List of national emergencies in the United States

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A national emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions not normally permitted. The 1976 National Emergencies Act implemented various legal requirements regarding emergencies declared by the President of the United States.[1][2]

Between the enactment of the National Emergencies Act in 1976 through February 15, 2019, 59 emergencies have been declared;[3] 27 have expired while 33 are currently in effect, each having been renewed annually by the president.[4][5][6]

Status President Start date End date Category Description
Ended Wilson February 5, 1917[7] March 3, 1921[8] Maritime Emergency in Water Transportation of the United States (Proclamation 1354)[7]
Ended Franklin Roosevelt March 9, 1933[9] September 14, 1978[10] Economic Declaring Bank Holiday (Proclamation 2039)[11] – Declared a bank holiday from March 6 through March 9, 1933, using the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 as a legal basis.[9] The first of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[9]
Ended Roosevelt September 8, 1939[12] April 28, 1952[12][9] Military Proclaiming a National Emergency in Connection with the Observance, Safeguarding, and Enforcement of Neutrality and the Strengthening of the National Defense Within the Limits of Peace-Time Authorizations[13] (Proclamation 2352)
Ended Roosevelt May 27, 1941 April 28, 1952[12][9] Military Proclaiming That an Unlimited National Emergency Confronts This Country, Which Requires That Its Military, Naval, Air and Civilian Defenses Be Put on the Basis of Readiness to Repel Any and All Acts or Threats of Aggression Directed Toward Any Part of the Western Hemisphere[14] (Proclamation 2487)[12] – declaration of an unlimited national emergency under threat from Nazi Germany.[15]
Ended Truman December 16, 1950[9] September 14, 1978 Military Proclaiming the Existence of a National Emergency (Proclamation 2914)[16] – declared that the United States' "military, naval, air and civilian defenses" should be used to fight communism as part of the Korean War.[17] The second of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[9]
Ended Nixon March 23, 1970[9] September 14, 1978 Economic Declaring a National Emergency (Proclamation 3972)[18] – declaration in response to the 1970 United States Postal Service strike. The third of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[9]
Ended Nixon August 15, 1971[9][19] September 14, 1978 Trade Imposition of Supplemental Duty for Balance of Payments Purposes (Proclamation 4074)[19] – imposed import controls in response to the Nixon shock. The last of four emergencies cited by Senate Report 93-549 as never having been terminated.[9]
Current Carter November 14, 1979 Sanctions Blocking Iranian Government Property[20] (Executive Order 12170)[20] – ordered the freezing of Iranian assets as part of the U.S. response during the Iran hostage crisis[4]
Ended Carter April 17, 1980 January 19, 1981 Sanctions Further Prohibitions on Transactions with Iran (Executive Order 12211) – prohibitions revoked on January 19, 1981, but national emergency left in effect and neither terminated nor continued[21]
Ended Reagan October 14, 1983 December 20, 1983 Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12444)[21] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Reagan March 30, 1984 July 12, 1985 Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12470)[21] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Reagan May 1, 1985[22] March 13, 1990[23] Sanctions Prohibiting Trade and Certain Other Transactions Involving Nicaragua (Executive Order 12513)[22] – The United States embargo against Nicaragua,[24] followed the victory by Sandinista candidate Daniel Ortega in the 1984 Nicaraguan general election over the U.S.-backed Contras
Ended Reagan September 9, 1985 July 10, 1991 Sanctions Prohibiting Trade and Certain Other Transactions Involving South Africa (Executive Order 12532)[21] – response to the initial attempt by Senate Democrats to pass what would be the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986
Ended Reagan January 7, 1986 September 20, 2004 Sanctions Prohibiting Trade and Certain Transactions Involving Libya (Executive Order 12543)[21] – followed the 1985 Rome and Vienna airport attacks
Ended Reagan April 8, 1988 April 5, 1990 Sanctions Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to Panama (Executive Order 12635)[21] – deteriorating relationship between the U.S. and General Manuel Noriega
Ended Bush (H.W.) August 2, 1990 July 29, 2004 Sanctions Blocking Iraqi Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Iraq (Executive Order 12722)[21] – in response to the invasion of Kuwait
Ended Bush (H.W.) September 30, 1990 September 30, 1993 Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12730)[21] – expiry of the Export Administration Act of 1979
Ended Bush (H.W.) November 16, 1990 November 11, 1994 Arms Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation (Executive Order 12735)[21] – followed the signing with the U.S.S.R. of the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord, and preceded the May 1991 commitment by George H.W. Bush to destroy weapon agents, systems, and production facilities of the United States chemical weapons program
Ended Bush (H.W.) October 4, 1991[25] October 14, 1994[26] Sanctions Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to Haiti (Executive Order 12775)[21] – followed the 1991 Haitian coup d'état against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Re-declared by Clinton on May 7, 1994 (Executive Order 12914)[27]
