List of music theorists

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of music theorists arranged in chronological order. The criteria for inclusion relies on publication or (especially with pre-15th-century theorists) dissemination of written theoretical work by western musicians, and their inclusion in published books discussing the history of music theory.

Since the categories for music theorists are not subdivided by nationality, this list is intended to provide an overview of music theorists and provide for further exploration of the field.

Information on some theorists is scant (e.g. those named Anonymous); in those cases the link goes to the existing treatise(s).

Antiquity[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Archytas 428–347 BC naming the harmonic mean; may have been the first author to describe the Quadrivium[1]
Aplypius flourished 360 Introduction to Music (Εἰσαγωγὴ Μουσική)[2]
Aristoxenus born c. 375 BCE, flourished 335 BCE Elementa harmonica[3]
Archestratus early 3rd century BCE describing the pyknon
Ptolemais of Cyrene probably 3rd century BCE wrote concerning the proper roles of reason and sensory experience in the study of music
Eratosthenes circa 276 BCE – circa 195/194 BCE calculation of the tuning of the degrees of the tetrachords[4]
Didymos first century BCE chromatic tetrachords[5]
Cleonides probably first century AD Introduction to Harmonics (ἰσαγωγὴ ἁρμονική Eisagōgē harmonikē) [6]
Ptolemy circa 100 – circa 170 Harmonics[7]
Augustine of Hippo 13 November 354 – 28 August 430 De musica[8]
Martianus Capella early 5th century De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii[9]
Boethius 480–524 or 525 De institutione musica[10]
Cassiodorus 485–580 Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum[11]
Isidore of Seville circa 560 – 636 Etymologiarum sive Originum libri xx (chapters 15-23 deal with music)[12]

Medieval[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Al-Kindi[13] 801–873 Al-risāla al-kubrā fī al-ta’līf (Grand treatise on composition)
Notker the Stammerer[14] 840–912 Epistola ad Lantbertum
Aurelian of Réôme flourished 840–850 Musica disciplina Earliest extant treatise on medieval music[15]
Johannes Scotus Eriugena c. 815 – 877 De divisione naturae (also called Periphiseon) mentions organum (scholars doubt this refers to polyphony)[16]
Hucbald c. 840 or 850 – 930 De musica (formerly known as De harmonica institutione) "One of the foremost expositors of music theory in the Carolingian era"[17]
Anonymous 8 9th century Musica enchiriadis Earliest extant discussion of polyphonic singing and the first chant melodies preserved in a precise pitch notation[18]
Anonymous 7 9th–10th century Alia musica
Regino of Prüm died c. 915 Epistola de armonica institutione "correct the intonations and confirm the modes of the antiphons and responsories of the Mass and Office"[19]
Al-Farabi 872–950 Kitāb al-mūsīqī al-kabīr (Great book on music) "the most imposing of all Arabic works on music"[20]
Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani 897–967 Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs)
Notker Labeo 950–1022
Pseudo-Odo 11th century Dialogus de musica
Guido of Arezzo c. 991 – after 1033
Avicenna (Ibn-Sīnā) c. 980 – 1037
Berno of Reichenau died 1048
Hermannus Contractus 1013–1054
Aribo Scholasticus fl. 1068–1078
Wilhelm of Hirsau died 1091
Frutolfus of Michelsberg mid-11th century – 1103
Theogerus of Metz c. 1050 – c. 1120
Coussemaker, doc. 1 2nd half of 11th century Ad organum faciendum
Johannes Cotto fl. 1100
Guido of Eu fl. 1130s
Theinred of Dover 12th century
Ficker Anonymous early 13th century Vatican organum treatise
Franco of Cologne 13th century
Safi al-Din al-Urmawi born c. 1216 AD Baghdad, died in 1294 AD
Bartholomeus Anglicus before 1203 – 1272
Roger Bacon 1214–1292
Coussemaker, doc. 3 c. 1230 Discantus positio vulgaris
Egidius de Zamora fl. 1260–1280 Ars musica
Amerus fl. 1271
Hieronymus of Moravia died after 1272
Anonymous IV fl. 1270 – 1280 De mensuris et discantu
Anonymous 2 late 13th century Tractatus de discantu
Magister Lambertus fl. c. 1270
Engelbert of Admont c. 1250 – 1331
Jacob of Liège c. 1260 – after 1330
Johannes de Garlandia fl. 1270–1320
Petrus de Cruce late 13th century
Petrus de Picardia mid-13th century
Elias Salomo late 13th century
Sowa Anonymous—Anonymous of St. Emmeram 1279 De musica mensurata
Anonymous 3 early 14th century Compendiolum artis veteris
Philippe de Vitry c. 1291 – 1361
Hugo Spechtshart (de) c. 1285 – 1359/60
Johannes Vetulus de Anagnia 1st half of 14th century]
Petrus Frater Dictus Palma Ociosa fl. early 14th century
Johannes de Grocheio fl. 1300
Manuel Bryennius 14th century
Walter Odington died 1330
Johannes de Muris c. 1290 – after 1344
Marchetto da Padova fl. 1274–1319
Robert de Handlo early 14th century
Anonymous 7 Coussemaker mid-14th century De diversis manieribus
John Hanboys late 14th century
John of Tewkesbury fl. 1351–1392
Johannes Boen died 1367
Ellsworth Anonymi before 1375 The Berkeley Manuscript
Anonymous 5 late 14th century Ars cantus mensurabilis
Johannes Ciconia 1360–1412
Philippus de Caserta late 14th century

