List of museums focused on African Americans

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This is a list of museums in the United States whose primary focus is on African American culture and history. Such museums are commonly known as African American museums. According to scholar Raymond Doswell, an African American museum is "an institution established for the preservation of African-derived culture."[1]

Museums have a mission of "collecting and preserving material on history and cultural heritage." African American museums share these goals with archives, genealogy groups, historical societies, and research libraries.[2] Museums differ from archives, genealogy groups, historical societies, memorials, and research libraries because they have as a basic educational or aesthetic purpose the collection and display of objects, and regular exhibitions for the public.[3] Being open to the public (not just researchers or by appointment) and having regular hours sets museums apart from historical sites or other facilities that may call themselves museums.[3]

History of African American museums in the United States[edit]

The first African American museum was the College Museum in Hampton, Virginia, established in 1868.[2] Prior to 1950, there were about 30 museums devoted to African American culture and history in the United States. These were located primarily at historically black colleges and universities or at libraries that had significant African American culture and history collections.[4]

Important collections were developed at Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina; Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee; Howard University in Washington, D.C.; Lincoln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania; Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland; Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama; and Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama.[5] Additionally, local historical societies, history clubs, and reading groups in African American communities also collected and displayed African American cultural artifacts.[6]

The first independent, nonprofit African American museums in the United States were The African American Museum in Cleveland, Ohio (founded in 1956), the DuSable Museum of African American History in Chicago, Illinois (founded in 1960), and the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan (founded in 1965). Throughout the 1960s, the energy of the American Civil Rights Movement led to numerous local African American museums being founded.[4] Between 1868 and 1991, there were about 150 African American museums established in 37 states.[2]

Since its opening in 2016, the largest African American museum in the United States is the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African American History and Culture. The previous record holder was the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.[7]

List of museums[edit]

This is a sortable table. Click on the column you wish it sorted by.

Name City State Founded References Image
A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum Chicago Illinois 1995 [8] Randolph Museum.jpg
African American Civil War Memorial Museum Washington D.C. 1999 [9]
African-American Research Library and Cultural Center Fort Lauderdale Florida 2002 [10] Picture of Broward County's African American Research Library.jpg
African American Firefighter Museum Los Angeles California 1997 [11] Fire Station No. 30 (African American Firefighters Museum).jpg
African American Multicultural Museum Scottsdale Arizona 2005 [12]
African American Museum Dallas Texas 1974 [13] African American Museum August 2016 03.jpg
African American Museum and Library at Oakland Oakland California 1994 [14] African American Museum and Library at Oakland (2008).jpg
African American Museum in Cleveland, The Cleveland Ohio 1956 [15] Afommus.jpg
African American Museum in Philadelphia Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1976 [16] African American Museum in Phila.jpg
African American Museum of Iowa Cedar Rapids Iowa 2003 [17] African American Museum of Iowa.jpg
African American Museum of Nassau County Hempstead New York 1970 [18]
African American Museum of the Arts DeLand Florida 1994 [19] Deland AAMA01.jpg
African American Museum of Southern Illinois Carbondale Illinois 1997 [20]
Afro-American Historical and Cultural Society Museum Jersey City New Jersey 1984 [21] Greenville Library n museum 1841 JFKB jeh.jpg
Alabama State Black Archives Research Center and Museum Huntsville Alabama 1990 [22]
Alexandria Black History Museum Alexandria Virginia 1987 [23][a]
