List of national capitals

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This is a list of national capitals, including capitals of territories and dependencies, non-sovereign states including associated states and entities whose sovereignty is disputed. Sovereign states and observer states within the United Nations are shown in bolded text.

City Country Notes
Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
Abuja Nigeria Lagos was the capital from 1914 to 1991.
Accra Ghana
Adamstown Pitcairn Islands British Overseas Territory.
Addis Ababa Ethiopia
Algiers Algeria
Alofi Niue Self-governing in free association with New Zealand.
Amman Jordan
Amsterdam (official)
The Hague (de facto)
Netherlands The Dutch constitution refers to Amsterdam as the "capital". The Dutch government is located in The Hague, which also hosts the monarch, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions. See Capital of the Netherlands.
Andorra la Vella Andorra
Ankara Turkey
Antananarivo Madagascar
Apia Samoa
Ashgabat Turkmenistan
Asmara Eritrea
Asunción Paraguay
Athens Greece
Avarua Cook Islands Self-governing in free association with New Zealand.
Baghdad Iraq
Baku Azerbaijan
Bamako Mali
Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei
Bangkok Thailand
Bangui Central African Republic
Banjul Gambia
Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis
Beijing China See also: List of historical capitals of China.
Beirut Lebanon
Belgrade Serbia
Belmopan Belize
Berlin Germany
Bern Switzerland De facto capital.
Bishkek Kyrgyzstan
Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Bogotá Colombia
Brasília Brazil
Bratislava Slovakia
Brazzaville Republic of the Congo
Bridgetown Barbados
Brussels Belgium Also the de facto capital of the  European Union.
Bucharest Romania
Budapest Hungary
Buenos Aires Argentina
Cairo Egypt
Canberra Australia Planned city built to overcome the rivalry between Melbourne and Sydney, which were both put forward as potential capitals for the nation in the Australasia Federation Conventions of the 1890s. Section 125 of the Constitution gives basic details about the location of the capital, size of the encompassing territory and so forth, while the Seat of Government Act 1908 specified its precise location.
Caracas Venezuela
Castries Saint Lucia
Charlotte Amalie United States Virgin Islands Territory of the U.S.
Chișinău Moldova
Cockburn Town Turks and Caicos Islands British Overseas Territory.
Conakry Guinea
Copenhagen Denmark
Dakar Senegal
Damascus Syria
Dhaka Bangladesh
Dili East Timor
Djibouti Djibouti
Dodoma (official, legislative)
Dar es Salaam (de facto, judicial)
Tanzania Dar es Salaam, the former capital and largest city continues to serve as the de facto seat of government hosting the presidency, government ministries, judiciary and diplomatic missions.
Doha Qatar
Douglas Isle of Man British Crown Dependency.
Dublin Ireland
Dushanbe Tajikistan
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Tristan da Cunha Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
El Aioun (declared)
Tifariti (de facto)
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [c] The Sahrawi Republic, recognised by 82 states, claims the mostly Moroccan controlled Western Sahara. Moroccan controlled territory includes El Aaiún, and Morocco claims all Sahrawi controlled territory. Tifariti is now the temporary capital (instead of Bir Lehlou earlier) of the SADR. Some government and military structures reside in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.[1] See Politics of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
Episkopi Cantonment Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Overseas Territory.
Flying Fish Cove Christmas Island External territory of Australia.
Freetown Sierra Leone
Funafuti Tuvalu
Gaborone Botswana
George Town Cayman Islands British Overseas Territory.
Georgetown Ascension Island Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Georgetown Guyana
Gibraltar Gibraltar British Overseas Territory.
Gitega Burundi Bujumbura was the capital from 1962 to 2018.
Guatemala City Guatemala
Gustavia Saint Barthélemy Overseas collectivity of France.
Hagåtña Guam Territory of the United States.
Hamilton Bermuda British Overseas Territory.
Hanga Roa Easter Island Special territory of Chile.
