List of musical works in unusual time signatures

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This is a list of musical compositions or pieces of music that have unusual time signatures. "Unusual" is here defined to be any time signature other than simple time signatures with top numerals of 2, 3, or 4 and bottom numerals of 2, 4, or 8, and compound time signatures with top numerals of 6, 9, or 12 and bottom numerals 4, 8, or 16.[1]

The conventions of musical notation typically allow for more than one written representation of a particular piece. The chosen time signature largely depends upon musical context, personal taste of the composer or transcriber, and the graphic layout on the written page. Frequently, published editions were written in a specific time signature to visually signify the tempo for slow movements in symphonies, sonatas, and concerti.

A perfectly consistent unusual metrical pattern may be notated in a more familiar time signature that does not correspond to it. For example, the Passacaglia from Britten's opera Peter Grimes consists of variations over a recurring bass line eleven beats in length but is notated in ordinary 4
4
time, with each variation lasting ​2 34 bars, and therefore commencing each time one crotchet earlier in the bar than the preceding one had done.[2]

Upper number of 1[edit]

1
1
[edit]

1
2
[edit]

1
4
[edit]

  • Alcancías by Silvestre Revueltas. Movement II, 5 bars after rehearsal 24, second bar of rehearsal 27, first bar of rehearsal 28, third bar of rehearsal 29, one bar before 31, and one bar before 32 are all 1
    4
    .[16]
  • "The Eynsham Poacher", a traditional song; in the arrangement by Dave Pegg, most of the tune is in 12
    8
    , but the finale includes one bar of 1
    4
    .[17]
  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bars 20, 22–27, 33–36, 38–40, 43, 49, 51, 54, 57, 65, 76–77, 80–81, 86, 90–93, 95, 99, 103–7, 115–16, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 130, 134–42, 145, 153, and 158 are in 1
    4
    time.[18]
  • Metastaseis, by Iannis Xenakis. The first 103 bars are in 1
    4
    .[19]
  • Metropolis Part 1: The Miracle and the Sleeper, by Dream Theater. Third bar of rehearsal R is in 1
    4
    .[20]
  • On an Overgrown Path, by Leos Janacek. There are isolated 1
    4
    bars in the sixth, tenth, and eleventh movements.[21]
  • Petrushka by Igor Stravinsky, the bar before rehearsal 17 is in 1
    4
    .[22]
  • Piano Sonata No. 3 by Carlos Chávez. Movement I, bars 13, 15, 19, 52, 54, and 58 are in 1
    4
    time.[23]

1
8
[edit]

1
16
[edit]

1
64
[edit]

Upper number of 2[edit]

2
1
[edit]

2
16
[edit]

 { \new PianoStaff << \new Staff \relative c'' { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" \clef treble \tempo 8 = 126 \time 3/16 r16 <d c a fis d>\f-! r16\fermata | \time 2/16 r <d c a fis d>-! \time 3/16 r <d c a fis d>8-! | r16 <d c a fis d>8-! | \time 2/8 <d c a fis>16-! <e c bes g>->-![ <cis b aes f>-! <c a fis ees>-!] } \new Staff \relative c { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin" \clef bass \time 3/16 d,16-! <bes'' ees,>-! r\fermata | \time 2/16 <d,, d,>-! <bes'' ees,>-! | \time 3/16 d16-! <ees cis>8-! | r16 <ees cis>8-! | \time 2/8 d16\sf-! <ees cis>-!->[ <d c>-! <d c>-!] } >> }

Upper number of 3[edit]

3
1
[edit]

3
16
[edit]

3
32
[edit]

Upper number of 4[edit]

4
16
[edit]

Upper number of 5[edit]

Upper number of 6[edit]

6
2
[edit]

  • "Um Mitternacht" by Gustav Mahler (Rückert Lieder No. 5). Bar 27 is marked "6
    2
    (3
    1
    )".[50]

Upper number of 7[edit]

Upper number of 8[edit]

Note: 8
4
or 8
8
may refer to an evenly divided compound duple or quadruple meter. While this is arguably extremely common in music, the notations 8
4
and 8
8
themselves are not, so all divisions of this time signature are listed here

8
4
[edit]

8
8
[edit]

8
16
[edit]

Upper number of 9[edit]

Time signatures that group nine beats into 3+3+3 are very common in music. This section only lists other groupings, such as 2+3+2+2.

