List of national emergencies in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A national emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions not normally permitted. The 1976 National Emergencies Act implemented various legal requirements regarding emergencies declared by the President of the United States.[1][2]

Between the enactment of the National Emergencies Act in 1976 through February 15, 2019, 59 emergencies have been declared;[3] 27 have expired while 32 are currently in effect, each having been renewed annually by the president.[4]

Status President Start date End date Category Description
Ended Wilson February 5, 1917[5] March 3, 1921[6] Emergency in Water Transportation of the United States (Proclamation 1354)[5]
Ended Franklin Roosevelt March 9, 1933[7] September 14, 1978[8] Declaring Bank Holiday (Proclamation 2039)[9] – Declared a bank holiday from March 6 through March 9, 1933, using the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 as a legal basis.[7] The first of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[7]
Ended Roosevelt February 28, 1935[7] February 10, 1936[7] Dealt with the agriculture industry via the Cotton Control Act.[7]
Ended Roosevelt September 8, 1939[10] April 28, 1952[10][7] Proclaiming a National Emergency in Connection with the Observance, Safeguarding, and Enforcement of Neutrality and the Strengthening of the National Defense Within the Limits of Peace-Time Authorizations[11] (Proclamation 2352)
Ended Roosevelt May 27, 1941 April 28, 1952[10][7] Proclaiming That an Unlimited National Emergency Confronts This Country, Which Requires That Its Military, Naval, Air and Civilian Defenses Be Put on the Basis of Readiness to Repel Any and All Acts or Threats of Aggression Directed Toward Any Part of the Western Hemisphere[12] (Proclamation 2487)[10] – declaration of an unlimited national emergency under threat from Nazi Germany.[13]
Ended Truman December 16, 1950[7] September 14, 1978 Proclaiming the Existence of a National Emergency (Proclamation 2914)[14] – declared that the United States' "military, naval, air and civilian defenses" should be used to fight communism as part of the Korean War.[15] The second of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[7]
Ended Nixon March 23, 1970[7] September 14, 1978 Declaring a National Emergency[16] (Proclamation 3972)[16] – declaration in response to the 1970 United States Postal Service strike. The third of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[7]
Ended Nixon August 15, 1971[7][17] September 14, 1978 Imposition of Supplemental Duty for Balance of Payments Purposes (Proclamation 4074)[17] – imposed import controls in response to the Nixon shock. The last of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[7]
Current Carter November 14, 1979 Sanctions[18] Blocking Iranian Government Property[19] (Executive Order 12170)[19] – ordered the freezing Iranian assets as part of the U.S. response during the Iran hostage crisis[4]
Ended Carter April 17, 1980 Sanctions[18] Further Prohibitions on Transactions with Iran (Executive Order 12211) – prohibitions revoked on January 19, 1981, but national emergency left in effect and neither terminated nor continued[20]
Ended Reagan October 14, 1983 December 20, 1983 Trade[18] Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12444)[20] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Reagan March 30, 1984 July 12, 1985 Trade[18] Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12470)[20] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Reagan May 1, 1985[21] March 13, 1990[22] Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Trade and Certain Other Transactions Involving Nicaragua (Executive Order 12513)[21] – The United States embargo against Nicaragua,[23] followed the victory by Sandinista candidate Daniel Ortega in the 1984 Nicaraguan general election over the U.S.-backed Contras
Ended Reagan September 9, 1985 July 10, 1991 Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Trade and Certain Other Transactions Involving South Africa (Executive Order 12532)[20] – response to the initial attempt by Senate Democrats to pass what would be the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986
Ended Reagan January 7, 1986 September 20, 2004 Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Trade and Certain Transactions Involving Libya (Executive Order 12543)[20] – followed the 1985 Rome and Vienna airport attacks
Ended Reagan April 8, 1988 April 5, 1990 Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to Panama (Executive Order 12635)[20] – deteriorating relationship between the U.S. and General Manuel Noriega
Ended Bush (H.W.) August 2, 1990 July 29, 2004 Blocking Iraqi Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Iraq (Executive Order 12722)[20] – in response to the invasion of Kuwait
Ended Bush (H.W.) September 30, 1990 September 30, 1993 Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12730)[20] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Bush (H.W.) November 16, 1990 November 11, 1994 Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation (Executive Order 12735)[20] – followed the signing with the U.S.S.R. of the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord, and preceded the May 1991 commitment by George H.W. Bush to destroy weapon agents, systems, and production facilities of the United States chemical weapons program
