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List of popes who died violently

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A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. The circumstances have ranged from martyrdom (Pope Stephen I)[1] to war (Lucius II),[2] to a beating by a jealous husband (Pope John XII). A number of other popes have died under circumstances that some believe to be murder, but for which definitive evidence has not been found.

Martyr popes

In tradition, the first pope, Saint Peter, was crucified upside-down.

Murdered popes

Dubious

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jacobus de Voragine; William Granger Ryan. The golden legend: readings on the saints. Princeton University Press. p. 39. 
  2. ^ Foul Play Suspected in Popes Death? Baltimore Afro-American - October 10, 1978
  3. ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911), "St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles", Catholic Encyclopedia, 11, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2013-06-03 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac I Sommi Pontifici Romani
  5. ^ a b c d Liber Pontificalis
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio
  7. ^ First pope listed as a martyr by Irenaeus' Against Heresies
  8. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope St. Eusebius
  9. ^ Mann, H. (1910). Pope John VIII. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08423c.htm
  10. ^ Pope Stephen (VI) VII New Advent.org
  11. ^ Pope Leo V NewAdvent.org
  12. ^ Pope John X NewAdvent.org
  13. ^ Mann, Horace K. (1910). The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891-999. p. 264
  14. ^ Pope Benedict VI New Advent.org
  15. ^ Pope John XIV NewAdvent.org
  16. ^ Pope Clement II NewAdvent.org
  17. ^ "Pope Celestine V". List of Roman Catholic Popes. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  18. ^ Pope Boniface VIII NewAdvent.org
  19. ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter (1911), "Pope St. Hyginus", Catholic Encyclopedia, 7, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2013-06-03 
  20. ^ Butler, Alban (1866). "July 11: St. Pius I., Pope and Martyr". The Lives of the Saints. 7. Dublin: James Duffy. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  21. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 129