9
4
[edit]

  • "The Count of Tuscany" by Dream Theater. The verse riff is in 9
    4
    , with a rhythm of 3+2+2+3+3+2+3
    8
    .[77]

9
8
[edit]

  • "Apocalypse in 9
    8
    " by Genesis. Penultimate movement of the "Supper's Ready" suite, rhythm section plays a 9
    8
    riff as 3+2+4, organ solo plays polymetrically over this (sometimes 4
    4
    , sometimes 7
    4
    .)[78]
  • "Big Lie Small World", by Sting is in 9
    8
    with varying division.[79]
  • "Blue Rondo à la Turk" (1959) by the Dave Brubeck Quartet, from the album Time Out – Played as 2+2+2+3 and 3+3+3, with some alternating sections of 4
    4
    .[80]
  • Estancia by Alberto Ginastera. The refrain of "Los peones de hacienda", at rehearsal numbers 62, 65, 67, 68, 69+3, and 70 is marked "9
    8
    (3
    4
    3
    8
    )"; the remainder is variously in 6
    8
    , 3
    4
    , 5
    8
    , and 7
    8
    .[81]
  • "I Hung My Head", by Sting is in 2+3+2+2
    8
    .[79]
  • Mikrokosmos by Béla Bartók
    • No. 148, "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 1, is in 4+2+3
      8
      .[82]
    • No. 152, "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 5, is in 2+2+2+3
      8
      .[83]
  • "Niska Banja," SATB choral arrangement by Nick Page of a Serbian Gypsy dance, is in 2+2+2+3
    8
    .[84]

9
32
[edit]

Upper number of 10[edit]

10
4
[edit]

10
8
[edit]

10
16
[edit]

Upper number of 11[edit]

11
4
[edit]

11
8
[edit]

Upper number of 12[edit]

12
32
[edit]

Upper number of 13[edit]

13
4
[edit]

13
8
[edit]

13
16
[edit]

Upper number of 15[edit]

See also: Quintuple meter

15
8
[edit]

15
16
[edit]

Upper number of 17[edit]

17
4
[edit]

17
8
[edit]

Upper number of 18[edit]

18
8
[edit]

18
16
[edit]

Upper number of 19[edit]

19
4
[edit]

19
8
[edit]

19
16
[edit]

Upper number between 20 and 29[edit]

20[edit]

21[edit]

  • "The Art Of Dying" by Gojira (2008) cycles from 4
    4
    to 2
    4
    to 21
    16
    (grouped 5+5+5+3+3) and repeats this pattern during the intro and beginning of the song.[168]
  • "Deux moulins" by Claude Le Jeune, published in Airs a III. IIII. V. et VI. parties (première livre, 1608). The first two sections, Rechant à 3 and Réprise à 5, are barred as 21
    4
    ; the last section of the piece is in 20
    4
    .[165]
  • In the Dead of the Night suite by UK, "contains an instrumental refrain in 21
    16
    ".[128]
  • "Keep It Greasy" by Frank Zappa on Joe's Garage (the first verse, some bridges and the guitar solo are counted in 19
    16
    and the second verse is in 21
    16
    ).[162][not in citation given]
  • Sonata for Cello and Piano (1948), by Elliott Carter, includes 21
    32
    time.[169]

22[edit]

23[edit]

  • "Low Light" by Jacky Ligon from his Between Moments EP (2013) is in 23
    4
    .[172]

24[edit]

25[edit]

26[edit]

29[edit]

  • "Strong One (Masked Man)" from the Mother 3 soundtrack (29
    16
    )[142]

Upper number between 30 and 39[edit]

30[edit]

32[edit]

33[edit]

Upper number between 40 and 49[edit]

43[edit]

47[edit]

Fractional time signatures[edit]

  • "Upstart" by Don Ellis is in 3 23
    4
    (originally written in 11
    8
    ).[196]

Irrational time signatures[edit]

