List of national founders

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, (i.e., political system form of government, and constitution), of the country. They can also be military leaders of a war of independence that led to the establishment of a sovereign state.


Amílcar Cabral was a revolutionary and nationalist leader of Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.
Saad Zaghloul was the founder of independent Egypt. "Zaeem al Ummah (Leader of the Nation)"


Ahmed Ben Bella served as first Prime Minister of Algeria from 1962 to 1963, then as first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.


Agostinho Neto served as first President of Angola from 1975 to 1979.


Hubert Maga served as first President of Dahomey from 1960 to 1963.


Seretse Khama served as first President of Botswana from 1966 to 1980.

Burkina Faso[edit]

Thomas Sankara served as first President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987.



Ahmadou Ahidjo served as first President of Cameroon from 1960 to 1982.

Cape Verde[edit]

Amílcar Cabral (var. Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral) (1924–1973) was an agricultural engineer, writer, and a nationalist thinker and political leader. He was also one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders. Amílcar Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands and the ensuing war of independence in Guinea-Bissau. He was assassinated on 20 January 1973, several months before Guinea-Bissau's unilateral declaration of independence. He is considered a founder of Cape Verde. Aristides Pereira served as first President of Cape Verde from 1975 to 1991.

Central African Republic[edit]

David Dacko served as first President of Central African Republic from 1960 to 1966.


François Tombalbaye served as first President of Chad from 1960 to 1975.


Ahmed Abdallah (State of the Comoros; First president of the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros) Ali Soilih (State of the Comoros; First president) Azali Assoumani (Union of the Comoros)

Republic of the Congo[edit]

Fulbert Youlou served as first President of the Republic of the Congo from 1960 to 1963.

Democratic Republic of the Congo[edit]

Patrice Lumumba, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, Albert Kalonji, Jean Bolikango, Cléophas Kamitatu, and Paul Bolya are all considered "Fathers of Independence" in the Congo.[1]


Hassan Gouled Aptidon served as first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.


There is no agreed founder of Egypt as the area was politically unified around 3000 BC and has since endured multiple changes in terms of government and polities.

The prevailing historical view is that Muhammad Ali (1769–1849) is the Father of Modern Egypt, being the first ruler since the Ottoman conquest in 1517 to permanently divest the Porte of its power in Egypt. While failing to achieve formal independence for Egypt during his lifetime, he was successful in laying the foundation for a modern Egyptian state.[2]

The Founder of Independent Egypt, Saad Zaghloul (1859–1927), was a politician who served in many ministries of the Egyptian government, and was imprisoned by the British government in Malta, but returned to Egypt to participate in the revolution of 1919. Zaghloul then was able to make the Sultan of Egypt (later King) Fuad I convince the British to grant Egypt independence with a friendly British-Egyptian relationship and in 1922, Egypt was proclaimed an independent kingdom, the Kingdom of Egypt with Saad Zaghloul as its prime minister. British military presence in Egypt ended with nationalisation of Suez Canal in 1956.

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

Francisco Macías Nguema served as first President of Equatorial Guinea from 1968 to 1979.


Isaias Afwerki serves as first President of Eritrea from 1993 to present.



Menelik I is claimed to be first the first Emperor of Ethiopia during the 10th century B.C (975–950 B.C). Yekuno Amlak founded the Solomonic dinasty and was the first emperor of the Ethiopian empire from 1270 to 1285 A.D. Menelik II is the founder of modern Ethiopian state.


Léon M'ba served as first President of Gabon from 1961 to 1967.

The Gambia[edit]

Dawda Jawara served as first Prime Minister of the Gambia from 1962 to 1970. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1965.


Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972) led the nation to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1957.


Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Seku Turay) (1922–1984) was a Guinean political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984. Touré was one of the primary Guinean nationalists involved in the independence of the country from France.

He is with Kwame Nkrumah one of the founders of the African Union, and the Guinean Diallo Telli was the first general secretary of the African Union.


Luís Cabral served as first President of Guinea-Bissau from 1973 to 1980.

Ivory Coast[edit]

Félix Houphouët-Boigny served as first President of Ivory Coast from 1960 to 1993.