Renaissance[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Fernand Estevan early 15th century
Giorgio Anselmi c. 1386 – 1440/43
Ugolino of Forlì or Ugolino of Orvieto c. 1380 – 1452
Antonius de Leno early 15th century
John Hothby c. 1410 – 1487
Johannes Gallicus c. 1415 – 1473
Prosdocimus de Beldemandis died 1428
Johannes Tinctoris c. 1435 – 1511
Bartolomeus Ramis de Pareia c. 1440 – after 1491
Adam von Fulda 1445–1505
Johannes Cochlaeus 1449–1552
Anonymous 11 mid-15th century Tractatus de musica plana et mensurabili
Anonymous 12 2nd half of 15th century Tractatus de musica
Franchinus Gaffurius 1451–1522 Practica musicae, 1496
Nicolò Burzio 1453–1528
Giovanni Spataro (it; ca; no; ru) 1458–1541
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (alias Jacobus Faber Stapulensis) c. 1460 – 1536 Musica libris demonstrata quattuor, Paris 1496
Domingo Marcos Durán c. 1460 – 1529
Erasmus Horicius c. 1465 – early 16th century
Michael Keinspeck c. 1470 – mid-16th century
Lodovico Fogliano (de; fr; ru) c. 1475 – 1542
Johannes Aventinus 1477–1534
Pietro Aaron c. 1480 – c. 1550
Nicolaus Wollick (fr) c. 1480 – 1541
Sebastian z Felsztyna c. 1480/1490? – after 1543
Melchior Schanppecher born c. 1480
John Tucke c. 1482 – after 1539
Martin Agricola 1486–1556
Heinrich Glarean 1488–1563
Georg Rhau 1488–1548
Giovanni Del Lago c. 1490 – 1544
Giovanni Maria Lanfranco c. 1490 – 1545
Andreas Ornithoparchus born c. 1490
Bonaventura da Brescia late 15th century
Gulielmus Monachus late 15th century
Guillermo de Podio late 15th century
Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego c. 1492 – mid-16th century
Stephanus Vanneo 1493–1535
Henricus Grammateus (alias Heinrich Schreiber) 1495–1525/6
Sebald Heyden 1499–1561
Heinrich Faber before 1500–1552
Simon de Quercu early 16th century
Vicente Lusitano 16th century
Auctor Lampadius c. 1500 – 1559
Adrianus Petit Coclico c. 1500 – 1562
Juan Bermudo c. 1510 – 1565
Nikolaus Listenius born c. 1510
Ghiselin Danckerts c. 1510 – after 1565
Diego Ortiz c. 1510 – 1570
Nicola Vicentino 1511–1576
Francisco de Salinas 1513–1590
Gioseffo Zarlino 1517–1590
Girolamo Mei 1519–1594
Aiguino da Brescia 1520–1581
Vincenzo Galilei late 1520–1591
Hermann Finck 1527–1558
Francisco de Montanos c. 1528 – after 1592
Ercole Bottrigari 1531–1612
Pietro Pontio 1532–1595
Gallus Dressler 1533 – c. 1580/89
Orazio Tigrini c. 1535 – 1591
Giovanni Maria Artusi c. 1540 – 1613
Giulio Caccini c. 1545 – 1618
Cyriakus Schneegass 1546–1597
Philibert Jambe de Fer fl. 1548–1564
John Wylde mid-15th century
Riccardo Rognoni c. 1550 – 1620 Passaggi per potersi esercitare nel diminuire Venice 1592
Pierre Maillart 1550–1622
Scipione Cerreto c. 1551 – 1633
Elway Bevin c. 1554 – 1638
Girolamo Diruta c. 1554 – after 1610
Jean Yssandon c. 1555 – 1582
Lodovico Zacconi 1555–1627
Sethus Calvisius 1556–1615
Johannes Nucius c. 1556 – 1620
Thomas Morley c. 1557 – 1602
Claudius Sebastiani fl. 1557–65
Adam Gumpelzhaimer 1559–1625
Giovanni Luca Conforti c. 1560 – 1608 Breve et facile maniera d’essercitarsi..., Rome 1593
Charles Butler 1560 – 1647 The Principles of Musik (1636)
Giovanni Bassano 1560/61–1617 Ricercate, passaggi et cadentie... Venice 1585
Pietro Cerone 1561–1625
Peter Eichmann 1561–1623
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck 1562–1621
Giovanni Camillo Maffei fl 1562–73 Delle lettere del Signor Gio. Camillo Maffei da Solofra, libri due ..., Naples 1562
William Bathe 1564–1614
Joachim Burmeister 1564–1629
Johannes Christoph Demantius 1567–1643
Claudio Monteverdi 1567–1643
Thomas Campion 1567–1620
Adriano Banchieri 1568–1634
Girolamo Dalla Casa before 1568 – 1601 Il vero modo di diminuir con tutte le sorti di stromenti di fiato, & corda, & di voce humana Venice: Angelo Gardano 1584
Michael Praetorius c. 1569/73 – 1621
Georg Quitschreiber 1569–1638
Tomás de Santa María died 1570
Francesco Bianciardi c. 1571 – 1607
Eucharius Hoffmann died 1588
Giovanni Battista Bovicelli (de; ca) fl 1592–94 Regole, passaggi di musica, madrigali et motetti passeggiati Venice, 1594
Gaspar Stoquerus late 16th century
Francesco Rognoni Taeggio second half of the 16th century – after 1626 Selva de varii passaggi Milan, 1620