Combined unusual signatures[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Ian Waugh first lists 2
    2
    , 2
    4
    , 2
    8
    , 3
    2
    , 3
    4
    , 3
    8
    , 4
    2
    , 4
    4
    , 4
    8
    , 6
    4
    , 6
    8
    , 6
    16
    , 9
    4
    , 9
    8
    , 9
    16
    , 12
    4
    , 12
    8
    , and 12
    16
    (Waugh 2003, 76), then says "we've listed all the popular time signatures" (Waugh 2003, 77).
  2. ^ Britten 1945b.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Borodin [8888], 44–86.
  5. ^ Copland 1945, 56–59.
  6. ^ Enescu 1965, 62.
  7. ^ http://petruccilibrary.ca/download.php?file=files/imglnks/caimg/0/03/IMSLP00782-Schoenberg_op23_No2.pdf
  8. ^ a b http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/8/8e/IMSLP58460-PMLP119865-Janáček_-_Káťa_Kabanová_-_Act_III_(vocal_score).pdf
  9. ^ http://cnks.imslp.org/files/imglnks/usimg/4/46/IMSLP99159-PMLP200270-Couperin_-_Pieces_de_clavecin_Bk3.pdf
  10. ^ http://petruccilibrary.ca/download.php?file=files/imglnks/caimg/7/7b/IMSLP309054-PMLP499658-Poulenc_-_Huit_Nocturnes__piano_.pdf
  11. ^ Piano Sonata No. 5 (Scriabin): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP). Leipzig: Edition Peters, 1971, plate E.P. 12588.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-10. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  13. ^ https://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ImagefromIndex/309641/pasw[full citation needed]
  14. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaQvPhVvQaY
  15. ^ Myaskovsky 1947, 4–8, 23–30, 41–44, 59–65, 70–73.
  16. ^ Revueltas 1971, 32, 34–38.
  17. ^ Allcock, Maartin, ed. (1998). Fairport Convention Songbook 2. Woodworm Music. pp. 56–59. 
  18. ^ a b c Nilsson 1958, 3–15.
  19. ^ https://monoskop.org/images/4/48/Xenakis_Iannis_Metastaseis_B_1953-54_score.pdf
  20. ^ Dream Theater Keyboard Anthology. Transcribed by Chris Romero and Jordan Baker 2004, 30.
  21. ^ a b http://ks.imslp.net/files/imglnks/usimg/5/50/IMSLP09955-Janacek20On20an20overgrown20path.pdf
  22. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 26.
  23. ^ Chávez 1972, 3–4.
  24. ^ a b c "Lincolnshire Posy (Grainger, Percy) – IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music". 
  25. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB. 2009, 7.
  26. ^ Chávez 1972, 12.
  27. ^ Villa-Lobos 1927, 5:4.
  28. ^ "A Headache And A Sixty-Fourth". Retrieved 2010-08-21. 
  29. ^ a b c Read 1964, 158.
  30. ^ http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/5/5b/IMSLP58459-PMLP119865-Janáček_-_Káťa_Kabanová_-_Act_II_(vocal_score).pdf
  31. ^ Yokoyama, Shin-itchiro (21 February 2016). "Bach's Cello Suites, Editor's Notes: How do we play the Gigue of Partita No.6 ?". 
  32. ^ http://ks.imslp.net/files/imglnks/usimg/e/e3/IMSLP414162-PMLP667919-Bach_Partita_No_6_Gigue_Comparison.pdf
  33. ^ Johann Bach (1985). Hans Bischoff, ed. Six Partitas and Overture in French Style. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7692-8604-4. 
  34. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1861),[page needed].
  35. ^ a b c d http://petruccilibrary.us/Scores/scores/Stravinsky_Igor_1971/Stravinsky_-_RiteOfSpring_Piano4Hands.pdf
  36. ^ a b c d http://petrucci.mus.auth.gr/imglnks/usimg/f/f3/IMSLP14991-Stanchinksy_-_12_Sketches.pdf
  37. ^ "Category:Stanchinsky, Aleksey". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  38. ^ Score'sAnimation (7 October 2015). "1.- O Fortuna (Carmina Burana – C. Orff) Score Animation" – via YouTube. 
  39. ^ http://ks.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/1/1c/IMSLP29121-PMLP50421-Saint-Saens_-_Symphony_No_3_in_c_Op_78_-_2.pdf
  40. ^ See any of the scores available on https://imslp.org/wiki/R%C3%BCckert_Lieder_(Mahler%2C_Gustav). Bar 27 is at rehearsal number 4.
  41. ^ a b http://hz.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/4/40/IMSLP06091-Brahms_-_Piano_Sonata_No.1_-_Sauer.pdf
  42. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2016-06-04. 
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-09. Retrieved 2016-06-01. 