Ended Bush (H.W.) October 4, 1991[24] October 14, 1994[25] Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to Haiti (Executive Order 12775)[20] – followed the 1991 Haitian coup d'état against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Re-declared by Clinton on May 7, 1994 (Executive Order 12914)[26]
Ended Bush (H.W.) May 30, 1992 May 28, 2003 Blocking "Yugoslav Government" Property and Property of the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro (Executive Order 12808)[20] - in response to the start of the Bosnian War
Ended[27] Clinton September 26, 1993 - Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Certain Transactions Involving UNITA (Executive Order 12865) – imposed economic sanctions on UNITA, a political group in Angola.[28]
- Clinton September 30, 1993 - Arms[18]
- Clinton June 30, 1994 - Trade[18]
- Clinton August 19, 1994 - Trade[18]
- Clinton September 29, 1994 - Sanctions[18]
- Clinton October 25, 1994 - Sanctions[18]
Current Clinton November 14, 1994[29] Arms[18] Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction[30] (Executive Order 12938)[31] – provides for control over the export of weapons;[29] combined two previous national emergencies regarding WMDs.[4]
Current Clinton January 23, 1995[32] Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process (Executive Order 12947) – imposed economic sanctions on Specially Designated Terrorists, including the ANO, Hezbollah, the DFLP, Hamas, and the PFLP.[32]
Current Clinton March 15, 1995[33] Sanctions[18] Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to the Development of Iranian Petroleum Resources[4] (Executive Order 12957)[33] – intended to prevent a business deal between Iran and Conoco.[34]
Current Clinton October 21, 1995[4] Sanctions[18] Blocking Assets and Prohibiting Transactions with Significant Narcotics Traffickers (Executive Order 12978)[35] – declared in response to Colombian drug cartels using American companies to launder money.[4]
Current Clinton March 1, 1996[4] Maritime[18] Declaration of a National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels (Proclamation 6867)[36] – implemented following the destruction of two civilian aircraft by the Cuban military on February 24, 1996.[37]
Ended Clinton May 20, 1997 October 7, 2016[38] Sanctions[18] Prohibiting New Investment in Burma (Executive Order 13047)[39]
Current Clinton November 3, 1997[4] Sanctions[18] Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Sudan[40] (Executive Order 13067)[40] – established a trade embargo against Sudan, specifically targeting the Sudanese government.[41]
Ended Clinton June 9, 1998[42] May 28, 2003[43] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo (Executive Order 13088)[42] – declaration of a national emergency during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[44]
- Clinton July 4, 1999 - Sanctions[18]
- Clinton June 21, 2000 - Sanctions[18]
Ended Clinton January 18, 2001[45] January 15, 2004[46] Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone (Executive Order 13194)[45]
Current Bush June 26, 2001[4] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Persons Who Threaten International Stabilization Efforts in the Western Balkans[47] (Executive Order 13219)[48] – intended to combat extremist Albanian insurgents operating in North Macedonia and limit obstruction of the Dayton Accords. Amended on May 28, 2003 (Executive Order 13304) following the Ohrid Agreement, signed in 2001.[49]
Current Bush August 17, 2001 Trade[18] Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 13222)[50] – reasserted presidential control of exports of "defense articles" following the expiration of the Export Administration Act of 1979 in 1994.[4] Amended on March 8, 2013 (Executive Order 13637)[51] to delegate authority provided by Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act from the president to the Secretary of State.[52]
Current Bush September 14, 2001[4] Military[18] Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks (Proclamation 7463)[53] – the first of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks, allowing the president to call troops from the National Guard or from retirement, to apportion military funding, to exercise more discretion over hiring military officers, and to promote more generals than previously allowed.[54][55]
Current Bush September 23, 2001[56] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism (Executive Order 13224)[55] – the second of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks,[57] allowing the State and Treasury departments (through the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control) to designate entities as terrorists and apply economic sanctions. Due to the order's broad language, its scope has grown over the years to become one of the Treasury's "cornerstone sanctions programs" in fighting terrorism worldwide.[55] Amended on July 2, 2002 (Executive Order 13268)[58] to include the Taliban, and on January 23, 2003 (Executive Order 13284)[59] to integrate the newly-created position of Secretary of Homeland Security into the order's process.
