List of name changes due to the George Floyd protests

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After George Floyd, an unarmed African American man, was murdered during a police arrest in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, many people protested in the United States and internationally. During the course of these protests, many monuments and memorials were vandalized or toppled by protestors, prompting those people who were in charge of other similar monuments to remove them from public view. Similarly, many names, mascots, and other forms of symbolism were changed under direct or indirect public pressure. In other countries, race-related and colonial issues were also raised, and some of them were acted upon. In some cases, changes were already being planned or they had already been under consideration before the outbreak of the protests.

Color code:

  Reported but not yet executed
  Decision pending
  Proposed change supported by one or more officials
  Change partially or fully reversed

Abbreviations used:

ES: Elementary school
HS: High school
MS: Middle school
TBD: To be determined

Education[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Pacific Beach Joint-Use Field Fannie and William Payne Joint-Use Field San Diego CA US Mar 9, 2021 In 1945, over 1900 Pacific Beach residents petitioned to remove Pacific Beach Middle School's first black teacher from the staff because they didn't think a black teacher deserved to be there. In 2021, a joint-use field at Pacific Beach Middle school was named after Payne and his wife after a petition was circulated in the wake of the Black Lives Matter movement the previous summer. [1]
Serra High School Canyon Hills High School Jun 25, 2020 Mar 9, 2021 In June 2020, two sisters, both students at Serra High School, started a petition to change the school's namesake Father Juniper Serra and the school mascot away from the Conquistadors. The San Diego Unified School Board would go on to unanimously approve the renaming of the school to Canyon Hills in March of 2021. [2][3][4][1]
Kroeber Hall Names removed Berkeley CA Jul 2020 Jan 27, 2021 UC Berkeley denamed a building named for Alfred Kroeber, the "founder of the study of anthropology in the American West." Reasons given are the collection of Native American remains for curation and taking custody of a Native American genocide survivor who "performed as a living exhibit for museum visitors." [5][6]
LeConte Hall Nov 18, 2020 UC Berkeley faculty members John and Joseph LaConte were veteran confederate soldiers who used scientific language to promote racist ideas. [7]
Barrows Hall UC Berkeley faculty member David Prescott Barrows was an anthropologist and colonizer of the Philippine education system who professed that the white race was superior to all others.
P. G. T. Beauregard Hall
Leonidas K. Polk Hall
College of Science and Technology
College of Education and Behavioral Sciences
Thibodaux LA Jun 3, 2020 Jun 3, 2020 Nicholls State University president announced the renaming of two buildings on campus named for people associated with the Confederacy who had no relationship to the university. [8]
Gladstone Hall Gladstone Hall TBD Liverpool Eng UK Jun 9, 2020 The University of Liverpool announced that it will rename this hall of residence, named after the prime minister William Ewart Gladstone, for "his views on slavery". [9]
Calcutta building.jpg Sir John Cass School of Art, Architecture and Design School of Art, Architecture and Design London Eng UK Jun 10, 2020 Jun 10, 2020 London Metropolitan University announced that the school's name would no longer refer to Sir John Cass for his links to the slave trade. [10]
Jefferson ES
Washington ES
Ruth Acty ES
TBD
Berkeley CA US Jun 10, 2020 Dec 9, 2020
TBD
Berkeley Unified School District school board unanimously voted to rename the two elementary schools because of Jefferson's and Washington's ownership of slaves. Jefferson ES was renamed after Ruth Acty, the first teacher of color in Berkeley Unified School District, who dedicated nearly 50 years of her life to teaching. [11]
[12]
[13]
052607-013-VKC-USC.jpg Von KleinSmid Center for International and Public Affairs The Center for International and Public Affairs
(temporarily)
Los Angeles CA US Jun 11, 2020 Jun 11, 2020 A University of Southern California (USC) committee[a] voted unanimously to remove Rufus B. von KleinSmid's name. Von KleinSmid was the fifth president of USC, an active supporter of eugenics and forced sterilization, and the only West Coast university president who refused to send the transcripts of Japanese American students who were released from World War II internment camps to colleges in other states. [15]
[14]
SVU Durham.jpg Durham Hall Academic Center
(temporarily)
Buena Vista VA US Jun 11, 2020 Jun 11, 2020 Southern Virginia University (SVU) renamed their primary academic building.[b] Robert Lee Durham was a white supremacist who was a co-owner and former president of Southern Seminary, a predecessor of SVU.[c] His advocacy of white supremacy was "explicit, public, [and] proactive".[d] [16]
[17]
[18]
Schott Building
Schottzie Stadium
TBD Cincinnati OH US Jun 11, 2020 The Saint Ursula Academy Leadership Team decided to rename two of its facilities because of Marge Schott's "record of racism and bigotry." Schottzie was Schott's dog. [19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
Calhoun Honors College Clemson University Honors College Clemson SC US Jun 12, 2020 Jun 12, 2020 Clemson University removed the name of its founder John C. Calhoun from its honors college, for his pro-slavery views and his ownership of slaves. [23]
Intramural Center William Leon Garrett Fieldhouse[e] Bloomington IN US Jun 12, 2020 Jun 12, 2020 Indiana University Board of Trustees approved the renaming.[f] The sports facility was formerly named "Wildermuth Intramural Center" after Ora Wildermuth, a former trustee who held "extraordinarily strong opposition to racial integration". Wildermuth's name was stripped from the facility in 2018. Bill Garrett was the "first black basketball player to regularly play in the Big Ten conference". [26]
[27]
[24]
[25]
Sir John Cass's Foundation Sir John Cass's Foundation The Portal Trust London Eng UK Jun 16, 2020 The foundation issued a statement announcing its commitment to a change of name. [28]
John Cass school.jpg Sir John Cass Redcoat School Stepney All Saints School London Eng UK Jun 16, 2020 c. Aug 19, 2020 The school's governing body voted unanimously on June 16 for a change of name. [29]
[30]
LouisPlummerAuditorium01c.jpg Louis E. Plummer Auditorium TBD Fullerton CA US Jun 16, 2020 Fullerton Joint Union High School District Board of Trustees unanimously voted to remove Plummer's name from the Fullerton Union High School auditorium. Plummer was a leader of the Ku Klux Klan. An online petition had amassed over 27,000 signatures. [31]
[32]
J. J. Finley ES Carolyn Beatrice Parker ES Gainesville FL US Jun 16, 2020 Aug 18, 2020 School Board of Alachua County voted unanimously for the name change. Jesse J. Finley was a Confederate brigadier general. On Aug 18, 2020, the board unanimously voted to rename the school after Carolyn Beatrice Parker, effective immediately. Parker was "the first African American woman in the U.S. to receive a graduate degree in physics", and worked on the Manhattan Project. [33]
[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]
[39]
Award ceremony at Finegan Elementary School
Robert E. Lee High School
Joseph Finegan ES
Stonewall Jackson ES
Jefferson Davis MS
Kirby-Smith MS
J.E.B. Stuart MS
Robert E. Lee HS
TBD Jacksonville FL US Jun 16, 2020 Duval County School Board unanimously approved recommendation of Board chair to begin renaming process. Finegan, Jackson, Kirby Smith, Stuart, and Lee were Confederate generals, and Davis was the Confederate president. In 2013, the Board renamed Nathan B. Forrest High School. [33]
[40]
Daniels MS Oberlin MS Raleigh NC US Jun 16, 2020 Jun 16, 2020 Josephus Daniels was a newspaper founder and planner of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898 in which the biracial city government of Wilmington was overthrown by white supremacists. The school is located on Oberlin Road. [41]
Woodrow Wilson HS TBD Camden NJ US Jun 16, 2020 School superintendent cited "the segregationist views and ideas of the former president that ... have drastically reshaped his legacy" as reason for the change, and stated renaming would take place "this summer". [42]
[43]
Walpole HS Rebels TBD Walpole MA US Jun 18, 2020 Walpole School Committee voted unanimously to change the school's mascot. More than 150 people participated in a rally for the change. Multiple Change.org petitions had called for the change, amassing over 14,000 signatures in total. [44]
Lee Magnet.tif Lee Magnet HS Liberty Magnet HS Baton Rouge LA US Jun 18, 2020 Aug 3, 2020 East Baton Rouge school board voted to change the name. School was formerly named Robert E. Lee HS and then Lee Magnet HS. [45]
[46]
[47]
[48]
[49]
Galton Lecture Theatre
Pearson Lecture Theatre
Pearson Building
Lecture Theatre 115