Ended Bush (H.W.) May 30, 1992 May 28, 2003 Sanctions Blocking "Yugoslav Government" Property and Property of the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro (Executive Order 12808)[21] – in response to the start of the Bosnian War
Ended[28] Clinton September 26, 1993 May 6, 2003 Sanctions Prohibiting Certain Transactions Involving UNITA (Executive Order 12865) – imposed economic sanctions on UNITA, a political group in Angola.[29]
Ended Clinton September 30, 1993 September 29, 1994 Arms Measures To Restrict the Participation by United States Persons in Weapons Proliferation Activities (Executive Order 12868) – restricted US development of nuclear and chemical weapons.[30]
Ended Clinton June 30, 1994 August 19, 1994 Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12923)[31]
Ended Clinton August 19, 1994 April 4, 2001[32] Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 12924) – revoked and revised Executive Order 12923[33]
Ended Clinton September 29, 1994 November 14, 1994 Sanctions Measures to Restrict the Participation by United States Persons in Weapons Proliferation Activities (Executive Order 12930)[34]
Ended Clinton October 25, 1994 May 28, 2003 Sanctions Blocking Property and Additional Measures With Respect to the Bosnian Serb-Controlled Areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Executive Order 12934)[35]
Current Clinton November 14, 1994[36] Arms Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction[37] (Executive Order 12938)[38] – provides for control over the export of weapons;[36] combined two previous national emergencies regarding WMDs.[4]
Current Clinton January 23, 1995[39] Sanctions Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process (Executive Order 12947) – imposed economic sanctions on Specially Designated Terrorists, including the ANO, Hezbollah, the DFLP, Hamas, and the PFLP.[39]
Current Clinton March 15, 1995[40] Sanctions Prohibiting Certain Transactions with Respect to the Development of Iranian Petroleum Resources[4] (Executive Order 12957)[40] – intended to prevent a business deal between Iran and Conoco.[41]
Current Clinton October 21, 1995[4] Sanctions Blocking Assets and Prohibiting Transactions with Significant Narcotics Traffickers (Executive Order 12978)[42] – declared in response to Colombian drug cartels using American companies to launder money.[4]
Current Clinton March 1, 1996[4] Maritime Declaration of a National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels (Proclamation 6867)[43] – implemented following the destruction of two civilian aircraft by the Cuban military on February 24, 1996.[44]
Ended Clinton May 20, 1997 October 7, 2016[45] Sanctions Prohibiting New Investment in Burma (Executive Order 13047)[46]
Current Clinton November 3, 1997[4] Sanctions Blocking Sudanese Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Sudan[47] (Executive Order 13067)[47] – established a trade embargo against Sudan, specifically targeting the Sudanese government.[48]
Ended Clinton June 9, 1998[49] May 28, 2003[50] Sanctions Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo (Executive Order 13088)[49] – declaration of a national emergency during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[51]
Ended Clinton July 4, 1999 July 2, 2002 Sanctions Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With the Taliban (Executive Order 13129)[52]
Ended Clinton June 21, 2000 June 25, 2012 Sanctions Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons (Executive Order 13159)[53]
Ended Clinton January 18, 2001[54] January 15, 2004[55] Trade Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone (Executive Order 13194)[54]
Current Bush June 26, 2001[4] Sanctions Blocking Property of Persons Who Threaten International Stabilization Efforts in the Western Balkans[56] (Executive Order 13219)[57] – intended to combat extremist Albanian insurgents operating in North Macedonia and limit obstruction of the Dayton Accords. Amended on May 28, 2003 (Executive Order 13304) following the Ohrid Agreement, signed in 2001.[58]
Current Bush August 17, 2001 Trade Continuation of Export Control Regulations (Executive Order 13222)[59] – reasserted presidential control of exports of "defense articles" following the expiration of the Export Administration Act of 1979 in 1994.[4] Amended on March 8, 2013 (Executive Order 13637)[60] to delegate authority provided by Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act from the president to the Secretary of State.[61]
Current Bush September 14, 2001[4] Military Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks (Proclamation 7463)[62] – the first of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks, allowing the president to call troops from the National Guard or from retirement, to apportion military funding, to exercise more discretion over hiring military officers, and to promote more generals than previously allowed.[63][64]
Current Bush September 23, 2001[65] Sanctions Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism (Executive Order 13224)[64] – the second of two national emergencies declared following the September 11 attacks,[66] allowing the State and Treasury departments (through the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control) to designate entities as terrorists and apply economic sanctions. Due to the order's broad language, its scope has grown over the years to become one of the Treasury's "cornerstone sanctions programs" in fighting terrorism worldwide.[64] Amended on July 2, 2002 (Executive Order 13268)[67] to include the Taliban, and on January 23, 2003 (Executive Order 13284)[68] to integrate the newly-created position of Secretary of Homeland Security into the order's process.