Current Bush March 6, 2003[60] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe (Executive Order 13288)[60] – imposed economic sanctions on Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe and 76 other government officials[61] following years of rigged elections and a recent food shortage,[62] echoing similar sanctions imposed the previous year by the European Union.[63] Amended on November 22, 2005 (Executive Order 13391)[64] to revise the EO's annex listing the individuals targeted with sanctions.
Current Bush May 22, 2003 Legal[18] Protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and Certain Other Property in Which Iraq Has an Interest (Executive Order 13303)[65] – granted the Development Fund for Iraq, established the same day, legal protection in the wake of the invasion of Iraq and amidst the Iraq War.
Current Bush May 11, 2004 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria (Executive Order 13338)[66] – imposed mostly symbolic economic sanctions on Syria,[67] grounding all flights between the two countries, banning all exports to Syria but food and medicine, and freezing some Syrians' assets.[68]
- Bush July 22, 2004 - Sanctions[18]
Ended Bush February 7, 2006[69] September 14, 2016[70] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Côte d'Ivoire (Executive Order 13396)[69]
Current Bush June 16, 2006 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus (Executive Order 13405)[71] – imposed sanctions, including a travel ban, on Alexander Lukashenko after Belarus's crackdown on peaceful protests against the recent presidential election and following similar sanctions by the European Union.[72]
Current Bush October 27, 2006 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Executive Order 13413)[73] – imposed economic sanctions on DRC government officials amidst widespread violence taking place during runoffs for Congo's first free election in decades.[74]
Current Bush August 1, 2007 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Persons Undermining the Sovereignty of Lebanon or Its Democratic Processes and Institutions (Executive Order 13441)[75] – imposed sanctions intended as a warning to Syria and Hezbollah, months after a similar travel ban, during widespread unrest in the country, and out of concern over rifts between prime minister Fouad Siniora and president Émile Lahoud.[76][77]
Current Bush June 26, 2008 Sanctions[18] Continuing Certain Restrictions With Respect to North Korea and North Korean Nationals (Executive Order 13466)[78] – retained "certain restrictions" on North Korea as the United States removed North Korea from its list of state sponsors of terrorism and as North Korea publicly declared its nuclear program.[79]
Ended Obama October 23, 2009[80] October 23, 2010[81] Public health[18] Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic (Proclamation 8443)[80] – empowered the secretary of Health and Human Services to issue waivers allowing overcrowded hospitals to move swine flu patients to satellite facilities or other hospitals.[82]
Current Obama April 12, 2010[29] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia (Executive Order 13536)[83] – intended to help combat Somali pirates.[4]
Current Obama February 25, 2011 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to Libya (Executive Order 13566)[84] – imposed sanctions on Muammar Gaddafi, his family, and Libyan officials after protestors were killed by government forces, including freezing assets and consideration of prosecution for war crimes.[85]
Current Obama July 24, 2011[86] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations (Executive Order 13581)[86] – levied sanctions against four criminal organizations—Los Zetas, the Brothers' Circle, the Yakuza, and the Camorra—including freezing assets, barring ownership of American real estate, and implementing travel bans.[87]
Current Obama May 16, 2012 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Yemen (Executive Order 13611)[88] – intended to counter unrest in Yemen in the aftermath of the Yemeni Revolution.[4]
Ended Obama June 25, 2012[89] May 26, 2015[90] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons (Executive Order 13617)[89] – imposed sanctions on Russia over the disposal of highly enriched uranium.