Lecture Theatre G22


North-West Wing
London Eng UK Jun 19, 2020 Jun 19, 2020 University College London announced the renaming of two lecture theatres and a building named after eugenicists Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, effective immediately. [50]
[51]
Woodrow Wilson Hall dedication plaque Woodrow Wilson Hall Great Hall at Shadow Lawn West Long Branch NJ US Jun 19, 2020 Jun 19, 2020 Monmouth University's Board of Trustees unanimously voted to rename the building, after voting to keep it in 2016. [52]
[53]
Philip J. Schuyler Achievement Academy TBD Albany NY US Jun 19, 2020 The City School District of Albany announced that it would form a School Naming Policy Committee to create "a policy regarding the naming and renaming of district buildings and facilities" including that of this elementary school.[g] Philip Schuyler was "the largest slave owner in late-1700s Albany County". The committee was formed on Jun 29, 2020, and would be creating the policy over the summer. [55]
[54]
[56]
Stonewall Jackson HS
Stonewall MS
Unity Reed HS
Unity Braxton MS
Manassas VA US Jun 22, 2020 Jun 30, 2020 School board voted unanimously to change the names. "Unity" reflected the desire of the community. Carroll Braxton is a Marine veteran of World War II and the Korean War who earned a Medal of Honor. Celestine Braxton served Prince William County Public Schools for 33 years, and worked to integrate the schools when they were segregated. Arthur Reed was a security assistant at the high school for 20 years who "had a huge impact within the school community" and "loved his school and his students". [57]
[58]
[59]
[60]
Christopher Columbus Family Academy TBD New Haven CT US Jun 22, 2020 New Haven School Board decided to rename the school, "due to [Columbus'] history of violence toward indigenous people." [61]
[62]
Robert E. Lee HS John R. Lewis HS Springfield VA US Jun 23, 2020 Jul 23, 2020 Fairfax County School Board voted unanimously to rename the school and requested feedback and suggestions from the community. On July 23, the board voted unanimously to rename the school after the recently deceased civil rights leader John Lewis.[h] [67]
[68]
[69]
[63]
[64]
[65]
[66]
Zebulon B. Vance HS Julius L. Chambers HS Charlotte NC US Jun 23, 2020 Oct 13, 2020 In June, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School Board started the process to rename Zebulon B. Vance HS, named after Confederate military officer Zebulon Baird Vance. In October, the board unanimously voted to rename the school in honor of the civil rights icon Julius L. Chambers, whose legal work led to the desegregation of Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in the 1970s. [70]
[71]
Marge Schott Stadium
Marge Schott Seminar Room
TBD Cincinnati OH US Jun 23, 2020 University of Cincinnati Board of Trustees voted unanimously to rename a stadium and a library seminar room, named after Marge Schott, who made racist remarks in support of Adolf Hitler.[i] [75]
[76]
DeadyHallWest.jpg Deady Hall University Hall
(temporarily)
Eugene OR US Jun 24, 2020 Jun 24, 2020 University of Oregon Board of Trustees unanimously voted to remove Deady's name from the hall.[j] The hall was temporarily renamed "University Hall". Matthew Deady was Oregon's first federal judge, and advocated for racial discrimination against African-Americans. Previous attempts to change the name had failed.[k] [78]
[79]
[77]
[80]
1922 Oregon Civil War game.jpeg Civil War
(college rivalry)
None OR US Jun 26, 2020 Jun 26, 2020 University of Oregon and Oregon State University have jointly decided to stop using "Civil War" to refer to athletic competitions between the two universities, effective immediately. [81]
[82]
Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Robertson Hall.jpg
Walker Hall, Wilson College, Princeton University, Princeton NJ.jpg
Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Wilson College
Princeton School of Public and International Affairs
First College
Princeton NJ US Jun 26, 2020 Jun 27, 2020 Princeton University Board of Trustees voted to change the names because "Wilson's racist thinking and policies make him an inappropriate namesake for a school whose scholars, students, and alumni must be firmly committed to combatting the scourge of racism in all its forms". Wilson opposed admitting African-American students to Princeton, and introduced racial segregation into the US federal civil service as US president. [83]
[84]
[85]
Hoey Hall
Lovill Hall
TBD Boone NC US Jun 26, 2020 Appalachian State University Board of Trustees unanimously voted to support Chancellor Sheri Everts' plan to replace the names of the two residence halls before classes began in August. Clyde R. Hoey was a governor of North Carolina who was a segregationist and white supremacist. Edward Francis Lovill was a Confederate captain who "secured a bill that would ultimately lead to the creation of ... the forerunner of Appalachian State" while serving as a Democratic state senator in 1885, and was "the chair of the school's first board of trustees". He was described as a "Democrat of the purest type" at a time when the party "stood for a return to white supremacy and its associated policies". [86]
[87]
[88]
[89]
[90]
Hoey Auditorium, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC (45725915345).jpg Hoey Auditorium University Auditorium Cullowhee NC US Jun 29, 2020 Jun 29, 2020 Western Carolina University's Board of Trustees unanimously voted to rename the auditorium. Clyde R. Hoey was a governor of North Carolina "who actively opposed civil rights legislation and favored racial segregation". Hoey was also against granting Hawaii statehood because it had "only a small percentage of white people". [91]
[92]
[93]
Watson School of Biological Sciences Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory School of Biological Sciences Cold Spring Harbor NY US Jul 1, 2020 Jul 1, 2020 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Board of Trustees voted to restore the original name of its graduate school because of James Watson's views on race. [94]
Burwell Hall Queens Hall Charlotte NC US Jul 2, 2020 Jul 2, 2020 Queens University of Charlotte Board of Trustees unanimously voted to rename the main administration building. Rev. Robert Armistead Burwell was the first head of the Charlotte Female Institute, a precursor of the university. He was also a slave owner who led a Presbyterian church that excluded slaves. [95]
Helms Center Hawks Athletic Center Murfreesboro NC US Jul 2, 2020 Jul 2, 2020 Chowan University Board of Trustees renamed the facility because "positions taken by Senator Helms were not in keeping with the current mission of Chowan University". The history department called on the university for the change, stating that "it is now time to acknowledge the institutional racism Senator Helms embodied". [96]
[97]
Guy T. Gillespie Hall Lakeview Hall Jackson MS US Jul 3, 2020 Jul 3, 2020 Belhaven University Board of Trustees renamed the residence hall. Gillespie was a segregationist and former president of the university. The renaming was supported by the Gillespie family. [98]
[99]
Cass Business School in 2008 (cropped).jpg Cass Business School City's Business School[l]
(temporarily)
London Eng UK Jul 6, 2020 Jul 6, 2020 City, University of London announced that its business school would be renamed to strip the name's association with slave trader Sir John Cass, and would be "referred to as City's Business School"[l] until a consultation concluded a new name. [100]
Copeia
(journal)
Ichthyology and Herpetology n/a n/a US Jul 6, 2020 The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists's board voted to rename its flagship journal, starting with its first issue in 2021. Scientist Edward Drinker Cope held racist views. [101]
[102]
Linnean Games
(quiz bowl)
Entomology Games n/a n/a US Jul 6, 2020 Jul 6, 2020 Entomological Society of America renamed its student quiz bowl. Carl Linnaeus, known as the father of modern taxonomy, had "named four 'varieties' of human and ascribed to them anthropological and cultural stereotypes that are inappropriate and offensive today".[m] [103]
Stonewall Jackson MS West Side MS Charleston WV US Jul 6, 2020 Jul 7, 2020[n] Kanawha County Board of Education unanimously voted to change the name.[o] Removal of signage began the next day, and was completed a day later. Confederate general Stonewall Jackson was from West Virginia.[p] [108]
[107]
[104]
[106]
[105]
Jenkins Hall Education Building
(temporarily)
Huntington WV US Jul 7, 2020 Jul 7, 2020 Marshall University's governing board unanimously voted to remove the name of Confederate general Albert Gallatin Jenkins from the building, and use "Education Building" as a temporary name until the board voted for a new name.[q] [110]
[109]
Valley Hall
Mountain Hall
Ashby Hall
Jackson Hall
Maury Hall
Valley Hall
Justice Studies Hall
Mountain Hall
(all temporarily)
Harrisonburg VA US Jul 7, 2020 Jul 7, 2020 James Madison University Board of Visitors voted unanimously to change the names of buildings named for Confederate officers Turner Ashby, Stonewall Jackson, and Matthew Fontaine Maury. [111]
[112]
[113]
[114]
[115]
Fanning Academy of Science and Technology Falcon Academy of Science and Technology Brea CA US Jul 7, 2020 Jul 7, 2020 Brea Olinda Unified School District Board of Education unanimously voted to change the name after the Fanning family submitted a letter to the board on Jul 2, 2020 requesting the name be removed.[r] William E. Fanning may have been a KKK member.[s] The falcon is the school's mascot. [117]
[120]
[121]
[119]
[118]
[122]
[116]
Parkwood HS Rebels TBD Monroe NC US Jul 7, 2020 Union County Schools Board of Education voted 6–2 to change the name and mascot. An image of a Confederate soldier had been removed from the school logo earlier after the NAACP called for its change in 2009. [123]
[124]
Robert Lee Moore Hall.jpg Joe Jamail Field
Robert L. Moore Building
TBD[t]
Physics, Math and Astronomy Building
Austin TX US Jul 13, 2020 University of Texas at Austin Interim President Jay Hartzell announced that the building and the football field would be renamed. Robert Lee Moore was a segregationist mathematics professor who refused to teach Black students,[u] was "hostil[e] toward the black community", and was "obsess[ed] with claims of intellectual differences among the races". Joe Jamail was a rich alumnus who made large donations to the university.[v] Jamail's family requested the name change "to be more inclusive and promote diversity". [128]
[125]
[129]
[130]
[126]
[131]
[127]
Robert E. Lee ES Delmas Morton ES Grand Prairie TX US Jul 14, 2020 Grand Prairie Independent School District voted to rename the school. Delmas Morton served the children of the school district for nearly 45 years, including 17 as principal of Austin Elementary School. [132]
[133]
[134]
[135]
Performance at Lee-Davis High School Lee-Davis HS
Stonewall Jackson MS
Mechanicsville HS
Bell Creek MS
Mechanicsville VA US Jul 14, 2020 Hanover County School Board voted 4–3 to rename the schools and change their mascots. Lee-Davis was home of the Confederates, and Stonewall Jackson was home of the Rebels. Lee-Davis had been founded in 1959 as an all-white school. A petition to rename Lee-Davis had amassed roughly 25,000 signatures. [136]
[137]
Sidney Lanier HS July 2009 02.jpg Jefferson Davis HS
Robert E. Lee HS
Sidney Lanier HS
TBD Montgomery AL US Jul 14, 2020 Montgomery County Board of Education voted to rename the schools.[w] Sidney Lanier was a Confederate private who became a prestigious poet.[x] If a waiver to the Alabama Memorial Preservation Act is not granted, a fine of $25,000 may be imposed per renaming.[y] A petition to rename the schools had amassed nearly 30,000 signatures. [139]
[138]
High school students.jpg Oñate HS TBD[z] Las Cruces NM US Jul 14, 2020 Las Cruces Public Schools board voted to rename the school, after a community survey reported 1,350 for and 4,129 against the change. One of a number of removals of references to conquistador Juan de Oñate from public spaces in New Mexico. [140]
[141]
Wilson High Front.jpg Woodrow Wilson High School (Portland, Oregon)|Wilson HS Ida B. Wells-Barnett High School Portland OR US Jul 14, 2020 Portland Public Schools Board of Education decided to rename the school.[aa] US President Woodrow Wilson "instituted segregation in federal government agencies and was an ally of the Ku Klux Klan". Board members also supported renaming Madison High School before a planned reopening in 2021 after major renovations. [142]
[143]
[144]
San Antonio College Rangers TBD San Antonio TX US Jul 14, 2020 Jul 14, 2020 San Antonio College's College Council unanimously recommended to "immediately stop using the name, symbol, logo, and image of the 'Ranger'", which College President Robert Vela immediately approved.[ab] [145]
[146]
Thorndike Hall TBD New York NY US Jul 15, 2020 Board of Trustees of Teachers College, Columbia University voted unanimously to rename the hall. Psychologist Edward Thorndike was "a proponent of eugenics, and held racist, sexist, and antisemitic ideas". [147]
[148]
John Tyler High School Robert E. Lee HS
John Tyler HS
TBD Tyler TX US Jul 16, 2020 Tyler Independent School District Board of Trustees voted unanimously to change the schools' names. John Tyler was President of the United States from 1841 to 45, but joined the Confederacy after the start of the Civil War. [149]
[150]
Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School (cropped).jpg Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School The Aldgate School London Eng UK c. Sep 2, 2020 c. Sep 2, 2020 The Cass Child and Family Centre, which runs a reception class alongside a nursery and children's centre at the school, will also be renamed, as the City of London Child and Family Centre. [151]
[152]
University of Edinburgh (2056644299).jpg David Hume Tower 40 George Square (temporarily) Edinburgh Sct UK Sep 10, 2020 Beginning of 2020–2021 academic year Hume was involved in the slave trade and wrote in his essay "Of National Characters" (1753) that "negros" are "naturally inferior to the whites". The building is the tallest on the University of Edinburgh's campus. [153]
[154]
Nott Hall
Morgan Hall
Honors Building
The English Building (temporary)
Tuscaloosa AL US Aug 5, 2020
Sep 17, 2020
Aug 5, 2020
Sep 17, 2020
University of Alabama trustees unanimously voted to rename both halls. Morgan Hall, which contains the school's English department, was named after John Tyler Morgan, a former United States Senator. Morgan maintained ties with the Ku Klux Klan, called the abolition of slavery a mistake, and promoted Jim Crow laws. Nott Hall was named after Josiah C. Nott, a scientist, slave owner, and advocate for slavery. [155]
[156]
[157]
Stonewall Jackson MS Roberto Clemente MS Orlando FL US Sep 22, 2020 Sep 22, 2020 The middle school, which was formerly restricted to white students, was renamed after Roberto Clemente, a Major League baseball player and humanitarian. [158]