  45. ^ Telemann 1728, 32; Telemann 1970, 13; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Lilliputsche Chaconne’ is anything but stately as it flashes by (at least on the page) in a blur of demisemiquavers in 3
    32
    time. . . ."
  46. ^ a b http://petruccilibrary.us/Scores/scores/Stravinsky_Igor_1971/Stravinsky_-_Pribaoutki_FullScore.pdf
  47. ^ Revueltas 1958, 3–15.
  48. ^ Brahms 1928, 78–79, 79–80.
  49. ^ https://imslp.nl/imglnks/usimg/2/2a/IMSLP08431-Brahms_-_Variations_Op.9_-_Sauer.pdf
  50. ^ See any of the scores available on https://imslp.org/wiki/R%C3%BCckert_Lieder_(Mahler%2C_Gustav). Bar 27 is at rehearsal number 4.
  51. ^ Holst 1977, 4–6, 18–19, 23–24, 27–30.
  52. ^ Dean 2014.
  53. ^ Suspended Animation Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2005, 81–85, 88–89, 105–107
  54. ^ Dethalbum III Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2013, 10[full citation needed]
  55. ^ Ligeti 1995, 9, b. 28.
  56. ^ Stravinsky 1970, 99.
  57. ^ a b Andriessen 1976, 1–4, 82–88, 90, 92, 95–97, 99, 119.
  58. ^ Britten 1946, 14–15.
  59. ^ Davies 1985, 48–49.
  60. ^ Bartók 1993, 72.
  61. ^ Stravinsky 1958, 11–12 and 19.
  62. ^ Britten 1941, 30–32.
  63. ^ Bernstein 1950, 48, 52–54.
  64. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:45–48.
  65. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:51–55.
  66. ^ Bartók 1937, 1–5, 7–8, 10.
  67. ^ Bartók 1937, 130–33.
  68. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 11–12.
  69. ^ a b c musicaignotus (14 October 2009). "Antheil – Piano Sonata No. 2 'The Airplane'" – via YouTube. 
  70. ^ a b c d e Timothy Smith (26 September 2015). "Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji – Sonata No. 1" – via YouTube. 
  71. ^ http://imslp.eu/files/imglnks/euimg/6/63/IMSLP06376-Mahler_-_Symphony_No.1_Mvt.IV_(complete_score).pdf
  72. ^ Davies 1985, 202.
  73. ^ Birtwistle 1996, 6–7 and 9.
  74. ^ Stravinsky 1962, 54, 56, 58, 60–61, 63, and 66.
  75. ^ Stravinsky 1924, 50.
  76. ^ Stravinsky 1967, 19.
  77. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2009, 138
  78. ^ Seconds Out Songbook 1978 Wise Publications
  79. ^ a b Gable 2009, 91.
  80. ^ Dryden, Ken. "Blue Rondo a la Turk", Allmusic: "unusual time signature of 9
    8
    ".
  81. ^ Ginastera 1955, 17–20.
  82. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:35–38.
  83. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:48–50.
  84. ^ Page 1989.
  85. ^ a b c d e "Extremes of Conventional Music Notation". 
  86. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - Crocodile Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  87. ^ http://www.talkbass.com/forum/f22/how-do-you-figure-out-time-signatures-476426/[unreliable source?]
  88. ^ Banks 2009.
  89. ^ "The Eleven and Other Rhythmic Oddities (Grateful Dead)". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  90. ^ a b Dreiblats 2013.
  91. ^ Britten 1946, 14.
  92. ^ a b Hail the Sun (19 February 2013). "Testotyrannosaurus.pdf" (PDF). Hail the Sun. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  93. ^ "Uncommon Time". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  94. ^ Liner notes to The Mason Williams Phonograph Record Warner Brothers LP, WS 1729. Burbank: Warner Brothers-Seven Arts Records, 1968.
  95. ^ TheDeftonesVault (2013-08-21), Dream Theater- Erotomania [Instrumental], retrieved 2016-03-24 
  96. ^ http://i.imgur.com/uGO9LL6.png
  97. ^ Yanni (1993). The Best of Yanni; 11 selections from his top recordings. Hal Leonard Publishing. p. 16. 
  98. ^ Bars 2–5 are in 10
    8
    time (Stravinsky 1958, 52).
  99. ^ Eddie 2007, 62.
  100. ^ Le Jeune 1951–59, 2:85–88.
  101. ^ Jisi, Chris (2012). "Esperanza Spalding: E-Harmony". Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  102. ^ Hail the Sun (13 January 2013). "Eight Ball, Coroner's Pocket.pdf" (PDF). Hail the Sun. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  103. ^ Howard Brubeck (ed.), Dave Brubeck Deluxe Piano Album, (San Francisco: Derry Music Co., 1965), pp. 22–28.
  104. ^ "The meters of these three measures are 11