Current Obama March 6, 2014[91] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine (Executive Order 13660)[91] – imposed sanctions, including restricting visas, in concert with the European Union and the international community against Russia after its Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.[92][93] Amended on March 16, 2014 (Executive Order 13661),[94] March 20, 2014 (Executive Order 13662),[95] and December 19, 2014 (Executive Order 13685)[96] to expand the scope of sanctions.
Current Obama April 3, 2014[29] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to South Sudan (Executive Order 13664)[97] – enabled economic sanctions to be placed due to the civil war in South Sudan; sanctions were first imposed a month later.[98]
Current Obama May 12, 2014 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Central African Republic (Executive Order 13667)[99] – imposed sanctions against former Central African Republic president François Bozizé, following similar sanctions placed on Bozizé by the United Nations Security Council the previous week;[100] also contains provisions against the use of child soldiers.[29]
Current Obama March 8, 2015 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property and Suspending Entry of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela (Executive Order 13692)[101] – imposed sanctions on seven high-ranking Venezuelan government officials, including SEBIN director Gustavo Enrique González López, PNB director Manuel Perez, and CVG head Justo Noguero.[102][103]
Current Obama April 1, 2015 Sanctions Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities (Executive Order 13694)[104] – intended to allow sanctions to be levied on foreign individuals determined by the Department of the Treasury to have engaged in cyber-crime or cyber-terrorism; was in the works for two years.[105]
Current Obama November 22, 2015[106] Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Burundi (Executive Order 13712)[106] – imposed sanctions on four Burundi nationals—minister of public security Alain Guillaume Bunyoni, National Police of Burundi deputy director-general Godefroid Bizimana, Godefroid Niyombare, and Cyrille Ndayirukiye—in the wake of widespread unrest.[107]
Current Trump December 20, 2017 Sanctions[18] Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption (Executive Order 13818)[108] – imposed sanctions due to the Rohingya conflict in Myanmar, specifically against general Maung Maung Soe;[109] works in tandem with the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act.[29]
Current Trump September 12, 2018[29] Sanctions[18] Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election (Executive Order 13848)[110] – intended to enable automatic sanctions in response to election interference;[111][112] intelligence agencies are given 45 days after an election to assess any possible interference.[29]
Current Trump November 27, 2018 Sanctions[18] Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua (Executive Order 13851)[113] – announces certain sanctions against current and former Daniel Ortega government officials engaging in human rights abuse or corruption.[114]
Current Trump February 15, 2019 Military[18] Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States (Proclamation 9844)[115] – seeks to divert $8 billion of funds, which were previously allocated to other programs, to build a wall on the southern border of the United States, which the order calls a "major entry point for criminals, gang members, and illicit narcotics" into the United States.[116][117][118] This emergency declaration is the first since the passage of the National Emergencies Act in which the president sought to take funds for which Congress previously denied appropriation, and the first time both houses of Congress passed a bill declaring the emergency terminated, sending it to the president for his signature.[119]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Declared National Emergencies Under the National Emergencies Act, 1978-2018" (PDF). Brennan Center for Justice.
  2. ^ CNN, Ryan Struyk. "Trump's wall would be the 32nd active national emergency". CNN.
  3. ^ Moon, Emily (January 8, 2019). "The United States' States of Emergencies". Pacific Standard. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Heath, Kendall (January 10, 2019). "Here's a list of the 31 national emergencies that have been in effect for years". ABC News. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Proclamation 1354 – Emergency in Water Transportation of the United States". The American Presidency Project. February 5, 1917. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  6. ^ Relyea, Harold C. (1976). "Declaring and Terminating a State of National Emergency". Presidential Studies Quarterly. Wiley. 6 (4): 36–42. JSTOR 20556861.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Senate Report 93-549: War and Emergency Power Statutes". U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  8. ^ Public Law 95-223
  9. ^ "Proclamation 2039 – Declaring Bank Holiday". The American Presidency Project. March 6, 1933. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Proclamation 2974". Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  11. ^ "Proclamation 2352 – Proclaiming a National Emergency in Connection with the Observance, Safeguarding, and Enforcement of Neutrality and the Strengthening of the National Defense Within the Limits of Peace-Time Authorizations". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  12. ^ "Proclamation 2487 – Proclaiming That an Unlimited National Emergency Confronts This Country, Which Requires That Its Military, Naval, Air and Civilian Defenses Be Put on the Basis of Readiness to Repel Any and All Acts or Threats of Aggression Directed Toward Any Part of the Western Hemisphere". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  13. ^ Editors, History.com. "FDR proclaims an unlimited national emergency". History.com.
