List of national capitals
This is a list of national capitals, including capitals of territories and dependencies, non-sovereign states including associated states and entities whose sovereignty is disputed.
The capitals included on this list are those associated with states or territories listed by the international standard ISO 3166-1, or that are included in the list of states with limited recognition.
Sovereign states and observer states within the United Nations are shown in bold text.
|Abidjan (former capital; still has many government offices)||Ivory Coast|
|Abu Dhabi||United Arab Emirates|
|Abuja||Nigeria||Lagos was the capital from 1914 to 1991.|
|Adamstown||Pitcairn Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Aden (de facto, temporary)||Yemen||Sana'a has been occupied by Houthi rebels since February 2015. Aden, the former capital of South Yemen, is Yemen's acting capital. See also: Yemeni Civil War (2015–present).|
|Sana'a (de jure)|
|Alofi||Niue||Self-governing in free association with New Zealand.|
|Amsterdam (official)||Netherlands||The Dutch constitution refers to Amsterdam as the "capital". Also of the public bodies of: Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.|
|The Hague (de facto)||The Dutch government is located in The Hague, which also hosts the monarch, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions.|
|Andorra la Vella||Andorra|
|Ankara||Turkey||Ankara replaced Istanbul as the capital of the newly-formed Republic of Turkey in 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence. Istanbul was the capital of Turkey's predecessor, the Ottoman Empire.|
|Astana||Kazakhstan||Astana was named Nur-Sultan from 2019 to 2022. Almaty was the capital from 1929 to 1997.|
|Avarua||Cook Islands||Self-governing in free association with New Zealand. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as Rarotonga, the name of the island on which Avarua is located.|
|Bandar Seri Begawan||Brunei|
|Bangui||Central African Republic|
|Basseterre||Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|Beijing||China||See also: Historical capitals of China.|
Sub-divisions of Hong Kong and Macau.
|Belfast||Northern Ireland||Constituent country of the United Kingdom.|
|Berlin||Germany||Bonn was the capital of West Germany and remained the seat of government for reunified Germany until 1999.|
|Bern (de facto)||Switzerland||Switzerland has no official capital.|
|Bloemfontein (judicial)||South Africa|
|Cape Town (legislative)|
|Brades (de facto)||Montserrat||British Overseas Territory. Plymouth was abandoned after the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in 1997. Government offices since then have been moved to Brades, which is in the northwestern part of Montserrat.|
|Brasília||Brazil||Rio de Janeiro was the capital until 1960. See also: Capitals of Brazil|
|Brussels||Belgium||Also the de facto capital of the European Union.|
|Budapest||Hungary||See also: List of historical capitals of Hungary|
|Cairo||Egypt||A new capital is being built at the New Administrative Capital. It could be named Egypt. See also: List of historical capitals of Egypt|
|Camp Thunder Cove||British Indian Ocean Territory||British Overseas Territory.|
|Canberra||Australia||Planned city built to overcome the rivalry between Melbourne (de facto capital at the time) and Sydney (economic capital and largest population center), which were both put forward as potential capitals for the nation in the Australasia Federation Conventions of the 1890s. Section 125 of the Constitution gives basic details about the location of the capital, size of the encompassing territory and so forth, while the Seat of Government Act 1908 specified its precise location.|
|Cardiff||Wales||Constituent country of the United Kingdom.|
|Cetinje (Old Royal Capital, present seat of the President)||Montenegro|
|Charlotte Amalie||United States Virgin Islands||Territory of the United States.|
|Cockburn Town||Turks and Caicos Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Colombo (executive, judicial)||Sri Lanka||Until the 1980s, the capital was Colombo, where many important governmental institutions still remain and which is still designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.|
|Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (official)||Also known as Kotte.|
|Cotonou (de facto)||Benin|
|Dar es Salaam (de facto, judicial)||Tanzania||Dar es Salaam, the former capital and largest city, continues to serve as the de facto seat of government, hosting the presidency, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions.|
|Dodoma (official, legislative)|
|Douglas||Isle of Man||British Crown Dependency.|
|Edinburgh||Scotland||Constituent country of the United Kingdom.|
|Flying Fish Cove||Christmas Island||External territory of Australia.|