[159]

Adams' - Big School.png Clive House Owen House Newport, Shropshire Eng UK Oct 13, 2020 Sep 2021 The house in Adams' Grammar School, named after Robert Clive, will be renamed after Wilfred Owen. [160]
Sir John A. Macdonald Hall TBD Kingston ON CA Oct 19, 2020 Oct 19, 2020 Queen's University announced that it would be changing the name of its law school building, named after the prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald, for his participation in establishing Canada's residential school system and for instituting a head tax on Chinese immigrants. [161]
[162]
Colston's Girls' School in 2009 (cropped).jpg Colston's Girls' School Montpelier High School Bristol Eng UK Nov 6, 2020 Sep 2021 A previous attempt to rename the school in 2017 was unsuccessful. The new name was decided in a vote by staff and students. Edward Colston was an English merchant and slave trader. Colston's School, a different school in Bristol, is also reconsidering its name. [163]
[164]
The Codrington Library, All Souls College, Oxford 3.jpg Codrington Library The Library at All Souls College Oxford Eng UK Nov 20, 2020 The library was founded with a bequest from Christopher Codrington, whose wealth derived from slave plantations in the West Indies. [165]
Dixie State University logo.png Dixie State University Utah Polytechnic State University/Utah Tech Saint George UT US Dec 12, 2020 In December 2020, the university's board of trustees voted to remove the word "Dixie" from its name. The 2021 Utah State Legislature voted to consider a name change, and the committee created by that bill chose Utah Polytechnic State University with the intended common use of Utah Tech for branding and athletics. That name will still have to clear the University Board of Trustees and State Board of Regents, before ultimately being decided in the 2022 session of the Utah legislature.[166] [167]
Merchant Taylors' School.jpg Clive House Raphael House Sandy Lodge, Hertfordshire Eng UK Jan 9, 2021 The house at Merchant Taylors' School, named after Robert Clive, was renamed after John Raphael. Both were former pupils of the school. [168]
Sir Francis Drake High School Archie Williams High School San Anselmo CA US Jun 1, 2020 Sir Francis Drake High School is being renamed after former math and computing teacher Archie Williams, after awareness grew of Francis Drake's associations with slavery, colonialism, white supremacy, and Indigenous erasure. [169][170][171]
Woodrow Wilson School Harmony Grove Elementary School - A Global Academy Framingham MA US Jul 14, 2020 May 19, 2021 Renamed due to Wilson's segregationalist policies and racist foreign policies. New name honors a local park with a natural ampitheatre that was used by the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and an 1874 women's suffrage convention. [172][173]

Geography[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Henry Clay Park Zitkala-Ša Park Arlington VA US Dec 8, 2020 Dec 12, 2020 The Lyon Park Citizen's Association proposed the change to the Parks and Recreation Commission in the summer of 2020. The move received unanimous support from the Historical Affairs and Landmark Review Board and majority support from the Neighborhood Conservation Advisory Committee. Secretary of State Henry Clay held abolitionist views but kept slaves. Zitkala-Ša was an Native American writer, musician, educator and activist who lived in Arlington and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. [174][175]
Black Lives Matter Plaza Street Sign (cropped) (cropped).jpg (section of)
16th Street Northwest
Black Lives Matter Plaza Northwest Washington DC US Jun 5, 2020 Jun 5, 2020 On Breonna Taylor's birthday, Mayor Muriel Bowser renamed two blocks of the street in front of the White House. [176]
[177]
Sir John Hawkins Square Sir John Hawkins Square Jack Leslie Square Plymouth Eng UK Jun 9, 2020 Plymouth City Council announced that the square would be renamed because of John Hawkins's links to the slave trade. It will now commemorate the Plymouth Argyle footballer Jack Leslie, the only professional black player in England between 1921 and 1934. [178]
[179]
[180]
Lynchview Park Verdell Burdine Rutherford Park Portland OR US Jun 9, 2020 Jun 9, 2020 Portland Parks & Recreation and Mayor Ted Wheeler announced the change. Rutherford was a prominent local historian and civil rights leader. Centennial School District Superintendent Paul Oakley stated that there was no connection between lynching and the Lynch family, but the name caused "a disruption for some students". [181]
[182]
Seal of Rhode Island.svg State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations State of Rhode Island n/a RI US Jun 12, 2020 Nov 3, 2020 An executive order by Gov. Gina Raimondo removed "and Providence Plantations" from official state documents and symbols. Leading legislators of the General Assembly then removed the phrase from internal legislative documents. Rhode Island voters approved the name change in a referendum on November 3, 2020. The same question had previously failed 78% to 22% in 2010. Though Providence Plantations did not utilize slaves, petitioners argued the word has connotations of Southern slave plantations, and that Rhode Island merchants historically played a large role in the transatlantic slave trade. [183]
[184]
[185]

[186]