America's Black Holocaust Museum Milwaukee Wisconsin 1988 [24] America's Black Holocaust Museum.jpg
Anacostia Museum Washington D.C. 1967 [25] Anacostia-Museum B&W.jpg
Anne Spencer House and Garden Museum Lynchburg Virginia 1977 [26] Spencer House Lynchburg Nov 08.JPG
APEX (African American Panoramic Experience) Museum Atlanta Georgia 1978 [27]
Arthur "Smokestack" Hardy Fire Museum Baltimore Maryland 1995 [28]
Banneker-Douglass Museum Annapolis Maryland 1984 [29] Mt Moriah Jul 09.JPG
Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum Oella Maryland 1998 [30] Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum Feb 18, 2017, 1-09 PM edit (33082346766).jpg
Bertha Lee Strickland Cultural Museum Seneca South Carolina 2015 [31]
Birmingham Civil Rights Institute Birmingham Alabama 1992 [32] Sixteenth Street Baptist Church section of the Milestone exhibition gallery in the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute.jpg
Black American West Museum & Heritage Center Denver Colorado 1971 [33]
Black Cowboy Museum Rosenberg Texas 2017 [34]
Black History 101 Mobile Museum Detroit Michigan 1995 [35]
Black History Museum and Cultural Center of Virginia Richmond Virginia 1988 [36]
Bontemps African American Museum Alexandria Louisiana 1988 [37]
Brazos Valley African American Museum Bryan Texas 2006 [38] Brazos valley african american museum.jpg
Buffalo Soldiers National Museum Houston Texas 2000 [39]
California African American Museum Los Angeles California 1981 [40] California African American Museum Exterior Pathway to Entrace.jpg
Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History Detroit Michigan 1965 [41] Museum of African American History.jpg
Clemson Area African American Museum Clemson South Carolina 2010 [42] Clemson Area African American Museum.jpg
Delta Cultural Center Helena Arkansas 1991 [43] Delta Cultural Center-HelenaAR.jpg
Dorchester Academy and Museum Midway Georgia 2004 [44] GA Midway Dorchester Academy Boys Dorm01.jpg
Dr. Carter G. Woodson African American History Museum St. Petersburg Florida 2006 [45]
DuSable Museum of African American History Chicago Illinois 1960 [15] The DuSable Museum.jpg
Finding Our Roots African American Museum Houma Louisiana 2017 [46]
Frederick Douglass National Historic Site Washington D.C. 1962 [47] Frederick Douglass House.jpg
George Washington Carver Museum, The Tuskegee Alabama 1941 [48] George Washington Carver Museum.jpg
George Washington Carver Museum Phoenix Arizona 1980 [49]
George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center Austin Texas 1980 [50] George Washington Carver Museum Austin TX.jpg
Great Blacks in Wax Museum Baltimore Maryland 1983 [51]
Great Plains Black History Museum Omaha Nebraska 1975 [52] Webster Telephone Exchange-Afro-American Museum, North Omaha.jpg
Griot Museum of Black History, The St. Louis Missouri 1997 [53] Griot Museum of Black History and Culture2.jpg
Hammonds House Museum Atlanta Georgia 1988 [54]
Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center Church Creek Maryland 2017 [55] Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center.jpg
Harvey B. Gantt Center Charlotte North Carolina 1974 [56] Harvey B. Gantt Center on Opening Day.jpg
Idaho Black History Museum Boise Idaho 1995 [57]
International African American Museum Charleston South Carolina 2019 (anticipated) [58]
International Civil Rights Center and Museum Greensboro North Carolina 2010 [59] International Civil Rights Center and Museum.jpg
John E. Rogers African American Cultural Center Hartford Connecticut 1991 [60]
John G. Riley Center/Museum of African American History and Culture Tallahassee Florida 1996 [61] Tallahassee FL Riley House02.jpg
Kansas African-American Museum Wichita Kansas 1997 [62]
L.E. Coleman African-American Museum Halifax County, Virginia Virginia 2005 [63]
LaVilla Museum Jacksonville Florida 1999 [64]
Legacy Museum, The Montgomery Alabama 2018 [65]
Legacy Museum of African American History Lynchburg Virginia 2000 [66]
Lewis H. Latimer House New York City (Queens) New York 2004 [67] Latimer house shady side jeh.jpg
Louis Armstrong House New York City (Queens) New York 2003 [68] Louis Armstrong House 01.jpg
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Visitors Center Atlanta Georgia 1996 [69]
Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site Washington D.C. 1979 [70] Mary McLeod Bethune Council House.jpg
Mary McLeod Bethune Home Daytona Beach Florida 1956 [71][b] Daytona Beach Bethune house02.jpg
Mary S. Harrell Black Heritage Museum New Smyrna Beach Florida 1999 [72] New Smyrna Saint Rita Mission.jpg
Mayme A. Clayton Library and Museum Culver City California 2010 [73]