Hanoi Vietnam
Harare Zimbabwe
Hargeisa Somaliland Unrecognized and self-declared state, de jure part of Somalia.
Havana Cuba
Helsinki Finland
Honiara Solomon Islands
Islamabad Pakistan Karachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958. Rawalpindi served as an interim capital for almost a decade until the construction in Islamabad was complete.
Jakarta Indonesia
Jamestown Saint Helena Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
Azaz Syrian opposition See Syrian Civil War.
Jerusalem (disputed) Israel (de facto)
Palestine (claimed)
The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the Israeli government and its institutions. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem. Most countries currently maintain their embassies in and around Tel Aviv. The United States recognized Jerusalem as the capital and moved its embassy there in May 2018. [2] Many countries officially adhere to the proposal that Jerusalem have international status, as called for in the 1947 Partition Plan.[3] The State of Palestine, a de jure state, claims East Jerusalem as its capital. See Status of Jerusalem and Positions on Jerusalem.
Juba South Sudan
Kabul Afghanistan
Kampala Uganda
Kathmandu Nepal
Khartoum Sudan
Kiev Ukraine
Kigali Rwanda
King Edward Point South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands British Overseas Territory.
Kingston Jamaica
Kingston Norfolk Island External territory of Australia.
Kingstown Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kuala Lumpur (official, legislative and royal)
Putrajaya (administrative and judicial)
Kuwait City Kuwait
Libreville Gabon
Lilongwe Malawi
Lima Peru Cusco is declared as the "Historical Capital" (Spanish: Capital Historica), a merely symbolic statement, by Article 49 of the Peruvian Constitution.
Lisbon Portugal
Ljubljana Slovenia
Lomé Togo
London United Kingdom Prior to the Acts of Union in 1707, London was the capital of England only; Edinburgh was the capital of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Luanda Angola
Lusaka Zambia
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Madrid Spain
Majuro Marshall Islands Self-governing in free association with United States.
Malabo Equatorial Guinea
Malé Maldives
Managua Nicaragua
Manama Bahrain
Manila Philippines
Maputo Mozambique
Marigot Saint Martin Overseas collectivity of France.
Maseru Lesotho
Mata-Utu Wallis and Futuna Overseas collectivity of France.
Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Eswatini (Swaziland)
Mexico City Mexico
Minsk Belarus
Mogadishu Somalia
Monaco Monaco City-state.
Monrovia Liberia
Montevideo Uruguay
Moroni Comoros
Moscow Russia
Muscat Oman
Nairobi Kenya
Nassau Bahamas
Naypyidaw Myanmar
N'Djamena Chad
New Delhi India Kolkata was the capital of India until 1911 during the British Raj.
Ngerulmud Palau Self-governing in free association with United States.
Niamey Niger
Nicosia Cyprus
Nicosia Northern Cyprus De facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[4]
Nouakchott Mauritania
Nouméa New Caledonia Sui generis collectivity of France.
Nukuʻalofa Tonga
Nur-Sultan Kazakhstan Formerly known as Astana; the name was changed on 20 March 2019.
Nuuk Greenland Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.
Oranjestad Aruba Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Oslo Norway
Ottawa Canada
Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
Pago Pago American Samoa Territory of the United States.
Palikir Federated States of Micronesia Self-governing in free association with United States.
Panama City Panama
Papeete French Polynesia Overseas collectivity of France.
Paramaribo Suriname
Paris France
Philipsburg Sint Maarten Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Phnom Penh Cambodia
Plymouth (official)
Brades Estate (de facto)
Montserrat British Overseas Territory. Plymouth was abandoned after the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in 1997. Government offices since then have been moved to Brades Estate, which is in the northwestern part of Montserrat.
