
4 Boris Shakhlin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1956–1964 Summer M 6 2 2 10
5 Marit Bjørgen  Norway Cross-country skiing 2002–2018 Winter F 5 3 2
6 Takashi Ono  Japan Gymnastics 1952–1964 Summer M 3 3 4
7 Alexei Nemov  Russia Gymnastics 1996–2000 Summer M 3 2 5
8 Paavo Nurmi  Finland Athletics 1920–1928 Summer M 6 3 0 9
Bjørn Dæhlie  Norway Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 Winter M 6 3 0
10 Viktor Chukarin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1952–1956 Summer M 5 3 1
Sawao Kato  Japan Gymnastics 1968–1976 Summer M 5 3 1
Ole Einar Bjørndalen  Norway Biathlon 1998–2014 Winter M 5 3 1
13 Vitaly Scherbo  Unified Team
 Belarus
Gymnastics 1992–1996 Summer M 5 0 4
14 Ireen Wüst  Netherlands Speed skating 2006–2018 Winter F 4 4 1
15 Ray Ewry  United States Athletics 1900–1908 Summer M 8 0 0 8
16 Věra Čáslavská  Czechoslovakia Gymnastics 1960–1968 Summer F 7 1 0
Carl Lewis  United States Athletics 1984–1996 Summer M 7 1 0
18 Akinori Nakayama  Japan Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 4 2 2
Kjetil André Aamodt  Norway Alpine skiing 1992–2006 Winter F 4 2 2
Claudia Pechstein  Germany Speed skating 1992–2006 Winter F 4 2 2
21 Karin Enke  East Germany Speed skating 1980–1988 Winter F 3 4 1
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann  Germany Speed skating 1992–1998 Winter F 3 4 1
23 Alexander Dityatin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer M 2 5 1
24 Clas Thunberg  Finland Speed skating 1924–1928 Winter M 5 1 1 7
Gert Fredriksson  Sweden Canoeing 1948–1960 Summer M 5 1 1
Nadia Comăneci  Romania Gymnastics 1976–1980 Summer F 5 1 1
Krisztina Egerszegi  Hungary Swimming 1988–1996 Summer F 5 1 1
28 Lyubov Yegorova  Unified Team
 Russia
Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 Winter F 4 3 0
29 Ivar Ballangrud  Norway Speed skating 1928–1936 Winter M 4 2 1
30 Sixten Jernberg  Sweden Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 Winter M 3 3 1
31 Mikhail Voronin  Soviet Union Gymnastics 1968–1972 Summer M 2 4 1
Raisa Smetanina  Soviet Union
 Unified Team
Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 Winter F 2 4 1
Kirsty Coventry  Zimbabwe Swimming 2004–2008 Summer F 2 4 1
34 Stefania Belmondo  Italy Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 Winter F 2 3 2
35 Ryan Lochte  United States Swimming 2004–2012 Summer M 2 2 3
36 Andrea Ehrig-Mitscherlich  East Germany Speed skating 1976–1988 Winter F 1 5 1
37 Merlene Ottey  Jamaica Athletics 1980–2000 Summer F 0 2 5

Athletes with medals in different disciplines[edit]

In the Summer and Winter Games[edit]

Athlete (Nation) Summer Games Winter Games Ref
Year Medal Event Year Medal Event
Eddie eagan.jpg  Eddie Eagan (USA) 1920 Antwerp  Gold Boxing (light heavyweight) 1932 Lake Placid  Gold Bobsleigh (four-man) [2]
Jacob Tullin Thams.jpeg  Jacob Tullin Thams (NOR) 1936 Berlin  Silver Sailing (8-metre) 1924 Chamonix  Gold Ski jumping (individual large hill) [3]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-Z0301-022, Christa Rothenburger.jpg  Christa Luding-Rothenburger (GDR) 1988 Seoul  Silver Cycling (sprint) 1984 Sarajevo  Gold Speed skating (500 m) [4]
1988 Calgary  Gold Speed skating (1000 m)
 Silver Speed skating (500 m)
1992 Albertville  Bronze Speed skating (500 m)
Hughes0004 024.jpg  Clara Hughes (CAN) 1996 Atlanta  Bronze Cycling (road race) 2002 Salt Lake City  Bronze Speed skating (5000 m) [5]
2006 Turin  Silver Speed skating (team pursuit)
 Bronze Cycling (time trial)  Gold Speed skating (5000 m)
2010 Vancouver  Bronze Speed skating (5000 m)
Lauryn Williams Osaka07.jpg  Lauryn Williams (USA) 2004 Athens  Silver Athletics (100 m) 2014 Sochi  Silver Bobsleigh (two-woman) [6]
2012 London  Gold Athletics (4 × 100 m relay)
  • Gillis Grafström became the first person to win a medal in the same event in Summer and Winter Olympics, winning figure skating golds at the 1920 Olympics and at the first Winter Olympics in 1924.
  • Eddie Eagan became the first person to win a medal in the Winter Olympics and in the Summer Olympics in different events. He is the only Summer and Winter medalist to win gold medals in different events.
  • Christa Luding-Rothenburger is the only person to win medals at the Winter and Summer Games in the same year. (This feat is no longer possible due to the staggering of the Winter and Summer Olympic years). She is also the first person to win medals in successive Winter and Summer Games or vice versa.
  • Clara Hughes is the first person to win multiple medals in both Summer and Winter Games and holds the highest number of medals of any Olympian to win medals in both the Summer and Winter Games.

In the Summer Games[edit]

Swimming and water polo[edit]

Others in Summer Games[edit]

In the Winter Games[edit]

Cross-country skiing and Nordic combined[edit]

Others in Winter Games[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Coubertin, Pierre de; Timoleon J. Philimon; N. G. Politis; Ch. Anninos (1897). "Second Part: The Olympic Games in 1896" (PDF). The Olympic Games, B.C. 776 – A.D. 1896 (PDF). IOC official Olympic reports. translated by A. v. K. London: Grevel. pp. 55–81 (passim). Retrieved 13 August 2008.  (note: the source gives dates in the Julian calendar; this table uses the Gregorian calendar)
  2. ^ "Eddie Eagan". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "Jacob Tullin Thams". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Christa Rothenburger-Luding". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Clara Hughes". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Borden, Sam (19 February 2014). "Canada Catches U.S. in Final Bobsled Run". New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2014.