Mississippi Civil Rights Museum Jackson Mississippi 2017 [74][75] Jackson December 2018 62 (Museum of Mississippi History and Mississippi Civil Rights Museum).jpg
MoCADA New York City (Brooklyn) New York 1999 [76] WSTM Zefferus 0166.jpg
Mosaic Templars Cultural Center Little Rock Arkansas 2008 [77]
Muhammad Ali Center Louisville Kentucky 2005 [78] AliCenter.jpg
Museum of African American History & Abiel Smith School Boston Massachusetts 1964 [79] Abiel Smith School.jpg
Museum of the African Diaspora San Francisco California 2005 [80] Museum of the African Diaspora.jpg
Natchez Museum of African American History and Culture Natchez Mississippi 1991 [81]
National African American Archives and Museum Mobile Alabama 1992 [citation needed] National African American Archives Mobile.JPG
National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center Wilberforce Ohio 1987 [82] NAAMCC Image for promo material002.jpg
National Center for Civil and Human Rights Atlanta Georgia 2014 [74] National Center for Civil and Human Rights 01.jpg
National Center of Afro-American Artists Roxbury Massachusetts 1969 [83]
National Civil Rights Museum Memphis Tennessee 1991 [84] Lorraine Motel 04 15 Mar 2012.jpg
National Museum of African American History and Culture Washington D.C. 2016 [85] Smithsonian-nmaahc-outside-20160720.jpg
National Museum of African American Music Nashville Tennessee 2013 [86]
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Cincinnati Ohio 2004 [87] NationalUndergroundRailroadFreedomCenter.jpg
National Voting Rights Museum Selma Alabama 1991 [88]
Negro Leagues Baseball Museum Kansas City Missouri 1990 [89] Nlbmandjazz.jpg
New Orleans African American Museum New Orleans Louisiana 1988 [90] MeilleurGoldthwaiteHouseFrontB.jpg
Niagara Falls Underground Railroad Heritage Center Niagara Falls New York 2018 [91] Niagara Falls customhouse.jpg
Northeast Louisiana Delta African American Heritage Museum Monroe Louisiana 1994 [92]
Northwest African American Museum Seattle Washington 2008 [93] Seattle - NAAM 05.jpg
Odell S. Williams Now And Then African-American Museum Baton Rouge Louisiana 2001 [94] African American Museum, Baton Rouge.jpg
Old Dillard Museum Fort Lauderdale Florida 1995 [95] Ft Laud FL Old Dillard High School01.jpg
Oran Z's Black Facts and Wax Museum Los Angeles California 2000 [96]
Paul R. Jones Collection of African American Art Newark Delaware 2004 [97]
Prince George's African American Museum and Cultural Center North Brentwood Maryland 2010 [98]
Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture Baltimore Maryland 2005 [99]
River Road African American Museum Donaldsonville Louisiana 1994 [100]
Rosa Parks Museum Montgomery Alabama 2000 [101] Rosa Parks Library and Museum.jpg
Rural African American Museum Opelousas Louisiana 2018 [102]
Sandy Ground Historical Museum New York City (Staten Island) New York 1994 [103] Sandy Ground Museum.jpg
Slave Mart Museum Charleston South Carolina 1938 [104] Old-slave-mart-facade-sc1.jpg
Smith-Robertson Museum and Cultural Center Jackson Mississippi 1984 [105]
Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum Tallahassee Florida 1976 [106] CarnegieLibraryTLH.JPG
Springfield and Central Illinois African-American History Museum Springfield Illinois 2012 [107]
Studio Museum in Harlem New York City (Manhattan) New York 1968 [108] Studio-in-harlem1.jpg
Tangipahoa African American Heritage Museum Hammond Louisiana 2005 [citation needed] Tangipahoa African-American Heritage Museum 2010Jan16.JPG
Tubman African American Museum Macon Georgia 1981 [109]
Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site Tuskegee Alabama 2008 [110] Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site.JPG
Tuskegee Airmen National Museum Detroit Michigan 1987 [111]
Weeksville Heritage Center New York City (Brooklyn) New York 2005 [112] Hunterfly road houses.jpg
Wells' Built Museum Orlando Florida 2001 [113] Orlando Wellsbuilt Hotel01.jpg
Whitney Plantation St. John the Baptist Parish Louisiana 2014 [114] WhitneyPlantation11.JPG
Willam V. Banks Broadcast Museum Detroit Michigan 2017 [115]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Founded in 1983 by the Parker-Gray Alumni and the Alexandria Society for the Preservation of Black Heritage, the museum was originally an archive known as the Alexandria Black History Research Center. Volunteers staffed the archive. In 1987, the City of Alexandria agreed to take over the archive, expanded its mission, and turned it into the Alexandria Black History Museum.[23]
  2. ^ The Mary McLeod Bethune Home is operated as a historic house museum.[71]
Citations
  1. ^ Doswell 2008, p. 8.