17th century[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Aurelio Virgiliano fl c1620 Il Dolcimelo, c1620
Wolfgang Schonsleder 1570–1651
John Coprario c. 1570 – 1626
Johannes Kepler 1571–1630
Giulio Monteverdi 1573–1630/31
Robert Fludd 1574–1637
Salomon de Caus c. 1576 – 1626
Gerhard Johann Vossius 1577–1649
Agostino Agazzari 1578–1640 Del sonare sopra il basso, 1607
Henricus Baryphonus (ca) 1581–1655
Severo Bonini 1582–1663
Thomas Ravenscroft c. 1582 – 1635
Johannes Lippius 1585–1612
Antoine Parran 1587–1650
Johann Heinrich Alsted 1588–1638
Johann Andreas Herbst 1588–1666
Marin Mersenne 1588–1648
Heinrich Grimm (de; ca) 1593–1637
Giovanni Battista Doni 1595–1647
René Descartes 1596–1650
Galeazzo Sabbatini 1597–1662
Joan Albert Ban 1597–1644
Johann Crüger 1598–1662
Joachim Thuringus born late 16th century Opusculum bipartitum de primordiis musicis, Berlin, 1624
Agostino Pisa early 17th century
Jean Denis c. 1600 – 1672
Antoine de Cousu c. 1600 – 1658
Marco Scacchi c. 1600 – 1681/87
Athanasius Kircher 1601–1680
Christopher Simpson c. 1605 – 1669
Hans Mikkelsen Ravn (da; sv) c. 1610 – 1663
Wolfgang Ebner 1612–1665
Otto Gibelius (de) 1612–1682
Thomas Mace 1612/3 – c. 1706
Lorenzo Penna 1613–1693
William Holder 1616–1696
John Wallis 1616–1703
Isaac Vossius 1618–1689
Conrad Matthaei 1619 – c. 1667
Matthew Locke 1621–1677
John Playford 1623–1686
Andrés Lorente (de; ca) 1624–1703
René Ouvrard 1624–1694
Bénigne de Bacilly c. 1625 – 1690
Giovanni Andrea Bontempi c. 1624 – 1705
Christoph Bernhard 1628–1692
Christiaan Huygens 1629–1695
Guillaume-Gabriel Nivers c. 1632 – 1714
Angelo Berardi c. 1636 – 1694
Daniel Speer 1636–1707
Francis North 1637–1685
Wolfgang Caspar Printz 1641–1717
Giovanni Maria Bononcini 1642–1678
Jean Rousseau 1644–1700
Andreas Werckmeister 1645–1706
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1646–1716
Thomas Salmon 1648–1706
Johann Georg Ahle 1651–1706
Roger North 1653 – 1734
Zaccaria Tevo 1651 – c. 1709/12
Joseph Sauveur 1653–1716
Georg Muffat 1653–1704
Pier Francesco Tosi c. 1653 – 1732
Pablo Nassarre c. 1654 – 1730
Johann Baptist Samber (de) 1654–1717
Johann Beer 1655–1700
Sébastien de Brossard 1655–1730
Étienne Loulié c. 1655 – 1707
Giovanni d’Avella fl. 1657 Regole di musica, divise in cinque trattati, Rome, 1657
Henry Purcell 1659–1695
Nicola Matteis fl. 1670–c. 1698
Friedrich Erhard Niedt 1674–1717
Charles Masson fl. 1680–1700
De La Voye-Mignot (fr) died 1684

