List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 321.22

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This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.22 under that system. These instruments may be known as box lyres.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321: Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
321.2: Instruments in which the string is attached to a yoke that consists of a cross-bar and two arms, with the yoke lying in the same plane as the sound-table (lyres or yoke lutes)
321.22: Instruments in which the resonator is a built-up wooden box

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel–Sachs classification Description
Wales 321.22 Six-stringed instrument with a flat fingerboard, fretless
David's harp
Israel 321.22 Biblically-described historic instrument, probably a cithara; in modern Hebrew, refers to the violin

talharpa [3]
Swedish Estonia 321.22-71 Bowed lyre with no fingerboard


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168. 


  1. ^ Edgerly, Beatrice (1942). From the Hunter's Bow: The History and Romance of Musical Instruments. G.P. Putnam's Sons. 
  2. ^ "David's Harp". Dolmetsch Online. Retrieved December 21, 2007. In Hebrew kinnor, also known as David's harp, is the national instrument of Israel. 
  3. ^ Andersson, Otto (August 1970). "The Bowed Harp of Trondheim Cathedral and Related Instruments in East and West". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 23. 23: 4–34. doi:10.2307/842060. JSTOR 842060.