  2. ^ a b c Dickerson 1991, p. 169.
  3. ^ a b Burcaw 1997, p. 19.
  4. ^ a b Coleman 2006, p. 151.
  5. ^ Dickerson 1991, p. 170.
  6. ^ Coleman 2006, pp. 151-152.
  7. ^ Dagbovie 2010, p. 75.
  8. ^ Petrosino, Frankie J. (September–October 2003). "Museum and Online Registry Preserve Story of Black Railroad Porters". The Crisis. p. 10.
  9. ^ Evelyn, Dickson & Ackerman 2008, p. 269.
  10. ^ Smith, Henrietta M. (Fall 2002). "The African-American Research Library and Cultural Center of the Broward County Library: Building Bridges and Beyond". Reference and User Services Quarterly: 21.
  11. ^ "Watch 'Visiting with Huell Howser': 'Fire Museum'". KCET. February 20, 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  12. ^ Curtis 1996, p. 54.
  13. ^ Duty & Penn 2007, p. 45.
  14. ^ Mjagkij 2001, p. 190.
  15. ^ a b Coleman 2006, p. 152.
  16. ^ Huntington 2006, p. 73.
  17. ^ Hornsby 2011, p. 275.
  18. ^ Rumsey, Spencer (January 19, 2014). "Rhythm and Roots: Nassau's African American Museum Brings History to Life". Long Island Press. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  19. ^ Thomas, Ashley D. (March 12, 2015). "DeLand Museum Celebrates 20th Year". Daytona Times. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  20. ^ Esch, Janis (September 10, 2017). "African American Museum of Southern Illinois celebrates 20th anniversary". The Southern. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  21. ^ Lurie & Mappen 2004, p. 8.
  22. ^ Faulk, Kent (March 4, 2002). "Budget Cuts Threaten Goals of Black Archives". Gadsden Times. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  23. ^ a b Pulliam 2011, p. 73.
  24. ^ Sisson 2006, p. 644.
  25. ^ Alexander 1997, pp. 147-148.
  26. ^ Faulconer, Justin (September 8, 2014). "Area around Anne Spencer House and Garden Museum added to national historic register". Lynchburg News and Advance. Retrieved August 10, 2015; Higgins, Adrian (July 29, 2014). "A Virginia Haven of the Harlem Renaissance". The Washington Post. p. C1.
  27. ^ Lefever & Page 2008, p. 80.
  28. ^ Monroe, Rachel (June 12, 2012). "Baltimore's Best Secret Museums". Baltimore Fishbowl. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  29. ^ Holland 2007, p. 121.
  30. ^ Levine, Susan (January 4, 1997). "A Banneker plan: Museums named for scientist to be lent artifacts". The Washington Post. p. B1; Burch, Dianne (June 5, 2012). "Picture This: Vintage Poster Promotes a Nearby National Treasure: America's first African-American man of science made his home in Oella". Catonsville Patch. Archived from the original on July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  31. ^ Dorsett, Chad (November 17, 2015). "Ribbon cutting at Bertha Lee Strickland Cultural Museum". WSNW. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  32. ^ Romano 2006, p. 28.