Current Bush March 6, 2003[69] Sanctions Blocking Property of Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe (Executive Order 13288)[69] – imposed economic sanctions on Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe and 76 other government officials[70] following years of rigged elections and a recent food shortage,[71] echoing similar sanctions imposed the previous year by the European Union.[72] Amended on November 22, 2005 (Executive Order 13391)[73] to revise the EO's annex listing the individuals targeted with sanctions.
Current Bush May 22, 2003 Legal Protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and Certain Other Property in Which Iraq Has an Interest (Executive Order 13303)[74] – granted the Development Fund for Iraq, established the same day, legal protection in the wake of the invasion of Iraq and amidst the Iraq War.
Current Bush May 11, 2004 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria (Executive Order 13338)[75] – imposed mostly symbolic economic sanctions on Syria,[76] grounding all flights between the two countries, banning all exports to Syria but food and medicine, and freezing some Syrians' assets.[77]
Ended Bush July 22, 2004 November 12, 2015 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Importation of Certain Goods from Liberia (Executive Order 13348)[78]
Ended Bush February 7, 2006[79] September 14, 2016 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Côte d'Ivoire (Executive Order 13396)[79]
Current Bush June 16, 2006 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus (Executive Order 13405)[80] – imposed sanctions, including a travel ban, on Alexander Lukashenko after Belarus's crackdown on peaceful protests against the recent presidential election and following similar sanctions by the European Union.[81]
Current Bush October 27, 2006 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Executive Order 13413)[82] – imposed economic sanctions on DRC government officials amidst widespread violence taking place during runoffs for Congo's first free election in decades.[83]
Current Bush August 1, 2007 Sanctions Blocking Property of Persons Undermining the Sovereignty of Lebanon or Its Democratic Processes and Institutions (Executive Order 13441)[84] – imposed sanctions intended as a warning to Syria and Hezbollah, months after a similar travel ban, during widespread unrest in the country, and out of concern over rifts between prime minister Fouad Siniora and president Émile Lahoud.[85][86]
Current Bush June 26, 2008 Sanctions Continuing Certain Restrictions With Respect to North Korea and North Korean Nationals (Executive Order 13466)[87] – retained "certain restrictions" on North Korea as the United States removed North Korea from its list of state sponsors of terrorism and as North Korea publicly declared its nuclear program.[88]
Ended Obama October 23, 2009[89] October 23, 2010[90] Public health Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic (Proclamation 8443)[89] – empowered the secretary of Health and Human Services to issue waivers allowing overcrowded hospitals to move swine flu patients to satellite facilities or other hospitals.[91]
Current Obama April 12, 2010[36] Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia (Executive Order 13536)[92] – intended to help combat Somali pirates.[4]
Current Obama February 25, 2011 Sanctions Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to Libya (Executive Order 13566)[93] – imposed sanctions on Muammar Gaddafi, his family, and Libyan officials after protestors were killed by government forces, including freezing assets and consideration of prosecution for war crimes.[94]
Current Obama July 24, 2011[95] Sanctions Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations (Executive Order 13581)[95] – levied sanctions against four criminal organizations—Los Zetas, the Brothers' Circle, the Yakuza, and the Camorra—including freezing assets, barring ownership of American real estate, and implementing travel bans.[96]
Current Obama May 16, 2012 Sanctions Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Yemen (Executive Order 13611)[97] – intended to counter unrest in Yemen in the aftermath of the Yemeni Revolution.[4]
Ended Obama June 25, 2012[98] May 26, 2015[99] Sanctions Blocking Property of the Government of the Russian Federation Relating to the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons (Executive Order 13617)[98] – imposed sanctions on Russia over the disposal of highly enriched uranium.