18th century[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Johann Joseph Fux 1660–1741
Johann Kuhnau 1660–1722
Tomáš Baltazar Janovka (cs; ru) 1669 –1741
Francesco Gasparini 1661–1727
Johann Heinrich Buttstett 1666–1727
Johann Christoph Pepusch 1667–1752
David Kellner c. 1670 – 1748
Johann Philipp Treiber 1675–1727
Georg Philipp Telemann 1681–1767
Johann Mattheson 1681–1764
Johann David Heinichen 1683–1729
Jean-Philippe Rameau 1683–1764
Meinrad Spieß (de; ca; it) 1683–1761
Johann Gottfried Walther 1684–1748
Alexander Malcolm 1685–1763
Johann Georg Neidhardt (de; ca; no; ru) 1685–1739
François Campion (fr) c. 1686 – 1748
Francesco Geminiani 1687–1762
Giuseppe Tartini 1692–1770
Johann Joachim Quantz 1697–1773
Francesco Antonio Vallotti 1697–1780
Jakob Adlung 1699–1762
Christoph Gottlieb Schröter (de; ca; ru) 1699–1782
William Tans'ur 1700–1783
De Saint-Lambert fl. 1700–1710
Georg Andreas Sorge 1703–1778
Gottfried Keller died 1704
Jean-Adam Serre 1704–1788
Giovanni Battista Martini 1706–1784
Leonhard Euler 1707–1783
Johann Adolph Scheibe 1708–1776
Jean Laurent de Béthizy 1709–1781
Joseph Riepel 1709–1782
Lorenz Christoph Mizler Kolof 1711–1778
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712–1778
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 1714–1788
Pierre-Joseph Roussier 1716–1792
Jean le Rond d'Alembert 1717–1783
Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg 1718–1795
Niccolo Pasquali c. 1718 – 1757
Leopold Mozart 1719–1787
Johann Friedrich Agricola 1720–1774
Johann Georg Sulzer 1720–1779
Martin Gerbert 1720–1793
Johann Philipp Kirnberger 1721–1783
George Simon Löhlein 1725–1781
Giuseppe Paolucci 1726–1776
Antonio Eximeno y Pujades 1729–1808
Antonio Soler 1729–1783
Johann Friedrich Daube c. 1730 – 1797
Luigi Antonio Sabbatini c. 1732 – 1809
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger 1736–1809
Vincenzo Manfredini 1737–1799
Johann Gottlieb Portmann 1739–1798
Honoré François Marie Langlé 1741–1807
Johann Abraham Peter Schulz 1747–1800
Maximilian Stadler 1748–1833
Georg Michael Telemann 1748–1831
Johann Nikolaus Forkel 1749–1818
Heinrich Christoph Koch (de; fi; sv; ru) 1749–1816
Abbé Vogler 1749–1814
Antonio Ventura Roel del Rio fl. mid-18th century
Augustus Frederic Christopher Kollmann 1756–1829
Daniel Gottlob Türk 1756–1813
Francesco Galeazzi 1758–1819
Luigi Cherubini 1760–1842
Jérôme-Joseph de Momigny 1762–1842
Bedřich Diviš Weber 1766-1842
Józef Elsner 1769–1854
Anton Reicha, (alias Antoine-Joseph Reicha, alias Antonín Reijcha) 1770–1836
Alexandre-Étienne Choron 1771–1834
John Holden died c. 1771
Charles Simon Catel 1773–1830
Matthew Peter King 1773–1823
Johann Anton André 1775–1842
Johann Bernhard Logier 1777–1846
Gottfried Weber 1779–1839