|George Town||Cayman Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Georgetown||Ascension Island||Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.|
|Gibraltar||Gibraltar||British Overseas Territory.|
|Gitega (official)||Burundi||Bujumbura was the capital from 1962 to 2018.|
|Bujumbura (de facto)|
|Gustavia||Saint Barthélemy||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Hagåtña||Guam||Territory of the United States.|
|Hamilton||Bermuda||British Overseas Territory.|
|Hanoi||Vietnam||See also: List of historical capitals of Vietnam|
|Hargeisa||Somaliland||Unrecognized and self-declared state, de jure part of Somalia.|
|Islamabad||Pakistan||Karachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958. Rawalpindi served as an interim capital for almost a decade until the construction of Islamabad was complete.|
|Jakarta||Indonesia||A new purpose-built city named Nusantara in Kalimantan is planned to replace Jakarta as the national capital from the mid-2020s.|
|Jamestown||Saint Helena||Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.|
|Jerusalem||Israel||The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the Israeli government and its institutions. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. Most countries currently maintain their embassies in and around Tel Aviv. The United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital and moved its embassy there in May 2018.  Many countries officially adhere to the proposal that Jerusalem have international status, as called for in the 1947 Partition Plan.|
|Ramallah (de facto)|
|King Edward Point||South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Kingston||Norfolk Island||External territory of Australia.|
|Kingstown||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|
|Kinshasa||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Kuala Lumpur (official, legislative and royal)||Malaysia|
|Putrajaya (administrative and judicial)|
|La Paz (administrative)||Bolivia||La Paz is the highest administrative capital (3,650 m) in the world, higher than Quito.|
|Laâyoune (declared)||Western Sahara||The Sahrawi Republic, recognized by 82 states, claims the mostly Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara. Moroccan-controlled territory includes Laâyoune, and Morocco claims all Sahrawi-controlled territory. Tifariti is now the temporary capital (instead of Bir Lehlou earlier) of the SADR. Some government and military structures reside in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. See Also: Politics of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.|
|Tifariti (de facto)|
|Lima||Peru||Cusco is declared the "Historical Capital" (Spanish: Capital Historica), a merely symbolic statement, by Article 49 of the Peruvian Constitution. Arequipa is dubbed the "Legal Capital" of Peru for being the seat of the Constitutional Court.|
|Lobamba (royal and legislative)||Eswatini|
|London||United Kingdom||Prior to the Acts of Union in 1707, London was the capital of England only; Edinburgh was the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland.|
Sub-divisions of England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland.
|Majuro||Marshall Islands||Self-governing in free association with the United States. The seat of government is at Delpa-Uliga-Djarrit, a settlement on the atoll of Majuro.|
|Malabo||Equatorial Guinea||Ciudad de la Paz is currently under construction and will become the new capital when complete.|
|Mariehamn||Åland Islands||Autonomous province of Finland.|
|Marigot||Saint Martin||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Mata Utu||Wallis and Futuna||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Monaco||Monaco||City-state. The Principality of Monaco does not have an official capital designated in its constitution; however, the Commune of Monaco, the country's only commune, is coterminous with the nation, making it the de facto capital.|
|Naypyidaw||Myanmar||Yangon was the capital until 2006. See also: List of capitals of Myanmar|
|New Delhi||India||Kolkata was the capital of India until 1911 during the British Raj.|
|Ngerulmud||Palau||Self-governing in free association with the United States. Koror City was the capital of Palau until 2006.|
|See also: List of divided cities[clarification needed]|
|Nouméa||New Caledonia||Overseas territory of France.|
|Nuuk||Greenland||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|Oranjestad||Aruba||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Oslo||Norway||See also: List of historical capitals of Norway|
|Pago Pago||American Samoa||Territory of the United States.|
|Palikir||Micronesia||Self-governing in free association with the United States. Kolonia is the former capital; and Australia, China, Japan and the United States retain embassies there.