Current Obama March 6, 2014[100] Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine (Executive Order 13660)[100] – imposed sanctions, including restricting visas, in concert with the European Union and the international community against Russia after its Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.[101][102] Amended on March 16, 2014 (Executive Order 13661),[103] March 20, 2014 (Executive Order 13662),[104] and December 19, 2014 (Executive Order 13685)[105] to expand the scope of sanctions.
Current Obama April 3, 2014[36] Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to South Sudan (Executive Order 13664)[106] – enabled economic sanctions to be placed due to the civil war in South Sudan; sanctions were first imposed a month later.[107]
Current Obama May 12, 2014 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in the Central African Republic (Executive Order 13667)[108] – imposed sanctions against former Central African Republic president François Bozizé, following similar sanctions placed on Bozizé by the United Nations Security Council the previous week;[109] also contains provisions against the use of child soldiers.[36]
Current Obama March 8, 2015 Sanctions Blocking Property and Suspending Entry of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela (Executive Order 13692)[110] – imposed sanctions on seven high-ranking Venezuelan government officials, including SEBIN director Gustavo Enrique González López, PNB director Manuel Perez, and CVG head Justo Noguero.[111][112]
Current Obama April 1, 2015 Sanctions Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities (Executive Order 13694)[113] – intended to allow sanctions to be levied on foreign individuals determined by the Department of the Treasury to have engaged in cyber-crime or cyber-terrorism; was in the works for two years.[114]
Current Obama November 22, 2015[115] Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Burundi (Executive Order 13712)[115] – imposed sanctions on four Burundi nationals—minister of public security Alain Guillaume Bunyoni, National Police of Burundi deputy director-general Godefroid Bizimana, Godefroid Niyombare, and Cyrille Ndayirukiye—in the wake of widespread unrest.[116]
Current Trump December 20, 2017 Sanctions Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption (Executive Order 13818)[117] – imposed sanctions due to the Rohingya conflict in Myanmar, specifically against general Maung Maung Soe;[118] works in tandem with the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act.[36]
Current Trump September 12, 2018[36] Sanctions Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election (Executive Order 13848)[119] – intended to enable automatic sanctions in response to election interference;[120][121] intelligence agencies are given 45 days after an election to assess any possible interference.[36]
Current Trump November 27, 2018 Sanctions Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua (Executive Order 13851)[122] – announces certain sanctions against current and former Daniel Ortega government officials engaging in human rights abuse or corruption.[123]
Current Trump February 15, 2019 Military Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States (Proclamation 9844)[124] – seeks to divert $8 billion of funds, which were previously allocated to other programs, to build a wall on the southern border of the United States, which the order calls a "major entry point for criminals, gang members, and illicit narcotics" into the United States.[125][126][127] This emergency declaration is the first since the passage of the National Emergencies Act in which the president sought to take funds for which Congress previously denied appropriation, and the first time both houses of Congress passed a resolution declaring the emergency terminated, sending it to the president for his signature.[128]
Current Trump March 15, 2019 Sanctions

President Donald Trump signed an executive order declaring a national emergency regarding telecommunications equipment that could pose a risk to national security. The order bans American companies from using any telecommunications equipment that the secretary of Commerce declares to be a national security risk.

Soon after the executive order - "Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain" - was signed, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) of the Department of Commerce announced that it will be adding Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd and 70 affiliates to its Entity List. The Department of Commerce alleged that Huawei was engaged in activities that are contrary to US national security or foreign policy interest. As a result, sale or transfer of American technology to a company or person on the Entity List requires a license issued by the BIS, and a license may be denied if the sale or transfer would harm US national security or foreign policy interests.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ CNN, Ryan Struyk. "Trump's wall would be the 32nd active national emergency". CNN.
  3. ^ Moon, Emily (January 8, 2019). "The United States' States of Emergencies". Pacific Standard. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Heath, Kendall (January 10, 2019). "Here's a list of the 31 national emergencies that have been in effect for years". ABC News. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
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  10. ^ Public Law 95-223
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  72. ^ Black, Ian (February 19, 2002). "EU hits Mugabe with sanctions and pulls out monitors". The Guardian. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  73. ^ "Blocking Property of Additional Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe". Federal Register. November 25, 2005. pp. 71199–71209. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  74. ^ "Protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and Certain Other Property in Which Iraq Has an Interest". Federal Register. May 22, 2003. pp. 31929–31932. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  75. ^ "Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting the Export of Certain Goods to Syria". Federal Register. May 11, 2004. pp. 26749–26754. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
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