Wunaamin Miliwundi Ranges King Leopold Ranges Wunaamin Miliwundi Ranges Kimberley WA Au Jun 12, 2020 Jul 1, 2020 The Western Australian government sought to hasten the name change in response to the removal of Leopold II's statue in Antwerp. The new name is a combination of the names given to the ranges by the traditional owners, the Ngarinyin and Bunuba peoples. [187]
[188]
[189]
Livingston Park Black Lives Matter Park Albany NY US Jun 16, 2020 Jun 16, 2020 The Common Council unanimously renamed the park in honor of Juneteenth. The Livingston family was a prominent family in New York but owned Antiguan and Jamaican slaves. [190]
[191]
Stapleton International Airport 1.jpg Stapleton Central Park Denver CO US Jul 17, 2020 Aug 1, 2020 The Stapleton Master Community Association voted to rename the Denver neighborhood[ac] named after former mayor and KKK member Benjamin F. Stapleton, for whom Denver's former airport, Stapleton International Airport, was also named. By Jul 20, 2020, the community had narrowed down the new name to four options: Central Park, Concourse, Mosley, and Skyview. On Aug 1, 2020, it was announced that the community had selected the name "Central Park". [193]
[192]
[194]
[195]
[196]
Broad Street Black Lives Matter Boulevard Salisbury MD US Jun 19, 2020 Jun 19, 2020 City Administrator and Acting Mayor Julia Glanz stated that the inspiration came from the renaming of Black Lives Matter Plaza in Washington, D.C., and executing the idea was inexpensive and took about two weeks. [197]
[198]
[199]
Mallards (8207464216).jpg Lake Maury The Mariners' Lake Newport News VA US Jun 19, 2020 Jun 19, 2020 The Mariners' Museum Board of Trustees voted to rename the lake. Matthew Fontaine Maury was an oceanographer and Confederate officer. [200]
[201]
Main Street Black Lives Matter Way Hempstead NY US Jun 25, 2020 Jun 25, 2020 During the renaming ceremony, Mayor Don Ryan stated that "until Black Lives Matter, the dream of the United States constitution falls short of its mark". [202]
[203]
[204]
Place de l'Europe Place de la liberté et de la dignité humaine[ad] Dakar Dk Sn Jun 28, 2020 On Jun 27, 2020, the municipal council of Gorée Island unanimously voted to rename the square. The island itself is a symbol of the slave trade, and associations had demanded that the square be renamed as early as 2018. [206]
[207]
[205]
[208]
Statue of Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson in the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia LCCN2011633295.tif Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery Oak Grove Cemetery Lexington VA US Jul 3, 2020 Lexington City Council voted unanimously to change the name and requested suggestions from residents. Stonewall Jackson was buried there in 1863, and the cemetery named after him in 1949. On Aug 20, 2020, the council unanimously voted to change the name to "Oak Grove Cemetery", subject to a public hearing on September 3, 2020. [209]
[210]
[211]
[212]
[213]
Columbus Park TBD Trenton NJ US Jul 7, 2020 Mayor stated that the park would be renamed, stating that "what we know about Christopher Columbus simply makes his image a poor fit for a city that is diverse as Trenton". A statue of Christopher Columbus was also removed from the park. [214]
[215]
Chapman Pond Evans Pond Tallahassee FL US Jul 8, 2020 City Commission unanimously voted to change the name. Florida Chief Justice Roy H. Chapman "upheld segregationist policies". Dr. Charles Evans was president of the Tallahassee NAACP. [216]
[217]
[218]
[219]
Jeff Davis Peak Da-ek Dow Go-et Mountain Humboldt–Toiyabe National Forest CA US Jul 9, 2020 Jul 9, 2020 The mountain was previously named after Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who had no known connections with the state of California. The new name is derived from the Washoe language and roughly translates to “saddle between points." [220]
Columbus @ Prospect Park - 20200326.jpg Columbus Park TBD Buffalo NY US Jul 10, 2020 Mayor and other city officials stated that the park would be renamed "with a name that better honors the contributions and sacrifices of Italian Americans". A statue of Christopher Columbus was also removed from the park. [221]
[222]
Confederate Monument, Lee Square, Pensacola, Florida.jpg Lee Square Florida Square Pensacola FL US Jul 14, 2020 Jul 14, 2020 Pensacola City Council voted 7–0 to revert the square's name back to Florida Square. The council also voted to remove a Confederate monument in the square. [223]
[224]
[225]
Robert E. Lee Road Unison Road Houston TX US Jul 14, 2020 Jul 14, 2020 Harris County Commissioners unanimously voted to rename the road. [226]
[227]
Jackson Park Chochenyo Park Alameda CA US Jul 21, 2020 Jan 21, 2021 Alameda's first park has been renamed after being named after former U.S. President Andrew Jackson. The City Council directed the Parks and Recreation Commission to propose new names by the end of December 2020. Change to Chochenyo Park was made official on January 21, 2021. [228]
[229]
Douglas Park Athletics.jpg Douglas Park (Anna and Frederick) Douglass Park Chicago IL US Jul 22, 2020 Nov 18, 2020 Chicago Park District Board of Commissioners voted unanimously in an emergency meeting to rename the park, located in a 90% Black neighborhood.[ae] A 45-day public comment was required before the name change could be finalized. Stephen A. Douglas was "one of the country's most notorious slavery advocates".[af] Frederick Douglass was an abolitionist born into slavery who ran a station on the Underground Railroad with his wife Anna Murray Douglass. [231]
[232]
[230]
[233]
[234]
Cassland Crescent, London Borough of Hackney, E9 (2611258960).jpg Cassland Road Gardens TBD Hackney, London Eng UK Jul 23, 2020 Local residents will decide on a new name for the park, which is named after the slave trader John Cass. [235]
Roy G. Williams Park Elliott Avenue Park Sanford FL US Aug 11, 2020 Aug 10, 2020 The City Commission of Sanford restored the name to the park.[ag] Roy G. Williams was a former police chief who once removed Jackie Robinson from a baseball game to enforce segregation laws and was also once jailed for forcing city prisoners to work on his farm in Georgia. Elliott Avenue is a street on which the park is located. [237]
[238]
[236]
People have taken to adding an umlaut to the street name signs to change the offending term, as "Möhren" means "carrots". Mohrenstraße Anton-Wilhelm-Amo-Straße Berlin Be De Aug 20, 2020 The District Assembly [de] of Berlin's Mitte district decided to rename the street, which uses a term considered to be a racial slur.[ah] Anton Wilhelm Amo is considered to be "Germany's first well-known philosopher and legal scholar of African origin". (See also Mohrenstraße U-Bahn station, below). [239]
[240]
[241]
[242]
Leopold2tunnelIngang.jpg Leopold II Tunnel Annie Cordy Tunnel Brussels Bru Be Sep 8, 2020 Belgium's longest tunnel will be renamed after a woman following its renovations in 2021. Residents of Brussels can submit suggestions until the end of September 2020. A group of experts will put together a shortlist of names for the tunnel, from which residents will vote in November. [243]
[244][245]
South Tottenham - road sign, Black Boy Lane (geograph 6510053).jpg Black Boy Lane TBD West Green, London Eng UK Oct 1, 2020 Residents and businesses on the street have been asked to choose a new name from a shortlist of two: Jocelyn Barrow Lane and La Rose Lane, after John La Rose. [246]
Gurdwara.Sri.Guru.Singh.Sabha.Southall.jpg (Part of) Havelock Road Guru Nanak Road Southall, London Eng UK Nov 25, 2020 The largest Sikh temple in Europe, the Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha Southall, is on this stretch of road. Virendra Sharma, the MP for Ealing Southall, had been campaigning to rename it since 1992. [247]
[248]
Jeb Stuart Trail Northern Edge Trail Montgomery County AL US Dec 7, 2020 Dec 7, 2020 A signpost on the trail containing the old name was removed while new maps were printed with the new trail name. A new signpost was installed within a week. [249]

Government[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
George Floyd memorial at the intersection of Chicago Ave and E 38th St in Minneapolis, Minnesota (50022892592).jpg 38th Street and Chicago Avenue George Perry Floyd Jr. Place Minneapolis MN US Sep 18, 2020 Sep 18, 2020 Two block section of Chicago Avenue renamed in honor of George Floyd. [250]
NASA HQ Building.jpg Two Independence Square Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters Washington DC US Jun 24, 2020 NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine announced that its headquarters building will be renamed after Mary W. Jackson, the agency's first female African American engineer. [251]
[252]
2002 Michigan Lansing Lewis Cass Building.jpg Lewis Cass Building Elliott-Larsen Building Lansing MI US Jun 30, 2020 Jun 30, 2020 Renamed by Governor Gretchen Whitmer via executive order. Lewis Cass was a Michigan territorial governor who "owned a slave; defended a system to permit the expansion of slavery; and implemented a policy that forcibly removed Native Americans from their tribal lands". State Representatives Daisy Elliott and Melvin L. Larsen were primary sponsors of the bipartisan Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act. [253]
[254]
[255]
U2 Mohrenstraße entrance.jpg Mohrenstraße
(U-Bahn station)
TBD Berlin Be De Jul 3, 2020 The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG)[ai] initially announced that the station would be renamed "Glinkastraße" after a street nearby, as "Mohr" is considered a racial slur (see Mohrenstraße, above).[ah] The proposed name was criticized as its namesake, the composer Mikhail Glinka, was anti-Semitic.[aj] A final decision on the name has yet to be made. [258]
[257]