  14. ^ "Proclamation 2914". Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  15. ^ The Learning Network (December 16, 1950). "President Truman Proclaims State of Emergency During Korean War". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Declaring a National Emergency" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Proclamation 4074" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Lu, Denise (February 15, 2019). "Trump's Emergency Declaration Is the First Since 9/11 to Authorize Military Action". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Executive Order No. 12170" (PDF). U.S. Treasury. November 14, 1979. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Declared National Emergencies Under the National Emergencies Act, 1978-2018" (PDF). Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  21. ^ a b "Executive Order 12513--Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving Nicaragua". National Archives. May 1, 1985. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  22. ^ "1990 Executive Orders Disposition Tables". National Archives. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  23. ^ Weinraub, Bernard; Times, Special To the New York (May 2, 1985). "Reagan, Declaring 'Threat,' Forbids Nicaraguan Trade and Cuts Air and Sea Links" – via NYTimes.com.
  24. ^ "Executive Order 12775—Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to Haiti". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  25. ^ "Termination of Emergency With Respect to Haiti" (PDF). National Archives. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  26. ^ "Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to Haiti". Federal Register.
  27. ^ Lu, Denise (2019-02-15). "Trump's Emergency Declaration Is the First Since 9/11 to Authorize Military Action". NYTimes. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Executive Order 12865—Prohibiting Certain Transactions Involving UNITA" (PDF). GovInfo.gov. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Ekmanis, Indra (January 11, 2019). "The US is currently in 31 other national emergencies. Here's what that means". PRI. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  30. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (November 14, 1994). "Executive Order 12938" (PDF). U.S Treasury. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  31. ^ "Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction". Federal Register. November 9, 2018. p. 56253. Retrieved February 11, 2019. ...continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared in Executive Order 12938, as amended by Executive Orders 13094 and 13382.
  32. ^ a b Clinton, Bill (January 25, 1995). "Executive Order 12947 of January 23, 1995" (PDF). U.S Treasury. p. 5079. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  33. ^ a b Clinton, Bill (March 15, 1995). "Executive Order 12957: Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to the Development of Iranian Petroleum Resources". Homeland Security Digital Library. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  34. ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (January 8, 2019). "The U.S. Has Been in a Constant State of National Emergency Since 1979. Here's Why". Time. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  35. ^ Clinton, Bill (October 21, 1995). "Executive Order 12978: Blocking Assets and Prohibiting Transactions with Significant Narcotics Traffickers". Homeland Security Digital Library. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  36. ^ Clinton, Bill (March 1, 1996). "Proclamation 6867 – Declaration of a National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  37. ^ "Report on the shooting down of two U.S.-registered private civil aircraft by Cuban military aircraft on 24 February 1996", C-WP/10441, June 20, 1996, United Nations Security Council document, S/1996/509, July 1, 1996.
  38. ^ "Termination of Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of the Government of Burma". Federal Register. October 7, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  39. ^ "Prohibiting New Investment in Burma". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  40. ^ a b Clinton, Bill (November 3, 1997). "Executive Order 13067 of November 3, 1997" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  41. ^ Caine, Kimberly Hope; McNabb, Stephen M. (January 2017). "US lifts trade sanctions on Sudan". Norton Rose Fulbright. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  42. ^ a b "Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo". Federal Register. June 9, 1998. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  43. ^ "Termination of Emergencies With Respect to Yugoslavia and Modification of Executive Order 13219 of June 26, 2001". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  44. ^ "Today in history: Clinton declares a national emergency". theweek.com. June 9, 2014.