  33. ^ Wenzel, John (November 12, 2015). "Paul Stewart, founder of Black American West Museum, dies at 89". The Denver Post. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  34. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (September 14, 2019). "Restoring Black Cowboys to the Range". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  35. ^ McCollum, Brian (February 28, 2012). "Ex-DPS Teacher's Black History 101 Mobile Museum Carves a Niche". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  36. ^ Curtis 1996, p. 248.
  37. ^ Shuman 2002, p. 194.
  38. ^ Welch, Arena (July 26, 2006). "Museum celebrates a dream on opening day". The Brazos Valley Eagle. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
  39. ^ "Buffalo Soldiers National Museum opens in Houston". ABC13 News. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  40. ^ Selz 2006, p. 145.
  41. ^ Woodford 2001, p. 241.
  42. ^ Freishtat, Sarah (July 27, 2014). "Clemson Area African American Museum looks to the future". The Independent Mail. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  43. ^ Knutson, Karen. "Arkansas Primer: It's Now on the Map, Thanks to Bill Clinton." Chicago Sun-Times. October 11, 1992.
  44. ^ Marten, Charlotte. "Dorchester Had Important Role in Civil Rights History." Coastal Courier. February 3, 2012.
  45. ^ Wilson, Jon. "Museum Will Open Eyes to Black History." St. Petersburg Times. March 16, 2006.
  46. ^ Naquin, Nikki (August 9, 2018). "The Finding Our Roots African American Museum gaining popularity". Houma Today. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  47. ^ Moker, Molly. The Official Guide to America's National Parks. New York, N.Y.: Fodors Travel, 2009, p. 106.
  48. ^ Kremer, Gary R. George Washington Carver: A Biography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood, 2011, p. 173.
  49. ^ Melendez, Mel. "Carver Museum Puts Spotlight on Black History." Arizona Republic. January 27, 2006.
  50. ^ Curtis 1996, p. 274.
  51. ^ The museum opened in 1983, but closed in 1985 due to space limitations. It reopened in larger quarters in 1988. Some sources use the 1988 date as the museum's founding. See: Harley-Adams, Sandra. "Baltimore's Black Wax Museum." The Crisis. February 1989, p. 12.
  52. ^ Danilov, Victor J. Women and Museums: A Comprehensive Guide. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press, 2005, p. 238.
  53. ^ Fowler, Nancy (May 20, 2016). "Urban League and Griot Museum join forces to keep African-American history alive in St. Louis". St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  54. ^ Whittaker, K.D. (May 11, 2017). "Myrna Fuller, Art Advocate, Retires From The Hammonds House Museum". Atlanta Daily World. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  55. ^ Ruane, Michael E. (March 4, 2017). "Harriet Tubman fled a life of slavery in Maryland. Now a new visitor center opens on the land she escaped". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  56. ^ Washburn, Mark (October 25, 2009). "Vivian and John Hewitt Built the Art Collection That Led to the Building of Harvey B. Gantt Center". The Charlotte Observer. p. 1A.
  57. ^ Burden, Paul R. A Subject Guide to Quality Web Sites. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2010, p. 321.
  58. ^ Wren, David (November 4, 2015). "Boeing gives $500K to Charleston's African American museum". Charleston Post and Courier. Retrieved December 6, 2015; Parker, Adam (August 21, 2015). "Museum project gets big gift in name of NAACP President Dot Scott". Charleston Post and Courier. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  59. ^ Minchin, Timothy J. and Salmond, John A. After the Dream: Black and White Southerners Since 1965. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 2011, p. 259.
  60. ^ Amaral, Jorge. "Making Room for History." Hartford Courant. May 20, 2005; Goode, Steven. "Grand Vision For Hartford's Northwest School." Hartford Courant. October 2, 2010.
  61. ^ "Riley House Receives Collection of Abolitionist Papers." Black Issues in Higher Education. October 7, 2004, p. 13.
  62. ^ "Cochran Brings Group a Message of 'Excellence'." Wichita Eagle. November 7, 1999.
  63. ^ "L. E. Coleman Museum Opens This Saturday." The Gazette-Virginian. October 14, 2005.