19th century[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
François-Joseph Fétis 1784–1871
Simon Sechter 1788–1867
Carl Czerny 1791–1857
Moritz Hauptmann 1792–1868
Adolf Bernhard Marx c. 1795–1866
Sarah Mary Fitton c. 1796–1874
Johann Christian Lobe 1797–1881
Siegfried Dehn 1799–1858
Auguste Barbereau 1799–1879
Joseph d'Ortigue 1802–1866
Edmond de Coussemaker 1805–1876
Henri Reber 1807–1880
Carl Friedrich Weitzmann 1808–1880
Ernst Friedrich Richter 1808–1879
Alfred Day 1810–1849
George Alexander Macfarren 1813–1887
Hermann von Helmholtz 1821–1894
Anton Bruckner 1824–1896
Frederick Arthur Gore Ouseley 1825–1889
Eduard Hanslick 1825–1904
Rudolf Westphal 1826–1892
Friedrich Chrysander 1826–1901
François-Auguste Gevaert 1828–1908
Mathis Lussy 1828–1910
František Zdeněk Skuherský 1830–1892
Salomon Jadassohn 1831–1902
Heinrich Bellermann 1832–1903
Arthur Joachim von Oettingen 1836–1920
Ebenezer Prout 1835–1909
Théodore Dubois 1837–1924
John Stainer 1840–1901
Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 1840–1893
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov 1844–1908
Bernhard Ziehn 1845–1912
Otakar Hostinský 1847–1910
Carl Stumpf 1848–1936
Hugo Riemann 1849–1919
Vincent d'Indy 1851–1931
Percy Goetschius 1853–1943
Guido Adler 1855–1941
Sergei Taneyev 1856–1915
Ludwig Thuille 1861–1907