  45. ^ a b "Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone" (PDF). Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  46. ^ "Termination of National Emergency With Respect to Sierra Leone and Liberia". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  47. ^ Bush, George W. (June 26, 2001). "Blocking Property of Persons Who Threaten International Stabilization Efforts in the Western Balkans". Federal Register. p. 34777. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  48. ^ "Administration of George W. Bush, 2001" (PDF). U.S Treasury. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  49. ^ International Trade Compliance Blog (June 26, 2018). "US – President continues national emergencies with respect to N. Korea and Western Balkans". Baker McKenzie. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  50. ^ "Continuation of Export Control Regulations". Federal Register. August 17, 2001. pp. 44025–44026. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  51. ^ "Arms Export Control Act (AECA)". Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  52. ^ Trump, Donald (August 9, 2018). "Text of a Notice from the President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate". The White House. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  53. ^ Bush, George W. (September 14, 2001). "Proclamation 7463 – Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks" (PDF). Government Publishing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  54. ^ Korte, Gregory (September 14, 2017). "A permanent emergency: Trump becomes third president to renew extraordinary post-9/11 powers". USA Today. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  55. ^ a b c Copeland, Zac (November 3, 2016). "The National Emergency Under Executive Order 13224 Moves into Year 16". Lawfare. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  56. ^ "Executive Order 13224". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  57. ^ George W. Bush (September 11, 2001). "9/11 Address to the Nation:"A Great People Has Been Moved to Defend a Great Nation"". AmericanRhetoric.com.
  58. ^ Bush, George W. "Executive Order 13268 of July 2, 2002". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  59. ^ "Executive Order 13284 of January 23, 2003". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  60. ^ a b Bush, George W. "Blocking Property of Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  61. ^ Reuters (March 9, 2003). "Zimbabwe: U.S. sanctions 'racist'". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  62. ^ Stout, David (March 8, 2003). "Bush Orders Sanctions Imposed Against Leaders of Zimbabwe". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  63. ^ Black, Ian (February 19, 2002). "EU hits Mugabe with sanctions and pulls out monitors". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  64. ^ "Blocking Property of Additional Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe". Federal Register. November 25, 2005. pp. 71199–71209. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  65. ^ "Protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and Certain Other Property in Which Iraq Has an Interest". Federal Register. May 22, 2003. pp. 31929–31932. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  66. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria". Federal Register. May 11, 2004. pp. 26749–26754. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  67. ^ Marquis, Christopher (May 12, 2004). "Bush Imposes Sanctions on Syria, Citing Ties to Terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  68. ^ "U.S. hits Syria with sanctions". CNN. May 12, 2004. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  69. ^ a b "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Côte d'Ivoire". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  70. ^ "Termination of Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire". Federal Register. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  71. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus". Federal Register. June 16, 2006. pp. 35483–35487. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  72. ^ Myers, Steven Lee (August 5, 2006). "Court in Belarus Convicts and Sentences 4 Election Observers". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  73. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". Federal Register. October 27, 2006. pp. 64103–64108. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  74. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (October 30, 2006). "Despite Tension, Millions Vote in Congo". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  75. ^ "Blocking Property of Persons Undermining the Sovereignty of Lebanon or Its Democratic Processes and Institutions". Federal Register. August 1, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  76. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (August 3, 2007). "Bush Sends Warning Meant for Syria: Don't Meddle in Lebanon". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  77. ^ Dakroub, Hussein (September 3, 2007). "Three-month battle ends as army takes over refugee camp". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  78. ^ "Continuing Certain Restrictions With Respect to North Korea and North Korean Nationals". Federal Register. June 26, 2008. pp. 36787–36788. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  79. ^ Cooper, Helene (June 27, 2008). "Bush Rebuffs Hard-Liners to Ease North Korean Curbs". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  80. ^ a b "Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic". Federal Register. October 23, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  81. ^ Korte, Gregory (October 22, 2014). "Special report: America's perpetual state of emergency". USA Today. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  82. ^ Calmes, Jackie; Jr, Donald G. McNeil (October 24, 2009). "Obama Declares Swine Flu Outbreak a National Emergency" – via NYTimes.com.