  64. ^ Bull, Roger. "Ritz Theatre Celebrates 10 Years Back in Business in LaVilla." Florida Times-Union. September 14, 2009. Accessed March 3, 2012; Potter, Dorothy Bundy Turner and Potter, Clifton W. Lynchburg, 1757-2007. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2007, p. 117.
  65. ^ Elliot, Debbie (April 26, 2018). "New Lynching Memorial Is A Space 'To Talk About All Of That Anguish'". NPR. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  66. ^ Brezus, Kia Shant'e. "Planting Historical Feet." Associated Press. July 16, 2000. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  67. ^ Diamonstein, Barbaralee (2011). Landmarks of New York: An Illustrated Record of the City's Historic Buildings. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. p. 299. ISBN 9781438437712.
  68. ^ Dunlap, David W. (October 9, 2003). "For a King of Jazz, a Castle in Queens". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  69. ^ While the national historic site was designated in 1980, the museum in the visitors center was not constructed until 1996. See: Scott, David Logan and Scott, Kay Woelfel. Guide to the National Park Areas: Eastern States. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 2004, p. 55; Davis, Ren and Davis, Helen. Atlanta Walks: A Comprehensive Guide to Walking, Running, and Bicycling the Area's Scenic and Historic Locales. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers, 2011, p. 26.
  70. ^ Holland, p. 93.
  71. ^ a b Curtis 1996, p. 61.
  72. ^ Redd, Robert (2015). "Historic Sites and Landmarks of New Smyrna Beach". Charleston, S.C.: The History Press. p. 67. ISBN 9781626197664.
  73. ^ Johnson, Winter. "'Freedom Ride' Celebrated at Mayme A. Clayton Library and Museum." Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Culver City Patch. August 10, 2011. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  74. ^ a b Severson, Kim. "New Museums to Shine a Spotlight on Civil Rights Era." The New York Times. February 19, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  75. ^ Waibel, Elizabeth. "Museum Needs Civil Rights Stories." Jackson Free Press. January 27, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  76. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (May 27, 2015). "Museum of Contemporary African Diasporan Arts to Move to Larger New Space in Brooklyn". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  77. ^ Davis, Ryan. "A Cultural Icon Rises From the Ashes in Historic Little Rock." The Crisis. Summer 2009, p. 39-40.
  78. ^ "Muhammad Ali Returns Home for Center Dedication." Jet. December 12, 2005, p. 52.
  79. ^ Kaufman, Polly Welts. Boston Women's Heritage Trail: Seven Self-Guided Walking Tours Through Four Centuries of Boston Women's History. Boston: Boston Women's Heritage Trail, 2006, p. 36.
  80. ^ Bertho, Michelle; Crawford, Beverly; and Fogarty, Edward A. The Impact of Globalization on the United States. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008, p. 46.
  81. ^ Natchez museum showcases African American heritage Today in Mississippi, accessed March 2, 2016
  82. ^ Ruffings, Fath Davis. "Culture Wars Won and Lost, Part II: Ethnic Museums on the Mall." Radical History Review. June 1998, p. 80.
  83. ^ Lafo, Rachel Rosenfield; Capasso, Nicholas J.; and Uhrhane, Jennifer. Painting in Boston, 1950-2000. Lincoln, Mass.: DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park, 2002, p. 36.
  84. ^ "Civil Rights Museum Opens in Memphis." Jet. July 22, 1991, p. 14.
  85. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline. "African American Museum Groundbreaking Showcases Living History." The Washington Post. February 22, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  86. ^ The museum was originally named the Museum of African American Art, Music and Culture, but changed its name to reflect a focus solely on music. See: "Study: African American Music Museum Could Have $9.1M Annual Impact." Nashville Post. February 22, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012; Garrison, Joy. "African-American Museum Gets New Name, Music-Only Focus." Nashville City Paper. September 1, 2011. Accessed 2012-03-03.
  87. ^ "National Underground Railroad Freedom Center Opens In Cincinnati." Jet. September 13, 2004, p. 4-13.
