List of national anthem performers at the Super Bowl
The U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", has been performed at all but one Super Bowl since its first year in 1967; Vikki Carr sang "America the Beautiful" in place of the anthem at Super Bowl XI in 1981. Since Super Bowl XVI in 1982, famous singers or music groups have performed the anthem at the vast majority of Super Bowls.
Beginning with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009, "America the Beautiful" has preceded the anthem every year. Some early Super Bowls featured marching bands performing the anthem, and the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance.
Multiple and hometown performances
Acts that have performed three times:
Acts that have performed two times:
- GSU Tiger Marching Band (II and IX)
- Billy Joel (XXIII and XLI)
- Aaron Neville (XXIV and XL)
- U.S. Air Force Academy Chorale (VI and XXXIX)
Singers that performed in or near their hometown metropolitan area:
- Beyoncé (XXXVIII, Houston)
- Aretha Franklin (XL, Detroit)
- Al Hirt (IV, New Orleans)
- Aaron Neville (XXIV & XL, New Orleans)
- Diana Ross (XVI, Detroit)
- Jordin Sparks (XLII, Phoenix)
The performance by Whitney Houston at Super Bowl XXV in 1991, during the Gulf War, has been regarded as one of the best renditions ever. It was released as a single a few weeks later, appeared on the album Whitney: The Greatest Hits, and was re-released as a single in 2001 shortly after the September 11 attacks.
Faith Hill performed the anthem at Super Bowl XXXIV in 2000. It became popular in country radio. Following the September 11 attacks, her version entered the country singles chart at number 35, despite not being released as an official single, and reentered the same chart at number 49 in July 2002.
Just days after Super Bowl XXV, a report surfaced that Whitney Houston lip synced her performance. It was confirmed that she was actually singing into a dead microphone, but the performance heard in the stadium and on television was prerecorded.
Since 1993, the NFL has required performers to supply a backup track. This came after Garth Brooks walked out of the stadium prior to his XXVII performance. Only 45 minutes before kickoff, he refused to take the stage, due to a dispute with NBC. Brooks requested that the network premiere his new music video "We Shall Be Free" during the pregame. The network chose not to air the video, due to content some felt was disturbing imagery. Brooks had also refused to pre-record the anthem, which meant the league had nothing to play if he left. Television producers spotted Jon Bon Jovi in the grandstands, and were prepared to use him as a replacement. After last-minute negotiations, NBC agreed to air a clip of the video during the broadcast of the game, and Brooks was coaxed back into the stadium and sang.
Following the "wardrobe malfunction" controversy during Super Bowl XXXVIII in 2004, all scheduled performers for Super Bowl XXXIX were chosen under heavy scrutiny. Game organizers decided not to use a popular music vocalist. The combined choirs of the U.S. Military Academy, the Naval Academy, Air Force Academy, Coast Guard Academy, and the U.S. Army Herald Trumpets were invited to perform. This was the first time since the second inauguration of President Richard Nixon in 1973 that all four service academies sang together.
At the beginning of Super Bowl XLV, Christina Aguilera sang the lyrics incorrectly. Instead of singing "O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming", the pop star sang "What so proudly we watched at the twilight's last gleaming". According to the New York Times, she also changed "gleaming" to "reaming".
Other patriotic performances
The following Super Bowls featured other patriotic performances besides the national anthem.
- 1977: Vikki Carr (in place of the national anthem)
- 2001: Ray Charles
- 2002: Mary J. Blige, Marc Anthony and the Boston Pops Orchestra
- 2005: Alicia Keys and a tribute video to the recently deceased Ray Charles
- 2009: Faith Hill
- 2010: Queen Latifah
- 2011: Lea Michele
- 2012: Blake Shelton and Miranda Lambert
- 2013: Jennifer Hudson with the Sandy Hook Elementary School Chorus
- 2014: Queen Latifah with the New Jersey Youth Chorus
- 2015: John Legend 
- 2016: U.S. Armed Forces Chorus 
- 2003: Céline Dion
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