  83. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia". Federal Register. April 12, 2010. pp. 19869–19872. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  84. ^ "Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to Libya". Federal Register. February 25, 2011. pp. 11315–11318. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  85. ^ Cooper, Helene; Landler, Mark (February 25, 2011). "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Libya in Wake of Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  86. ^ a b "Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations". Federal Register. July 24, 2011. pp. 44757–44759. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  87. ^ Associated Press (July 25, 2011). "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on 4 International Criminal Groups". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  88. ^ "Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Yemen". Federal Register. May 16, 2012. pp. 29533–29535. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  89. ^ a b 77 FR 38459
  90. ^ 80 FR 30331
  91. ^ a b "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". Federal Register. March 6, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  92. ^ Roberts, Dan; Traynor, Ian (March 7, 2014). "US and EU impose sanctions and warn Russia to relent in Ukraine standoff". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  93. ^ Landler, Mark; Lowrey, Annie; Myers, Steven Lee (March 20, 2014). "Obama Steps Up Russia Sanctions in Ukraine Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  94. ^ "Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". Federal Register. March 16, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  95. ^ "Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". Federal Register. March 20, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  96. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to the Crimea Region of Ukraine". Federal Register. December 19, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  97. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to South Sudan". Federal Register. April 3, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  98. ^ Gordon, Michael R. (May 6, 2014). "U.S. Imposes First Sanctions in South Sudan Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  99. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Central African Republic". Federal Register. May 12, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  100. ^ Reuters (May 13, 2014). "Central African Republic: U.S. Sanctions for Former Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  101. ^ "Blocking Property and Suspending Entry of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela". Federal Register. March 8, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  102. ^ Mason, Jeff; Rampton, Roberta (March 9, 2015). "U.S. declares Venezuela a national security threat, sanctions top officials". Reuters. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  103. ^ Gillespie, Patrick (March 10, 2015). "President Obama slaps sanctions on Venezuela". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  104. ^ "Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities". Federal Register. April 1, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  105. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (April 2, 2015). "U.S. establishes sanctions program to combat cyberattacks, cyberspying". Washington Post. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  106. ^ a b "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Burundi". Federal Register. November 22, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  107. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (November 23, 2015). "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on 4 in Burundi Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  108. ^ "Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption". Federal Register. December 20, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  109. ^ "Rohingya crisis: Myanmar general hit by US sanctions". BBC News. December 21, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  110. ^ "Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election". Federal Register. September 12, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  111. ^ Sebenius, Alyza (September 12, 2018). "Trump Promises Sanctions If Foreign Powers Meddle in Midterms". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  112. ^ Ward, Alex (September 20, 2018). "Trump adds more Russians who interfered in the 2016 election to a sanctions list". Vox. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  113. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua". Federal Register. November 27, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  114. ^ "New Law Puts Nicaragua in the Cross-Hairs of Potential U.S. Financial Restrictions and Possible Additional Sanctions". Lexology. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  115. ^ 84 FR 4949
  116. ^ "Presidential Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States". The White House. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  117. ^ Singman, Brooke; Roberts, John. "Trump declares emergency on border, eyes $8B for wall as he signs spending package". Fox News. Retrieved February 16, 2019. President Trump said Friday he is declaring a national emergency on the southern border, tapping into executive powers in a bid to divert billions toward construction of a wall...
  118. ^ Baker, Peter (February 15, 2019). "Trump Declares a National Emergency, and Provokes a Constitutional Clash". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2019. The emergency declaration, according to White House officials, enables the president to divert $3.6 billion from military construction projects to the wall. Mr. Trump will also use more traditional presidential discretion to tap $2.5 billion from counternarcotics programs and $600 million from a Treasury Department asset forfeiture fund.
  119. ^ Binder, Sarah (15 March 2019). "The Senate voted to block Trump's national emergency declaration. Now what?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2019.