Industry[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Buchanan Wharf Buchanan Wharf Barclays Glasgow Campus Glasgow Sct UK Jun 9, 2020 Jun 9, 2020 Barclays Bank removed the name of the slave-owning Tobacco Lord Andrew Buchanan from its new property development after receiving a petition. [259]
Colston Tower Colston Tower Beacon Tower Bristol Eng UK Jun 11, 2020 Nov 26, 2020 The former name was removed from the building's exterior four days after the statue of Edward Colston nearby was pulled down. The new name was voted for by the 20 businesses based in the tower; it mirrors the renaming of the nearby concert hall, Colston Hall, as the Bristol Beacon. [260]
[261]
Apple Store, Glasgow, Scotland, UK 12281881636 o.jpg Apple Buchanan Street Apple Glasgow Glasgow Sct UK Jun 12, 2020 Jun 12, 2020 Apple renamed its Glaswegian store because of Andrew Buchanan's connection to the slave trade as a tobacco plantation owner. [262]
[263]
Jefferson Area Builders Charlottesville Area Builders Albemarle County VA US Jun 12, 2020 Jun 12, 2020 The company stated that Jefferson's history of slavery and the changed political climate led to the name change. [264]
[265]
Charlestonteasign.jpg Charleston Tea Plantation Charleston Tea Garden Wadmalaw Island SC US June 2020 June 2020 While there had never been any major outcries or backlash regarding the garden's original name, the Bigelows said they have always been sensitive to the fact that the word "plantation" carries significant pain for many in the country and throughout the world.[266] [266]

[267]

Darlie
(toothpaste)
TBD n/a n/a Cn Jun 19, 2020 Colgate-Palmolive stated, "We are currently working ... to review and further evolve all aspects of the brand, including the brand name." Darlie's marketing and packaging features the phrase, 黑人牙膏, which translates into "Black people toothpaste." [268]
Calhoun Shopping Center Calhoun Square
(shopping mall)
Seven Points Minneapolis MN US Jun 19, 2020 Oct 21, 2020 Took its name from the former name of the nearby lake Bde Maka Ska, which was renamed in 2018 because of John C. Calhoun's support for slavery and Indian removal. [269]
[270]
Fair & Lovely
(cosmetics)
Glow & Lovely
Glow & Handsome
n/a n/a In Jun 25, 2020 Unilever announced that it would rename its skin-lightening cream and remove references to lightening and whitening. The new names "Glow & Lovely" and "Glow & Handsome" were announced, with the latter for the men's version of the brand. Emami threatened legal action, as it had renamed its own brand "Fair and Handsome" to "Glow and Handsome" the previous week. [271]
[272]
[273]
[274]
[275]
Splash Mountain at Disneyland.JPG Splash Mountain
(log flume ride)
New Adventures with Princess Tiana[ak] Bay Lake
Anaheim
FL
CA
US Jun 25, 2020 The Walt Disney Company announced that the Splash Mountain rides at Disneyland in California and Magic Kingdom in Florida will be renamed, with depictions from the controversial 1946 film Song of the South replaced with those from 2009's The Princess and the Frog, which introduced the first black Disney Princess. While the rebranding was planned for at least over a year, the public unveiling of the project was moved up earlier than when it was originally going to be announced. [276]
Whites Ferry loading on VA side.jpg Gen. Jubal A. Early
(ferry)
Historic White's Ferry[al] Dickerson MD US Jul 4, 2020[am] Jul 4, 2020[am] The owner also removed a Confederate monument on the ferry grounds. Jubal Early was "a Confederate general and white supremacist who spent his life promoting the 'Lost Cause' mythology". Elijah V. White, a Confederate colonel, had purchased the ferry after the Civil War. He named the ferry service "White's Ferry" after his family, and named the ferry itself after General Early. [277]
[278]

Food and drink[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Arabian Joe's
Baker Josef's
Josephsbrau
Pilgrim Joe's
Thai Joe's
Trader Giotto's
Trader Jacques'
Trader Joe San
Trader José's
Trader Ming's

various others
Trader Joe's n/a n/a US Jul 8, 2019[an] In 2019, Trader Joe's stated that labels which were using such variations of the "Trader Joe's" name were being eliminated, and "these designations do not appear on any new products we have introduced in the past two years". Many of the labels remained during the George Floyd protests, prompting a petition to rename the items, and another statement from Trader Joe's mentioning again that they were being eliminated, and being noncommittal about when the change would be completed.
On Jul 24, 2020, Trader Joe's reversed its stance, stating that they "disagree that any of these labels are racist", and that they would only decide on renaming a product "based on what customers purchase [and] the feedback we receive from our customers and [employees]", and not based on a petition.[ao]
[281]
[280]
[279]
[282]
[283]
[284]
[285]
Sambos.jpg Sambo's
(restaurant)
Chad's Santa Barbara CA US Jun 5, 2020 Jul 14, 2020 Named for its founders Sam Battistone and Newell Bohnett in 1957. Formerly marketed using imagery from The Story of Little Black Sambo, which has negative connotations. Chad Stevens was the owner when the restaurant was renamed. [286]
[287]
[288]
[289]
Bully Hayes Restaurant TBD Akaroa CAN NZ Jun 9, 2020 The restaurant's owners announced that they would be renaming it because of William "Bully" Hayes's involvement in blackbirding in the Pacific during the late 19th century. [290]
[291]
Aunt Jemima flour Aunt Jemima
(breakfast food)
Pearl Milling Company n/a n/a US Jun 17, 2020 The breakfast foods company announced it was changing its name and imaging, noting that it is "based on a racial stereotype." [292][293]
Eskimo Pie Eskimo Pie
(ice cream bar)
Edy's Pie n/a n/a US Jun 19, 2020 Eskimo Pies were the brand name of a vanilla ice cream product dipped in chocolate. "Eskimo" has been criticized as a racist name for Arctic indigenous peoples such as the Inuit and Yupik. [294]
[295]
Choco kiss.png Beso de Negra
(confectionery)
TBD n/a n/a Co Jun 19, 2020 Nestlé announced that it would rename the chocolate-coated marshmallow treat and remove the image used on its packaging. Beso de negra means "kiss from a black woman". The packaging used an image of a black woman with bare shoulders and a colorful dress. [296]
[297]
[298]
Redskins
Chicos
(confectionery)
Red Ripper
Cheekies
n/a n/a Au, NZ & SA Jun 23, 2020 Being renamed by Nestlé. "Redskins" and "Chicos" have been interpreted as derogatory terms for Native Americans and Latin Americans, respectively. Just over 1% of Australia's population is Latin American Australians or Mexican Australians. [299]
[300]
Dixie Beer Dixie Brewery.jpg Dixie Brewing Company[ap] Faubourg Brewing Company New Orleans LA US Jun 26, 2020 Owner Gayle Benson announced the plan to change the name and requested community input. Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States, especially the states that formed the Confederacy. [301]
[302]
Colston Arms
(pub)
Ye olde Pubby Mcdrunkface
(temporarily)
Bristol Eng UK Jun 30, 2020 Jun 30, 2020 The pub was named after the coat of arms of slave trader Edward Colston. A new name will be agreed on with the pub's tenants. The name was deliberately chosen to start a discussion. [303]
[304]
Eskimo
(ice lolly)
O'Payo n/a n/a Dk Jul 14, 2020 Hansens Flødeis [dk] announced the name change, made "in case it offended Inuit and other Arctic people". The term "Eskimo" has "a pejorative meaning for many Greenlanders". O'Payo is the name of the Nicaraguan cocoa beans from which the chocolate covering the ice cream is made. [305]
[306]
[307]
Crazy Horse Beer and Burgers Lucky Horse Beer and Burgers Des Moines IA US Jul 15, 2020 Jul 16, 2020 Music-themed restaurant was named after Crazyhorse Guitars, formerly operating from that location, and Neil Young's backing band Crazy Horse, but was renamed to avoid comparison to Lakota leader Crazy Horse and any appearance of disrespect. [308]
[309]
Coon
(cheese)
Cheer n/a n/a Au Jul 24, 2020 While its owners have said in the past that Coon cheese was named after US cheese maker Edward William Coon, this assertion has been challenged, with no link found between the two. "Coon" is a derogatory term for black people, in Australia mainly referring to Indigenous Australians and African Australians. [310][311]
Knorr - Zigeunersauce.jpg Zigeunersauce
(condiment)
Paprikasauce Ungarische Art n/a n/a De Aug 16, 2020 Knorr, a Unilever brand, announced it would rename Zigeunersauce to Paprikasauce Ungarische Art. The term Zigeuner translates to "gypsy" and is generally considered offensive. The replacement name translates to "Hungarian-style paprika sauce". [312]
[313]
Box of Uncle Ben's basmati rice Uncle Ben's
(parboiled rice)
Ben's Original n/a n/a US Sep 22, 2020 Parent company Mars Inc stated that "now is the right time to evolve the Uncle Ben's brand, including its visual brand identity." Effective September 22, Uncle Ben's has been renamed to Ben's Original. [314]
[315] [316]
Geechie Boy Mill Marsh Hen Mill SC US [317]
Conguitos [es] TBA Es [318]

Healthcare[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Dixie Regional Medical Center Intermountain St. George Regional Hospital St. George UT US Jul 16, 2020 Jan 1, 2021 Dixie Regional Medical Center Governing Board announced the name change, effective January 1, 2021. [319]
[320]
[321]
Margaret Sanger Square Planned Parenthood.jpg Margaret Sanger Health Center Manhattan Health Center New York City NY US Jul 21, 2020 Jul 21, 2020 Planned Parenthood of Greater New York (PPGNY) announced it was removing the name of Margaret Sanger from its Manhattan clinic because of her support for eugenics. Karen Seltzer, PPGNY board chair, cited Sanger's "racist legacy" as a reason for the removal. Defenders, including historian Linda Gordon, claimed that Sanger was "no more racist than many progressives of her time". [322]
[323]
[324]
[325]
Carilion Stonewall Jackson Hospital Carilion Rockbridge Community Hospital Lexington VA US Jul 23, 2020 Carilion Clinic announced it had obtained full ownership of the hospital, and would rename the hospital "follow[ing] the naming convention it uses for all other facilities ... to reflect the region it serves" once the "necessary regulations are met". [326]
[327]