  88. ^ Katayama, Danny (April 3, 1993). "Grassroots museum honors movement for voting rights". The Jackson Sun. p. 7. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  89. ^ Some sources claim the museum did not open until 1997. The museum moved to new quarters in 1997, but opened in 1990. See: Rielly, Edward J. Baseball in the Classroom: Essays on Teaching the National Pastime. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co, 2006, p. 34; Pahigian, Josh. 101 Baseball Places to Visit Before You Strike Out. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2008, p. 9.
  90. ^ Carr, Martha. "African-American Museum Closed." Times-Picayune. November 1, 2003.
  91. ^ Mroziak, Michael. "Niagara Falls Underground Railroad Heritage Center opens for visitors". Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  92. ^ McCrea, Bridget. "Museum Offers Historic Walk Through Black Culture." Black Enterprise. June 17, 2010. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  93. ^ Gilmore, Susan. "African American Museum Opens to Acclaim." Seattle Times. March 9, 2008. Accessed March 9, 2008.
  94. ^ Poe, Carmen (June 18, 2017). "Baton Rouge African American museum commemorates Juneteenth". WAFB. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  95. ^ American Association for State and Local History. Directory of Historical Organizations in the United States and Canada. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 2002, p. 146.
  96. ^ Lynch, Christopher J. "Oran Z's Black Facts and Wax Museum: A Bizarre, Brutally-Honest African-American History Collection in Baldwin Hills." L.A. Weekly. September 8, 2011. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  97. ^ Anyaso, Hilary Hurd. "African American Art Front and Center." Black Issues in Higher Education. December 2, 2004.
  98. ^ Irene, Laura (March 9, 2017). "At Prince George's African American Museum, A New Exhibition Connects D.C.'s Past to the Present". Washington City Paper. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  99. ^ Holland, p. 132.
  100. ^ Anderson, Katharine. Nature, Culture, and Big Old Trees. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2003, p. 39.
  101. ^ "Museum Honoring Rosa Parks Opens on Historic Street Corner". The New York Times. December 2, 2000. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  102. ^ "Rural African American Museum to host After Hours event". KATC-TV. April 23, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  103. ^ "Sandy Ground: A community founded by free blacks pre-dates the American Civil War". Staten Island Advance. April 21, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  104. ^ The Old Slave Mart Museum has operated on and off since 1938, under various owners. It has, at times, been an art museum, a slave history museum, and other kinds of museum. See: Dixon, Nenie and Bull, Elias. "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for Old Slave Mart." February 12, 1975. Accessed May 27, 2010.
  105. ^ Brown, Marquita. "Smith Robertson Museum a Cultural Experience." The Clarion-Ledger. February 6, 2011.
  106. ^ McCloud, Rashad. "Black Archives Unveils New Exhibits." The Famuan. October 2, 2006. Accessed March 3, 2012.
  107. ^ Yeagle, Patrick (March 3, 2016). "So we don't forget: African-American History Museum opens new location". Illinois Times. Springfield, Ill. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  108. ^ Grillo, Jean Bergantino (October 1973). "The Studio Museum in Harlem, a home for the evolving black esthetic". ArtNews. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  109. ^ American Art Directory 2008. New Providence, N.J.: National Register Pub., 2007, p. 107.
  110. ^ Harrison, Christine. "Historic Homecoming for Tuskegee Airmen as National Site Opens in Their Honor." Montgomery Advertiser. October 23, 2008.
  111. ^ Riley, Rochelle (February 28, 2015). "Tuskegee Airmen exhibit could land at Wright Museum". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  112. ^ New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009). Postal, Matthew A. (ed.). Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1.
  113. ^ Kunerth, Jeff (February 17, 2014). "Low-profile Wells' Built Museum struggles for support". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  114. ^ Thomas, Eugene (December 1, 2014). "Slavery museum at upriver plantation stirs controversy on both sides of racial divide". The Lens New Orleans. Retrieved December 6, 2015; McWhirter, Cameron (December 7, 2014). "Slavery Museum Faces Skeptics". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  115. ^ Steinberg, Stephanie (January 17, 2017). "New Detroit museum honors WGPR, blacks in broadcasting". The Detroit News. Retrieved February 26, 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]