Podgorica (official)
Cetinje (Old Royal Capital, present seat of the President)
Port Louis Mauritius
Port Moresby Papua New Guinea
Port Vila Vanuatu
Port-au-Prince Haiti
Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago
Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (de facto)
Prague (Official)
Brno (judicial)
Czech Republic
Praia Cape Verde
Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
South Africa
Pristina Kosovo[g] De facto independent state that is recognised by 112 UN member states and by Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
Pyongyang North Korea
Quito Ecuador Highest official capital (2,850 m).[5]
Rabat Morocco
Ramallah Palestine De facto capital.
Reykjavík Iceland
Riga Latvia
Riyadh Saudi Arabia
Road Town British Virgin Islands British Overseas Territory.
Rome Italy
Roseau Dominica
Saipan Northern Mariana Islands Territory of the United States.
San José Costa Rica
San Juan Puerto Rico Territory of the United States.
San Marino San Marino
San Salvador El Salvador
Sana'a (de jure)
Aden (de facto, temporary)
Yemen Sana'a has been occupied by Houthis rebels since February 2015. See also: Yemeni Civil War (2015–present).
Santiago (official)
Valparaíso (legislative)
Chile The National Congress of Chile is located in Valparaíso.
Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
São Tomé São Tomé and Príncipe
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina
Seoul South Korea
Singapore Singapore City-state.
Skopje North Macedonia
Sofia Bulgaria
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (official)
Colombo (executive, judicial)
Sri Lanka Also known as "Kotte". Until the 1980s, the capital was Colombo, where many important governmental institutions still remain and which is still designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.
St. George's Grenada
St. Helier Jersey British Crown Dependency.
St. John's Antigua and Barbuda
St. Peter Port Guernsey British Crown Dependency.
St. Pierre Saint Pierre and Miquelon Overseas collectivity of France.
Stanley Falkland Islands British Overseas Territory.
Stepanakert Artsakh The self-declared country remains diplomatically unrecognised by UN-member states, including Armenia. Transnistria, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia, all UN non-member states, recognise the state. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.
Stockholm Sweden
Sucre (constitutional)
La Paz (administrative)
Bolivia La Paz is the highest administrative capital (3,650 m), higher than Quito.[5]
Sukhumi Abkhazia De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Republic of Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Suva Fiji
Taipei Taiwan Officially the Republic of China (ROC), it has been competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the sole Chinese government since 1949. Taiwan controls the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas, and part of the Spratly Islands[Note 1] The territory of Taiwan is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 2] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei.
Tallinn Estonia
Tarawa Kiribati
Tashkent Uzbekistan
Tbilisi (official)
Kutaisi (legislative)
Tegucigalpa Honduras
Tehran Iran
Thimphu Bhutan
Tirana Albania
Tiraspol Transnistria De facto independent state, not recognized by any UN-member, but by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.
Tokyo Japan
Tórshavn Faroe Islands Self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark.
Tripoli Libya
Tskhinvali South Ossetia De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.
Tunis Tunisia
Ulaanbaatar Mongolia
Vaduz Liechtenstein
Valletta Malta
The Valley Anguilla British Overseas Territory.
Vatican City Vatican City City-state.
Victoria Seychelles
Vienna Austria
Vientiane Laos
Vilnius Lithuania
Warsaw Poland
Washington, D.C. United States
Wellington New Zealand See also: Capital of New Zealand.
West Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands External territory of Australia.
Willemstad Curaçao Self-governing country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Windhoek Namibia
Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (former capital; still has many government offices)
Ivory Coast
Yaoundé Cameroon
Yaren (de facto) Nauru Country does not have an official capital; however, the government offices are in Yaren.
Yerevan Armenia
Zagreb Croatia


  1. ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by the PRC, the ROC, Vietnam, the Philippines (part), Malaysia (part), and Brunei (part). Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  2. ^ In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.


  1. ^
  2. ^ See the CIA Factbook and Map of Israel
  3. ^ Sharkansky, Ira (1996). Governing Jerusalem: Again on the world's agenda. Wayne State University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-8143-2592-0.
  4. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  5. ^ a b Jacobs, Frank (19 June 2012). "Amazonia or Bust!". New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2012.