Lodging[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Captain Cook Hotel Dive Dunedin Ota NZ Jun 15, 2020 Jun 18, 2020 The owners announced that they would be changing the name in response both to Captain James Cook's controversial legacy among Māori and to the Black Lives Matter protests sparked by George Floyd's killing. [328]
[329]
[330]
Stonewall Jackson Hotel sign.jpg Stonewall Jackson Hotel Hotel 24 South Staunton VA US Jun 16, 2020 Sep 1, 2020 Hotel owner renamed the hotel (named after Confederate general Stonewall Jackson). [331]
[332]
Stonewall Jackson Inn TBD Harrisonburg VA US Jun 26, 2020 Owners had purchased the bed and breakfast in 2019 intending to change the name and are seeking donations to fund the name change. [333]
Building where the Sheridan Livery Inn is currently located, taken sometime between 1919 and 1970, when it was the location of the Rockbridge Laundry and Cleaners Robert E. Lee Hotel
Sheridan Livery Inn
The Gin
Tonic
Lexington VA US Jul 29, 2020[aq] Both buildings are owned by the same family, who chose the names so that they could be referred to as "The Gin and Tonic". [334]
[335]
[336]

Music[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Colston Hall, Bristol (geograph 3972690).jpg Colston Hall Bristol Beacon Bristol Eng UK Jun 9, 2020 Sep 23, 2020 Bristol Music Trust announced that the venue, located near the statue that was famously toppled on June 8, would be renamed; it described this as "a fresh start for the organisation and its place in the city". There had been plans to rename the venue since 2017. [337]
[338]
[339]
LadyAntebellumApr10.jpg Lady Antebellum
(band)
Lady A Nashville TN US Jun 11, 2020 Jun 11, 2020 US country music band changed its name because of its association with slavery.[ar] African American singer Anita White, who had been using the name professionally for over 20 years, was unhappy with the change, stating, "It's an opportunity for them to pretend they're not racist or pretend this means something to them. If it did, they would've done some research." On Jul 8, 2020, the band filed a lawsuit against the singer. [340]
[341]
[342]
One Little Indian Records
One Little Independent Records London Eng UK Jun 11, 2020 Jun 11, 2020 With the name change that the company announced they would donate money towards organisations which promote and assist Native American communities in North America. In a written statement, founder David Birkett explained. "The last few weeks have been a monumental learning curve ... Following the receipt of an eye-opening letter from a Crass fan that detailed precisely why the logo and label name are offensive, as well as the violent history of the terminology, I felt equally appalled and grateful to them for making me understand what must be changed." [343]
[344]
DixieChicksMSG062003.jpg Dixie Chicks
(band)
The Chicks Dallas TX US Jun 25, 2020 Jun 25, 2020 US country music band changed their name to "The Chicks". The word "Dixie" is a nickname for the Southern United States, especially those states that seceded to form the Confederate States of America; it is part of the culture of the American South. The name change followed criticism that the word had negative connotations of American slavery. [345]
[346]
[347]
Slaves American band.jpg Slaves
(band)
TBD Sacramento CA US Jun 25, 2020 Bandmembers announced that their upcoming album To Better Days would be the last they would release under their current name. In a statement, they said "As obstinate supporters of the BLM Movement, we cannot continue to tie our music and our positive message to a word associated with such negative weight and hurt." [348]
The Black Madonna at All Points East Festival 2018 (cropped).jpg The Black Madonna
(disc jockey)
The Blessed Madonna Louisville KY US Jul 20, 2020 Jul 20, 2020 The American DJ announced the change to her stage name after a petition that said "a white woman calling herself 'black' is highly problematic". The original name was chosen as "a reflection of [her] family’s lifelong and profound Catholic devotion to a specific kind of European icon of the Virgin Mary which is dark in hue". [349]
Joey Negro
(disc jockey)
Dave Lee Isle of Wight Eng UK Jul 21, 2020 Jul 21, 2020 The English DJ announced the change a day after fellow Disc Jockey 'The Black Madonna', Lee admitted he had "not felt comfortable with the name Joey Negro for a while, especially as I've got older" [350]
[351]

Sports[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
Washington Redskins Washington Redskins Washington Football Team
(temporarily)
Landover MD US Jul 13, 2020 Jul 23, 2020 On July 1, 2020, a group of investors worth $620 billion had written letters to Nike, FedEx and PepsiCo asking them to stop their support of the NFL until the Washington Redskins changed their name. On July 23, Washington Football Team was adopted as the club's temporary name, with an official replacement to be chosen later.

The team also renamed the lower level of FedExField to honor Bobby Mitchell, one of three African Americans who joined the team in 1962 when the team first integrated and was later inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Founding owner George Preston Marshall was against integration, and his team was the last NFL team to integrate.

[352]
[353]
[354]
[355]
[356]
[357]
[358]
Edmonton eskimos wordmark.png Edmonton Eskimos Edmonton Football Team
(temporarily)
Edmonton Elks
Edmonton AB CA Jul 16, 2020 Jul 21, 2020
Jun 1, 2021
On Jul 21, 2020, the Edmonton Football Team announced that their Board of Directors decided to discontinue the use of the old name, as Eskimo is considered a derogatory name for indigenous Alaskans and Canadians.[as] Belairdirect, a longtime sponsor, announced earlier that month that it would cut ties with the team if the name was not changed.

On June 1, 2021, it was formally announced that the new team name would be the Edmonton Elks.

[360]
[361]
[362]
[359]
[363]
Kenesaw Mountain Landis Award TBD Oct 2, 2020 Oct 2, 2020 The Baseball Writers' Association of America announced that the most valuable player awards presented annually in Major League Baseball would no longer carry the name of the first commissioner of MLB. Landis, who served from 1920 to 1944, resisted efforts to integrate both Major League and Minor League Baseball. A number of past MVPs, including Barry Larkin, Mike Schmidt, and Terry Pendleton, objected to continued use of Landis' name. The BBWAA announced its decision after 89 percent of its members voted for the change. [364]
J. G. Taylor Spink Award BBWAA Career Excellence Award Feb 5, 2021 Feb 5, 2021 For the second time since Floyd's death, the BBWAA changed the name of an award due to revelations of racist conduct involving an honoree. This time, it affected the award presented for lifetime achievement in writing about baseball. Spink, who published the Sporting News from 1914 to 1962, used "racist language, ugly stereotypes, and derogatory portrayals" of Negro League players and other African-Americans. The name change received 97 percent support among the association's members. [365]

Terminology[edit]

Image Old New Group Reported Executed Details Ref.
slaves
(script)
dm-deps OpenZFS
(storage platform)
Jun 11, 2020 Jun 11, 2020 Developer Matt Ahrens, co-creator of ZFS, updated the code to "[r]emove unnecessary references to slavery". The abbreviation "dm" stands for "device-mapper" and "deps" for "dependents". [366]
[367]
[368]
[369]
master
(code branch)
main GitHub Jun 11, 2020 GitHub CEO Nat Friedman announced they were working on the change. Developer Petr Baudiš, self-described "clueless Central European youngster [in 2005] whose command of English was mostly illusory", stated that he chose the term to "express 'this is where you cloned this repo[sitory] from'", as in "master recording". [370]
[371]
[372]
[373]
master master sommelier Court of Master Sommeliers, Americas Jun 22, 2020 Jun 22, 2020 Court of Master Sommeliers, Americas (CMS-A) issued a statement "in solidarity with the Black community" that implied collaboration with Hue Society, without the knowledge of Hue Society Founder Tahiirah Habibi. Habibi then posted a video denying any collaboration and explaining her experiences with CMS-A, including seeing her dream to become "the first black woman to attain [Master Sommelier] status" be shattered after her CMS-A testing experience, which included the requirement that master sommeliers be addressed as "master".[at] [375]
[374]
[376]
[377]
master bedroom
master bathroom
primary bedroom
primary bathroom
Houston Association of Realtors Jun 25, 2020 Jun 25, 2020 Change was made on its property listing database, but "did not constitute a ban on the use of the word 'master'", which can still be used on marketing materials. [378]
master bedroom
master bathroom
main bedroom
main bathroom
GetBurbed Jun 30, 2020 Jun 30, 2020 GetBurbed is a real estate brokerage firm in Chicago. [379]
master
slave
blacklist
whitelist
source
replica
blocklist
allowlist
MySQL
(RDBMS)
Jul 1, 2020 Jul 1, 2020 Product manager Kenny Gryp announced that the change was being implemented and would be reflected in future releases. [380]
[381]
[382]
master
slave
blacklist
whitelist
various[au] Linux
(operating system)
Jul 10, 2020 Jul 10, 2020 Principal engineer Linus Torvalds added to the coding style documentation a recommendation to "avoid introducing new usage" of such terminology.[av] [383]
[384]
[385]
A Beautiful End to a Star's Life (9933955245).jpg
NGC 4567 & 4568.png
Eskimo Nebula
Siamese Twins Galaxy
NGC 2392
NGC 4567 and NGC 4568
NASA Aug 5, 2020 Aug 5, 2020 NASA announced that it was reviewing the unofficial terminology it has used for celestial objects in order to determine if any are "not only insensitive, but can be actively harmful". For terminology it has deemed inappropriate, official designations determined by the International Astronomical Union would be used. Two nicknames had been determined as inappropriate at the time of NASA's announcement. [386]
[387]
Rhynchophanes mccownii southern Canada (cropped).jpg McCown's longspur thick-billed longspur American Ornithological Society Aug 7, 2020 Aug 7, 2020 The North American Classification Committee of the American Ornithological Society changed the name of the bird to "thick-billed longspur", which is a literal translation of its genus name, Rhynchophanes, following Black Birder's Week and the Bird Names for Birds campaign.[aw] John P. McCown was a general for the Confederate army, took part in the forced relocation of Native American tribes in the 1840s, and fought in the Seminole Wars.[ax] [391]
[388]
[392]
[389]
[393]
[390]
chosen freeholder county commissioner State of New Jersey
(US state)
Aug 21, 2020 Governor Phil Murphy signed legislation to change the name of the governing bodies at the county level in the state. Lt. Governor Sheila Oliver, an African-American woman who was once a freeholder herself, said that the term "refers to a time when only white male landowners could hold public office". [394]
[395]