    8
    , 4
    4
    , and 7
    8
    , respectively. The special effect of running even eighth notes accented as if triplets against the grain of the underlying backbeat is carried to a point more reminiscent of Stravinsky than of the Beatles" (Alan Pollack's 'Notes On' series, no. 183).
  105. ^ J. A. Fuller Maitland and W. Barclay Squire (eds.), The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, vol. 2 (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1899; reprinted New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963), 34–39.
  106. ^ Nilsson 1958, 7.
  107. ^ Macan 1997, 48.
  108. ^ Randy Poe (20 September 2006). Skydog: The Duane Allman Story. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-87930-891-9. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  109. ^ Villa-Lobos 1969, 3–18.
  110. ^ "The Daily Vault Music Reviews :". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  111. ^ rec.music.gdead FAQ.[unreliable source?]
  112. ^ "The Annotated "The Eleven"". Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  113. ^ Primus (musical group), Primus Anthology: A thru N: For Guitar and Bass, transcribed by Jeff Jacobsen (New York: Cherry Lane Music, 2000), 17–20. ISBN 1575601540.
  114. ^ Pollack 1999.
  115. ^ Pedler 2003, p. 555.
  116. ^ Peart, Neil (2010-10-07). "Rush – Losing It Sheet Music (Digital Download)". Musicnotes.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  117. ^ Haigh n.d.
  118. ^ "" Neil Peart Biography, Drum Videos and Pictures | Famous Drummers". Drumlessons.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  119. ^ Elroy 2008.[unreliable source?]
  120. ^ Macan 1997, 48–49.
  121. ^ [3]
  122. ^ "A prole do bebê No.2, W180 (Villa-Lobos, Heitor) – IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music". 
  123. ^ a b Reynish, Tim. "Derek Bourgeois: An Assessment of his music in Two Parts". Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  124. ^ a b "Pops Concert Program Notes". Howard Performing Arts Center, Andrews University. March 8, 2008. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  125. ^ "Golden Brown by The Stranglers Songfacts". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  126. ^ Perkins 2000, 1:18.
  127. ^ a b Andriessen 1976, 46, 69, and 101.
  128. ^ a b c d Macan 1997, 49.
  129. ^ "The Becoming". Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  130. ^ Jerry 2014.
  131. ^ http://imslp.org/wiki/A_prole_do_beb%C3%AA_No.2,_W180_(Villa-Lobos,_Heitor)[page needed]
  132. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber, T. S. Eliot – "Cats" Hal Leonard (HL00359466), ISBN 0-88188-447-2
  133. ^ "Ken Westphal Illustration & Design". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  134. ^ Genesis 2001, 334–337.
  135. ^ "deadmau5 on Instagram". 
  136. ^ Stevenson 2014.
  137. ^ Davison and Apel 1974, 9; Pöhlmann and West 2001, 96–99.
  138. ^ Macan 1997, 49; Chatburn n.d.
  139. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:18–40 (score).
  140. ^ Jeffes, Arthur (2010-09-08), BBC Proms programme notes, 2010 season concert 73, BBC 
  141. ^ Medtner 1998, 134.
  142. ^ a b "danbruno.net: Battle music in Mother 3". 
  143. ^ Oldfield, Mike (2007). Changeling – Autobiography of Mike Oldfield. Virgin Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85227-381-1. 
  144. ^ Llyod Webber, Andrew (1987). The Phantom of the Opera Libretto/ Vocal Score. The Really Useful Group Ltd. 
  145. ^ a b c d Read 1964, 157.
  146. ^ Andriessen 1976, 65 and 74.
  147. ^ Dreiblats 2012.
  148. ^ Geoffrey Himes (2008). "Lionel Loueke: African American". Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  149. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sxJQVFV_T4&t=1113s
  150. ^ "Crystalline". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  151. ^ "Hollow". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  152. ^ "The National – I Should Live in Salt". Retrieved 2018-07-07. 
