List of popes who died violently
Several Roman Catholic popes had violent deaths. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I) to war (Lucius II), to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.
- Saint Peter (c.67), traditionally martyred by crucifixion
- Pope Linus (Saint) (c.67-c.76)
- Pope Anacletus or Cletus (Saint) (c.79-c.92)
- Pope Clement I (Saint) (c.92-c.99), thrown into sea with anchor around his neck
- Pope Evaristus (c.99-c.108); not listed in the Roman Martyrology
- Pope Alexander I (Saint) (c.106-c.119); recognition as the martyred Saint Alexander (feast day May 3) rescinded in 1960
- Pope Sixtus I (Saint) (c.119-c.128)
- Pope Telesphorus (Saint) (c.128-c.138)
- Pope Hyginus (Saint) (c.138-c.142); martyrdom dubious
- Pope Pius I (Saint) (c.142-c.154), martyred by the sword; claim of martyrdom removed from the 1969 General Roman Calendar
- Pope Anicetus (Saint) (155-166), traditionally martyred.
- Pope Soter (Saint) (166-175), died a martyr 
- Pope Eleuterus (Saint) (175-189), died a martyr 
- Pope Victor I (Saint) 189-199, died a martyr 
- Pope Calixtus I (Saint) (217-222), died a martyr 
- Pope Urban I (Saint) 222-230, died a martyr 
- Pope Pontian (Saint) 230-235, condemned to mines in Sardinia and died on island of Tavolara
- Pope Anterus (Saint) Elected 235-12-21, martyred at hands of Emperor Maximus 
- Pope Fabian (Saint) Elected 236-1-10 and died a martyr 250-1-20 during persecution by Decius
- Pope Cornelius (Saint) Elected March 251 and died a martyr June 253.
- Pope Lucius I (Saint) Elected 253-6-25 and martyred 254-3-5.
- Pope Stephen I (Saint) Elected 254-5-12 and martyred 257-8-2.
- Pope Sixtus II (Saint) Elected 257-8-30 and martyred 258-8-6.
- Pope Dionysius (Saint) Elected 259-7-22 after year of persecutions and died 268-12-26, martyred 
- Pope Felix I (Saint) Elected 269-1-5 and died 274-12-30, martyred 
- Pope Eutychian (Saint) Elected 275-1-4 and martyred 283-12-7. 
- Pope Caius (Saint) Elected 283-12-17 and martyred 296-4-22, but not at hands of his uncle, Diocletian 
- Pope Marcellinus (Saint) Elected 296-6-30 and martyred 304-10-25 during persecution of Diocletian 
- Pope Marcellus I (Saint) Elected 308-5-27 after 4-year vacancy and martyred 309-1-16.
- Pope Eusebius (Saint) Elected 309-4-18 and martyred in Sicily 309-8-17. 
- Pope Martin I (Saint) Elected in 649. Died in exile 655-9-16
- John VIII (872–882): Allegedly poisoned and then clubbed to death
- Stephen VI (896–897): Strangled
- Leo V (903): Allegedly strangled
- John X (914–928): Allegedly smothered with pillow
- Benedict VI (973–974): Strangled
- John XIV (983–984): Either by starvation, ill-treatment or direct murder
- Clement II (1046–1047): Allegedly poisoned
- Celestine V (1294, died 1296): Allegedly murdered while in post-abdication captivity; allegations blame his successor, Pope Boniface VIII
- Boniface VIII (1294–1303): Allegedly (though unlikely) from the effects of ill-treatment one month before
- John Paul I (1978): Death 33 days after Papal election led to conspiracy theories
- Jacobus de Voragine; William Granger Ryan. The golden legend: readings on the saints. Princeton University Press. p. 39.
- Foul Play Suspected in Popes Death? Baltimore Afro-American - October 10, 1978
- Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911), "St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles", Catholic Encyclopedia, 11, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2013-06-03
- I Sommi Pontifici Romani
- Liber Pontificalis
- Annuario Pontificio
- First pope listed as a martyr by Irenaeus' Against Heresies
- Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911), "Pope St. Hyginus", Catholic Encyclopedia, 7, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2013-06-03
- Butler, Alban (1866). "July 11: St. Pius I., Pope and Martyr". The Lives of the Saints. 7. Dublin: James Duffy. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 129
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope St. Eusebius
- Mann, H. (1910). Pope John VIII. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08423c.htm
- Pope Stephen (VI) VII New Advent.org
- Pope Leo V NewAdvent.org
- Pope John X NewAdvent.org
- Pope Benedict VI New Advent.org
- Pope John XIV NewAdvent.org
- Pope Clement II NewAdvent.org
- "Pope Celestine V". List of Roman Catholic Popes. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Pope Boniface VIII NewAdvent.org
- Yallop, David A. In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1984. ISBN 978-0-553-05073-8.