Museums[edit]

Image Old New Location Reported Executed Details Ref.
     
USCGC Taney (WHEC-37) in Baltimore.jpg USCGC Taney
(museum ship)
WHEC-37
(hull number)
Baltimore MD US Jul 1, 2020 Jul 1, 2020 Living Classrooms Foundation, the ship's steward, has removed the previous name from the United States Coast Guard Cutter, and it is now referred to by its hull identification number, WHEC-37.[ay] Roger B. Taney was a Chief Justice of the United States who authored the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, declaring that all African Americans were not, and could not become, American citizens, regardless of whether they were enslaved or not. [398]
[397]
[396]
Plimoth Plantation Fence.JPG Plimoth Plantation TBD Plymouth MA US Jul 6, 2020 Plimoth Plantation announced a change of name for its 400th anniversary, and is using "Plimoth Patuxet" on its interim logo. [399]

[400] [401]

Ttwentworthmuseum.jpg T. T. Wentworth Jr. Florida State Museum TBD Pensacola FL US Jul 13, 2020 University of West Florida Historic Trust planned to change the name after learning that Wentworth was "the leader of the Ku Klux Klan in Escambia County". Wentworth had become an Exalted Cyclops in 1925, and the collection of memorabilia he donated to the state in 1983 eventually became the museum that was named after him in 1988. [402]
[403]
[404]
San Diego Museum of Man 01.jpg San Diego Museum of Man Museum of Us San Diego CA US Aug 2, 2020 Aug 2, 2020 On Jun 24, 2020, the Board of Trustees approved the name change. The new name was chosen to "better reflect [ the museum's] work towards equity, inclusion, and decolonization". [405]
[406]
[407]

Decision pending[edit]

Image Old New Location Details Ref.
     
various TBD Lagos La Ng The Lagos State House of Assembly unanimously passed a motion to call on Lagos State Governor Babajide Sanwo-Olu "to direct the Commissioner for Tourism, Arts and Culture to liaise with the Attorney-General and Commissioner for Justice to look at the Listed Sites (Prevention) Law, 2015" with the intention of removing references of colonialism and the slave trade. Floyd's murder and the removal of the statue of Edward Colston in Bristol were explicitly referenced. [408]
[409]
[410]
Luton Christian Fellowship. Hibbert Street is on the left Hibbert Street TBD Luton Eng UK Luton Borough Council decided to change the name of a street named after Robert Hibbert, a wealthy slave owner who "set up 12 cottages in Castle Street as a charity for poor widows" that were later replaced by almshouses on the street that bears his name. Consultation with the street's residents, required by local law, has been planned to start in the coming weeks. [411]
Tillman Hall Tillman Hall Old Main Clemson SC US Clemson University Board of Trustees decided to rename one of their buildings. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman was a "governor and white supremacist" who "used virulent racism to dominate South Carolina politics". The Heritage Act requires two-thirds approval from South Carolina General Assembly to rename the building. [412]
[413]
J. Marion Sims
(residence hall)
TBD Columbia SC US President of University of South Carolina endorsed a resolution to rename J. Marion Sims residence hall. Sims "performed hundreds of medical experimentations on enslaved African American women". Board of Trustees approved unanimously. The Heritage Act requires two-thirds approval from South Carolina General Assembly to rename the building. [414]
[415]
Robert E. Lee Road Buffalo Soldier Road El Paso TX US City Council voted unanimously for the change. Must be reviewed by Development Coordinating Committee and approved by City Plan Commission before returning to City Council for another approval. Buffalo Soldiers were "the first Black professional soldiers to serve during peacetime". [416]
John C. Calhoun Drive TBD Orangeburg SC US Orangeburg City Council voted unanimously to rename the road. The Heritage Act requires two-thirds approval from South Carolina General Assembly to rename the road. [417]
Cleveland Indians logo Cleveland Indians TBD Cleveland OH US The team announced that they would be reviewing their name to "embrace [their] responsibility to advance social justice and equality."

On December 14, they announced they would be changing the name in 2022 at the earliest.

[418]
[419]
Jordan Hall
Jordan River
Jordan Avenue
Jordan Parking Garage
David Starr Jordan Prize

possibly others
TBD Bloomington IN US The president of Indiana University formed a committee to review sites and awards named for David Starr Jordan, a former university president and prominent supporter of eugenics. The committee was also tasked with reviewing "all buildings on the nine [Indiana University] campuses and remov[ing] names of anyone whose statements and writings are judged unworthy of the recognition". [420]
[421]
Clarence Cook Little Hall TBD Orono ME US The president of the University of Maine announced on June 29 that he would request that the University of Maine System Board of Trustees remove the name of C. C. Little, the founder of the American Eugenics Society, from a lecture hall. [101]
[422]
[423]
[424]
Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA - historical marker.jpg Washington and Lee University TBD Lexington VA US Rector of the Board of Trustees reported that "a committee of the board would embark on a review of the symbols and name of the university". Faculty had formally requested the trustees to remove Lee's name the previous day, and student government had requested the change the previous week. [425]
Aycock Residence Hall at UNC.jpg
Carr Building UNC 1.JPG
Daniels Student Store UNC CH 20140822.jpg
Ruffin Residence Hall at UNC.jpg
Aycock Residence Hall
Carr Building
Josephus Daniels Building
Ruffin Residence Hall
TBD Chapel Hill NC US Influenced by the George Floyd protests, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Board of Trustees lifted a ban on renaming buildings on June 17. On Jul 10, 2020, the university's Commission on History, Race and A Way Forward recommended the renaming of four buildings named for white supremacists to the Chancellor. The five[az] men the buildings were named after had "used their positions to impose and maintain violent systems of racial subjugation". On Jul 16, 2020, the Board of Trustees approved a policy regarding the removal of names from buildings. [427]
[428]
[426]
[429]
[430]
Confederate names on property under US Department of Defense[ba] TBD n/a n/a US US Senate and House have both passed, with veto-proof majorities, amendments to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 that would require the removal of Confederate names from military bases.[bb] Negotiations between the two houses to reach a final version of the bill is expected to take months. There are at least twelve US Army bases named after Confederate soldiers.[bc] The guided-missile cruiser USS Chancellorsville is named after a Confederate victory. President Donald Trump had threatened to veto the bill. [431]
[435]
[436]
[433]
[434]
Columbus Park Piazza Italia Park San Antonio TX US San Antonio's City Council was scheduled to vote on the renaming on August 13, 2020. A statue of Columbus was removed from the park on July 1, 2020 after it was vandalized. [437]
Margaret-Sanger-Square NYC.jpg Margaret Sanger Square TBD New York City NY US Planned Parenthood of Greater New York (PPGNY) announced it was "working with the Community Board, City Council and community" to rename the intersection of Bleecker and Mott Streets outside its Manhattan Health Clinic. Margaret Sanger was a supporter of eugenics. The City Council had voted to name the intersection after Sanger in 1993, as PPGNY had moved a clinic to that location and advocated for the honorary naming. [323]
[324]
[325]

Proposals with official backing[edit]

Image Old New Location Details Ref.
     