  153. ^ "Moon". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  154. ^ a b John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin and the Mahavishnu Orchestra: John McLaughlin's Scores to 28 Classic Recordings (Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing, 2006):[page needed]. ISBN 0-7390-4255-6.
  155. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1862), 1:25.
  156. ^ Ginastera 1969, 79–86.
  157. ^ Prokofiev 1955, 1:9–14.
  158. ^ http://petruccilibrary.ca/download.php?file=files/imglnks/caimg/c/c8/IMSLP00783-Schoenberg_op23_No3.pdf
  159. ^ Bach 1968, 98–99.
  160. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:1–17 (score).
  161. ^ Fenlon 2002, 112–13.
  162. ^ a b c Flans 1982.
  163. ^ "Rusty Cage". Underneath the Cover. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2018-03-06. 
  164. ^ Portnoy, Wallis, and Siegel 1999.[page needed]
  165. ^ a b Le Jeune 1951–59, 1:32–33.
  166. ^ DreiblatsJaanis (2013). "Gibbon Guitar Pro by This Town Needs Guns". 911Tabs.Com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  167. ^ Read 1964, 160; Stravinsky 1958, 29.
  168. ^ Leonard 2011.
  169. ^ Read 1964, 156.
  170. ^ "All About Jazz". All About Jazz. Archived from the original on 15 November 2002. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  171. ^ CPR Classical (2015-05-01), Scott O'Neil on Pat Metheny's "First Circle", retrieved 2018-02-14 
  172. ^ "Between Moments EP". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-03. [verification needed]
  173. ^ "Baboon Guitar Pro by This Town Needs Guns @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com". Tabs.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  174. ^ "Ganondorf Battle (Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time) Bass/Guitar Tab". GameTab. August 8, 2009. Retrieved 2017-03-08. 
  175. ^ "New Millenium Cyanide Christ". Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  176. ^ Telemann 1728, 37; Telemann 1970, 14–15; Zohn 2004, 247: "the ‘Brobdingnagische Gigue’—no doubt inspired by the English jig Gulliver plays with great effort on a sixty-foot spinet—is danced in giant steps, trudging along in twenty-four semibreves to the bar."
  177. ^ Fenlon 2002, 90 & 102–106.
  178. ^ "OFFICE OF STRATEGIC INFLUENCE (O.S.I.) BIOGRAPHY". Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  179. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - 26 Is Dancier Than 4 Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  180. ^ Fenlon 2002, 40.
  181. ^ "Matt Savage plays "Blues in 33/8" in New York". YouTube. 2007-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  182. ^ Fenlon 2002, 41; Fienberg 2004, 228–29 & 231–32.
  183. ^ "Split Open and Melt". Phish.net. April 10, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. "SOAM's" complex improv segment is notorious for its time signature, which involves three sections of eight eighth-notes and then a fourth section with nine eighth-notes in a steady pulse (listen to Fishman's hi-hat) 
  184. ^ a b c Read 1964, 170.
  185. ^ Telemann 1728, 40; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Reverie der Laputier, nebst ihren Aufweckern’ . . . teases the reader with a nonsensical time signature, 3 22
    4
    , in an apparent allusion to the Laputians’ love for, and incompetence in, mathematics." Dietz Degan, the editor of Telemann 1970, transcribes this piece simply in 2
    2
    .
  186. ^ Nilsson 1958, 8; Read 1964, 172.
  187. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10; Read 1964, 172.
  188. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10 & 12; Read 1964, 172.
  189. ^ Nilsson 1958, 11; Read 1964, 172.
  190. ^ Boulez 1957, 18.
  191. ^ Boulez 1957, 19–20.
  192. ^ Ives 1920, 56.
  193. ^ Chávez 1972, 17–20.
  194. ^ Wagner 2010, 312–13.
  195. ^ Revueltas 1949, 36.
  196. ^ Strait 2000, 56.
  197. ^ "Don't Blame Me, It Was Henry Cowell's Idea". 15 March 2008. 
  198. ^ Chávez 1972, 16, 19.
  199. ^ Villa-Lobos 1927, 4:1–4.
  200. ^ Banks n.d.
  201. ^ Sheet music, published by New Hidden Valley Music and Casa David, copyright 1966
  202. ^ Stockhausen 1967, 1, 6, and 7.
  203. ^ Stockhausen 1957, 52, 60–62, 66.

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