Sub-divisions of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae.
|Papeete||French Polynesia||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Paris||France||See also: List of Capitals of France|
|Philipsburg||Sint Maarten||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Port Moresby||Papua New Guinea|
|Port of Spain||Trinidad and Tobago|
|Prague (official, legislative and executive)||Czech Republic|
|Pristina||Kosovo||De facto independent state that is recognized by 114 UN member states and by Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.|
|Quito||Ecuador||Highest official capital (2,850 m).|
|Road Town||British Virgin Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Rothera||British Antarctic Territory||British Overseas Territory.|
|Saipan||Northern Mariana Islands||Territory of the United States. The seat of government is at Capitol Hill, a settlement on the island of Saipan.|
|San José||Costa Rica|
|San Juan||Puerto Rico||Territory of the United States.|
|San Marino||San Marino|
|San Salvador||El Salvador|
|Valparaíso (legislative)||The National Congress of Chile is located in Valparaíso.|
|Santo Domingo||Dominican Republic|
|São Tomé||São Tomé and Príncipe|
|Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Sejong City (de facto)||On 2 July 2012, some functions of government moved to Sejong, which became the de facto administrative capital of South Korea.|
|South Tarawa||Kiribati||South Tarawa is a settlement on the atoll of Tarawa.|
|St. Helier||Jersey||British Crown Dependency.|
|St. John's (de facto)||Antigua and Barbuda||Antigua and Barbuda has no official capital.|
|St. Peter Port||Guernsey||British Crown Dependency.|
|St. Pierre||Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Overseas collectivity of France.|
|Stanley||Falkland Islands||British Overseas Territory.|
|Stepanakert||Artsakh||The self-declared country remains diplomatically unrecognized by UN-member states, including Armenia. Transnistria, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia all recognize the state. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.|
|Sukhumi||Abkhazia||De facto independent state recognized by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.|
|Taipei||Taiwan||Officially the Republic of China (ROC), it has been competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the sole Chinese government since 1949. Taiwan controls the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 1] Its territory is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 2] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, the International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei.|
|Tegucigalpa||Honduras||Comayagüela is declared in the Honduran Constitution as co-official capital with Tegucigalpa. Now they have merged into a single Metropolitan Area.|
|Tiraspol||Transnistria||De facto independent state, not recognized by any UN-member, but by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.|
|Tokyo||Japan||See also: Capital of Japan|
|Tórshavn||Faroe Islands||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.|
|Tskhinvali||South Ossetia||De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.|
|The Valley||Anguilla||British Overseas Territory.|
|Vatican City||Vatican City||City-state.|
|Washington, D.C.||United States||The capital of the United States has moved multiple times. See also: National capitals of the United States|
|Wellington||New Zealand||Since 1865. Wellington is New Zealand's third capital. See also: Capital of New Zealand.|
|West Island||Cocos (Keeling) Islands||External territory of Australia.|
|Willemstad||Curaçao||Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Yaren (de facto)||Nauru||Nauru has no official capital; however, the government offices are in Yaren.|
- ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by the PRC, the ROC, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
- ^ In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CCP established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
- ^ "Indonesia announces site of capital city to replace sinking Jakarta". The Guardian. 26 August 2019.
- ^ "Indonesia names new capital that will replace Jakarta". BBC News. 2022-01-18. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
- ^ See the CIA Factbook and Map of Israel
- ^ Sharkansky, Ira (1996). Governing Jerusalem: Again on the world's agenda. Wayne State University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-8143-2592-0.
- ^ a b Jacobs, Frank (19 June 2012). "Amazonia or Bust!". New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Western Sahara". June 12, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12.
- ^ Fortin, Jacey (19 December 2012). "Poverty-Stricken Equatorial Guinea Builds Expensive Capital City In The Middle Of Nowhere". International Business Times.
- ^ "Constitution of the Principality". Gouvernement Princier Principauté de Monaco. Principauté de Monaco. 17 December 1962. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- ^ "Monaco". Britannica. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- ^ "Nay Pyi Taw | national capital, Myanmar | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
- ^ "Constitution of Honduras" (PDF). web.archive.org (in Spanish). 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2022-11-17.