20th century[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Stephan Krehl 1864–1924
Émile Jaques-Dalcroze 1865–1950
Ferruccio Busoni 1866–1924
Charles Koechlin 1867–1950
André Gedalge 1868–1926
Alfred Lorenz 1868–1939
Thorvald Otterstrom 1868–1942
Heinrich Schenker 1868–1935
August Otto Halm (de; sv; als; ja) 1869–1929 Die Symphonie Anton Bruckners
Hans Pfitzner 1869–1949
André Pirro 1869–1943
Rudolf Louis 1870–1949
Charles Herbert Kitson 1874–1944
Hugo Leichtentritt 1874–1951
Arnold Schoenberg 1874–1951
Donald Tovey 1875–1940
Arnold Schering 1877–1941
Boleslav Leopoldovich Yavorsky 1877–1942
Zdeněk Nejedlý 1878–1962
Otakar Zich 1879–1934
Marion Bauer 1882–1955
Mario de Andrade 1883–1945
Boris Vladimirovich Asafiev 1884–1949
Rudolph Reti 1885–1957
Vladimír Helfert 1886–1945
Ernst Kurth 1886–1946
Charles Seeger 1886–1979
Nadia Boulanger 1887–1979
Ernst Ferand 1887–1972
Adele T. Katz 1887–1979
Ludvík Kundera 1891–1971
Knud Jeppesen 1892–1974
Josef Hutter 1894–1959
Nicolas Slonimsky 1894–1995
Paul Hindemith 1895–1963
Joseph Schillinger 1895–1943
Howard Hanson 1896–1981
Roger Sessions 1896–1985
Henry Cowell 1897–1965
Erwin Ratz 1898–1973
Felix Salzer 1904–1986
Alain Daniélou 1907–1994
Ernst Oster 1908–1977
Zofia Lissa 1908–1980
Olivier Messiaen 1908–1992
George Perle 1915–2009
Miroslav Venhoda 1915–1987
Milton Babbitt 1916–2011
Edward T. Cone 1917–2004
Alfred Mann 1917–2006
Deryck Cooke 1919–1976
Iannis Xenakis 1922–2001
George Russell 1923–2009
Jaroslav Volek 1923–1989
Joseph Kerman 1924–2014
Ernő Lendvai 1925–1993
Allen Forte 1926–2014
Eric Sams 1926–2004
William Ennis Thomson born 1927
Ernst Widmer 1927–1990
Harold Powers 1928–2007
Tomislav Volek born 1931
Karlheinz Stockhausen 1928–2007
Carl Schachter born c. 1932
David Lewin 1933–2003
Benjamin Boretz born 1934
Edward Aldwell 1938–2006
Edward Laufer 1938–2014
Fred Lerdahl born 1943
Jean-Jacques Nattiez born 1945
Vladimir Martynov born 1946
William Caplin born 1948
Laurence Dreyfus born 1952
Miller Puckette born 1959
David Carson Berry born 1968
Dmitri Tymoczko born 1969

21st century[edit]

Name Date Major writing Known for
Richard Cohn born 1955 "Transpositional Combination of Beat-Class Sets in Steve Reich’s Phase-Shifting Music" "Maximally Smooth Cycles, Hexatonic Systems, and the Analysis of Late-Romantic Triadic Progressions"
Victor Kofi Agawu born 1956 African Rhythm, A Northern Ewe Perspective
James Hepokoski born 1946 Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata. (Co-authored with Warren Darcy) (Awarded the Wallace Berry Prize from the Society for Music Theory, 2008)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed March 2016. (subscription required)
  1. ^ André Barbera, "Archytas of Tarentum," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  2. ^ Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Alypius [Alypios]," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  3. ^ Annie Bélis, "Aristoxenus." Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  4. ^ Lukas Richter, "Eratosthenes," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  5. ^ Lukas Richter, "Didymus," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  6. ^ Jon Solomonm "Cleonides," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  7. ^ Lukas Richter, "Ptolemy," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  8. ^ James W. McKinnon, "Augustine of Hippo," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  9. ^ Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker, "Martianus Capella," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  10. ^ Calvin Bower, "Boethius," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  11. ^ Calvin Bower, "Cassiodorus," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  12. ^ Don M. Randel and Nils Nadeau, "Isidore of Seville," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 4, 2017 (access by subscription)
  13. ^ Owen Wright, "Kindī, al- [Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb]," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  14. ^ David Hiley, "Notker," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  15. ^ Jane Bellingham, "Aurelian of Réôme [Aurelianus Reomensis]," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  16. ^ Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker, "Johannes Scottus Eriugena [John Scotus Erigena; John the Scot]," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  17. ^ Yves Chartier, "Hucbald of St Amand," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  18. ^ Raymond Erickson, "Hucbald of St Amand," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  19. ^ Yves Chartier, "Regino of Prüm," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)
  20. ^ Owen Wright, "Fārābī, al-," Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, accessed July 9, 2017 (access by subscription)

Further reading[edit]

  • Damschroder, David and David Russell Williams. Music theory from Zarlino to Schenker : a bibliography and guide. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1990. ISBN 0-918728-99-1
  • Williams, David Russell and C. Matthew Balensuela. Music theory from Boethius to Zarlino: a bibliography and guide. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-57647-157-9