DundasStreetSign.png Dundas Street TBD Toronto ON Ca On Jun 10, 2020, Mayor John Tory stated that a working group would be formed "to examine the issue of renaming streets" in response to a petition about the street named after Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville. The proposal also received support from Ontario NDP leader Andrea Horwath. Dundas allegedly prolonged Britain's involvement in slavery by 15 years as he had "made himself the champion of 'gradual' abolition of the slave trade".[438] [439]
[440]
[441]
[442]
various TBD London Eng UK London mayor Sadiq Khan announced that street names in London with links to slavery are being reviewed. [443]
Victoria lake landsat 7.png Colville Street TBD n/a n/a Ug A petition calling on the government to remove the names of several British colonial figures was presented to parliament by lawyer Apollo Makubuya, former Principal Judge James Ogoola, and Member of Parliament Medard Segona. Makubuya explained "our petition has been given a new momentum" because of the George Floyd protests. Speaker Rebecca Kadaga announced plans to convene a task force for the renaming and Kampala lord mayor Erias Lukwago described the motivation as "removing the names of dictators and people who committed crimes against humanity from our streets". [444]
[445]
[446]
[447]
King's African Rifles Drive
Speke Road
Andrew Jackson Station.jpg
Andrew Jackson Post Office TBD Rolando, San Diego CA US Having received a petition, city councillor Georgette Gomez wrote a letter to Congress to support legislation changing the building's name. Rep. Sara Jacobs has called for "genuine community involvement in the naming process." [448]
[449][450]
Squaw Valley Ski Resort TBD Lake Tahoe CA US Management of the resort announced that removing the slur in its name would be a "lengthy and expensive process" but that it is actively taking an inventory to find out how much it would cost pending a final decision in the future. [451]
Jefferson Davis Parkway Norman C. Francis Parkway New Orleans LA US Both petitions were created by the Vice Chairman of New Orleans' Regional Transit Authority. [452]
Robert E. Lee Boulevard Leah Chase Boulevard
Agassiz Building Fargo ND.jpg Woodrow Wilson HS TBD Fargo ND US Fargo Human Relations Commission unanimously voted to recommend the Fargo School Board rename the school. [453]
[454]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This committee was the executive committee of the USC Board of Trustees.[14]
  2. ^ Durham's name was also removed from the building and SVU's web site, and would no longer be used in SVU's publications.[16] SVU administrators had become aware of Durham's views about a week before the renaming, from a social media post in response to a statement condemning racism made by the university roughly a week after the George Floyd protests began.[16][17]
  3. ^ Durham was president from 1919 to 1942.[16]
  4. ^ Durham authored and published a novel with white supremacist themes, disenfranchised African American voters, and advocated for white supremacist views with US Congressmembers and other politicians.[16]
  5. ^ The resolution approved by the trustees stated, "The Trustees of Indiana University do hereby approve the naming of the Intramural Center on the IU Bloomington Campus as the William Leon Garrett Fieldhouse".[24] However, the sign in front of the facility itself reads "Bill Garrett Fieldhouse".[25]
  6. ^ The trustees had actually approved a recommendation to rename the facility to "William L. Garrett-Ora L. Wildermuth Intramural Center" on February 20, 2009.[26] However, the school announced four days later that it would not implement the change because it lacked support from Garrett's family.[26]
  7. ^ The committee was formed in order to "establish an official process to rename [Philip] J. Schuyler Achievement Academy, and to evaluate the history behind each district building's name in order to consider other changes as necessary".[54]
  8. ^ The superintendent was directed to change the name by Sep 8, 2020 and a news release stated that the change was "effective for the 2020–21 school year".[63][64] A letter to the community stated that items were being replaced immediately, and the school's web page had begun switching to the new name on the day of the renaming decision.[65][66]
  9. ^ The Marge Schott Seminar Room is located in Carl Blegen Library, which houses the university's Archive and Rare Books Library.[72][73][74]
  10. ^ The vote followed University of Oregon President Michael Schill's recommendation to the board to rename the hall because of Deady's racist views.[77]
  11. ^ One such attempt occurred in 2016, when the university's Black Student Task Force demanded that the building be renamed. On January 25, 2017, President Schill refused the demand.[78]
  12. ^ a b The announcement stated, "For now, the School will be referred to as City's Business School while consultations about a new name are set in motion".[100]
  13. ^ Society members also pointed out that Linnaeus was not an entomologist, and using his name for the games implied that the games were centered around the taxonomy of insects, even though the games actually covered a wide range of entomology.[103]
  14. ^ Date of denaming. The new name was chosen on July 16.[104][105]
  15. ^ Over 6,500 suggestions were submitted, with the top five names being West Side Middle School, Katherine Johnson Middle School, Charleston Middle School, Jack Perry Middle School, and Booker T. Washington Middle School.[106]
  16. ^ At the time, the area was in the state of Virginia.[107]
  17. ^ The board had also considered the issue the previous year, but had elected to keep the name at the time.[109]
  18. ^ The letter was received by the board on July 6, 2020.[116] The school was previously called "William E. Fanning Elementary School", but the board had changed the name on Jan 28, 2019 to "Fanning Academy of Science and Technology" when it tried to "partially defuse the issue".[117][118]
  19. ^ His name is "included in list No. 2 of Orange County KKK members", but there was considerable debate over the validity of the list, as seen in the minutes of the board meetings of January 14, 2019 and January 28, 2019.[119][118][117]
  20. ^ Will be renamed in honor of Earl Campbell and Ricky Williams.[125]
  21. ^ Rice University Professor Raymond L. Johnson had "wr[itten] in [Moore's] teacher profile that Moore once told a black student 'he was welcome to take his course, but that he would start with a C and could only go down from there.'"[126]
  22. ^ The Spun notes that "[t]here's no apparent controversy surrounding Jamail or his family.[127]
  23. ^ The renamings of Davis and Lee passed 6–1 and the renaming of Lanier passed 5–2.[138]
  24. ^ The United Daughters of the Confederacy posthumously made him a symbol of the Lost Cause in the 1920s.[139]
  25. ^ A private group had already raised more than $42,000.[138]
  26. ^ "Organ Mountain High School" was overwhelmingly the most popular suggestion, with other suggestions including "Organ High School", "Bataan High School", and "East Mesa High School".[140]
  27. ^ Board hoped to obtain student input in autumn before renaming the school in spring of 2021.[142][143]
  28. ^ The mascot was first chosen in 1926, shortly after the college was founded as University Junior College during a time when there was "an education statute mandating racially segregated schools".[145]
  29. ^ Two blocks of the southeast area of the neighbourhood are actually located in Aurora.[192]
  30. ^ This can be translated as "Liberty and Human Dignity Square".[205]
  31. ^ Because the board called an emergency meeting, advocates working on the renaming for years were disappointed at being unable to attend, with one organizer stating that she felt snubbed, and a group of student advocates who wanted the park named for both Frederick Douglass and his wife Anna Murray Douglass were unable to present their request at the meeting.[230]
  32. ^ Douglas supported expanded slavery in a debate against Abraham Lincoln, and his wife owned at least 100 slaves.[231]
  33. ^ The commission found no record of the park being formally named by the city after Williams, but acknowledged that it was being referred to with his name, and adopted a resolution rejecting the usage of that name.[236]
  34. ^ a b Mohrenstraße is thought to derive its name from black or former slaves, who may have lived there in the early 18th century.[257]
  35. ^ The abbreviation is taken from its original name, "Berliner Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft".[256]
  36. ^ A spokesperson for BVG stated that they "[we]re not responsible for street names" and added that the Wikipedia article on him had not covered his anti-Semitism until recently.[257]
  37. ^ This is a working title, and may not be the name eventually used.
  38. ^ It is unclear if the ferry was actually renamed or simply denamed, since this phrase also appears to have been often used to refer to the ferry service even before the name change.
  39. ^ a b Changed technically executed on unknown date prior to date of first known report.
  40. ^ Trader Joe's statement issued during the George Floyd protests was first reported on July 17, 2020.[279]
  41. ^ In 2019, a spokesperson for Trader Joe's had stated, "[A]s we make our way through label updates on older products, we will change any preexisting variations to Trader Joe's", in response to an inquiry from a Nylon reporter.[280] In 2020, the same spokesperson had stated, "[W]e have been in the process of updating older labels and replacing any variations with the name Trader Joe's, and we will continue [to] do so until we complete this important work", in response to a petition.[279]
  42. ^ Change would also propagate to all Dixie-branded products.[301]
  43. ^ This is the first known report of how the two new names were chosen.[334] The Sheridan Livery Inn announced their name change on social media on Jun 7, 2020,[335] while the Robert E. Lee Hotel's name change was reported by The New York Times on Jul 26, 2020.[336]
  44. ^ "Antebellum" refers to culture in the South before the Civil War, including slavery.[340]
  45. ^ The team also announced that they would use the names "Edmonton Football Team" and "EE Football Team" until a more appropriate new name is found.[359]
  46. ^ Habibi still passed the test, but refrained from interacting with CMS-A since the experience.[374]
  47. ^ Suggestions included "primary", "main", "initiator", "requester", "controller", "host", "leader", "director", "secondary", "replica", "subordinate", "target", "responder", "device", "worker", "proxy", "follower", "performer", "denylist", "blocklist", "allowlist", and "passlist".[383]
  48. ^ Sources do not appear to state any policy change for existing usage.
  49. ^ The organization had previously refused to change the name, despite controversy.[388]
  50. ^ George Newbold Lawrence, the bird's descriptor, had named the species after his friend McCown before McCown fought for the Confederacy.[389] The species can be found in the US, Canada, and Mexico.[390]
  51. ^ The ship is "the last surviving warship which was present (and fought) at the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor".[396] It is a National Historic Landmark located in Baltimore's Inner Harbor.[397]
  52. ^ Ruffin Residence Hall was named for both Thomas Ruffin and Thomas Ruffin Jr., father and son.[426]
  53. ^ This included "bases, ships, aircraft, [and] streets".[431]
  54. ^ The issue was prominently raised in a New York Times editorial published two days before the killing of George Floyd.[432]
  55. ^ The bases Camp Maxey and Camp Pendleton are both active military bases named after Confederate generals that are often not included when a list of ten such bases are enumerated.[433][434]

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Further reading[edit]