Jomo Kenyatta served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of the Republic. Oginga Odinga served as the first vice-president.


Leabua Jonathan served as Prime Minister of Lesotho from 1965 to 1986.Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1966.


Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809–1876) was born a free man of black American descent. In 1829 his family moved to Liberia. In 1839, Roberts became Liberia's lieutenant governor and afterwards, its governor (1841–1848). He is known as the father of Liberia and officially declared Liberia's independence in 1847.[3]


King Idris Al-sanusi, also known as Idris I of Libya, (1889–1983) was the first and only king of Libya, reigning from 1951 to 1969, and the Chief of the Senussi Muslim order. Idris as-Senussi proclaimed an independent Emirate of Cyrenaica in 1949. He was also invited to become Emir of Tripolitania, another of the three traditional regions that now constitute modern Libya (the third being Fezzan).[4] By accepting he began the process of uniting Libya under a single monarchy. A constitution was enacted in 1949 and adopted in October 1951. A National Congress elected Idris as King of Libya, and as Idris I he proclaimed the independence of the Kingdom of Libya as a sovereign state on 24 December 1951.



Hastings Banda served as first Prime Minister of Malawi from 1964 to 1966, then as first President from 1966 to 1994.


Modibo Keïta served as first President of Mali from 1960 to 1968.


Moktar Ould Daddah served as first President of Mauritania from 1960 to 1978.


Seewoosagur Ramgoolam served as first Prime Minister of Mauritius from 1968 to 1982.



Samora Machel served as first President of Mozambique from 1975 to 1986.



Hamani Diori served as first President of Niger from 1960 to 1974.


All are considered founders of Nigeria. The troika of Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Ahmadu Bello negotiated Nigeria's independence from Britain, aided by such figures as Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti.


Grégoire Kayibanda served as first President of Rwanda from 1962 to 1973.

São Tomé and Príncipe[edit]

Manuel Pinto da Costa served as first President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991.

Sierra Leone[edit]

Freetown, Sierra Leone was founded in part by a Black American soldier, Thomas Peters in 1792, after managing to convince British abolitionists to help settle 1,192 Black Americans who fought for the British in return for freedom. Peters, alongside other Black Americans David George and Moses Wilkinson, were influential in the establishment of Freetown, but it was Peters who is remembered today as the true influential leader and founder of Sierra Leone. The descendants of Peters and the Black Americans form part of the Krio ethnicity today[5][6] and in 2011, a statue was erected in Freetown to honour him.[7]


The founder of modern Senegal is Léopold Sédar Senghor. He served as first President from 1960 to 1980.


James Mancham served as first President of Seychelles from 1976 to 1977.


The Somali Youth League played a major role for Somalia's independence since the 1940s, with two of its members having served as the first two Somali presidents, Aden Adde and Abdirashid Shermarke. There are several murals and monuments dedicated to the SYL's independence movement in Mogadishu.

Republic of South Africa[edit]

Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) was the President of South Africa, in office from 1994 to 1999. He led the negotiations, together with F. W. de Klerk, to racially integrate and unite the country.

Other anti-apartheid activists include:

South Sudan[edit]


Ibrahim Abboud


Julius Nyerere was a key figure in the independence of the country, and served as the first President from 1964 to 1985.

On the part of Zanzibar the other side of the union there is Sheikh Abeid Aman Karume.


Sylvanus Olympio served as first President of Togo from 1960 to 1963.


The founder of the modern Tunisia is Habib Bourguiba. He served as first President from 1957 to 1987.



  • Kenneth Kaunda (1924–2021) is the prominent icon in the independence and unification of Zambia. He served as first President from 1964 to 1991. However, there are important personalities like Simon Kapwepwe and Harry Nkumbula (1916–18) that fairly deserve recognition. Together, in their different capacities, they led the nation to freedom.


Abel Muzorewa (1925–2010) was the first black Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.
Robert Mugabe (1924–2019) was the leader of ZANU-PF, who ruled Zimbabwe from 1980 to 2017.



Ahmad Shah Durrani (1723–1773) unified the Afghan tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747.[8] His mausoleum is next to the Shrine of the Cloak in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where he is fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah the Father).



Mammad Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Əmin Axund Hacı Molla Ələkbər oğlu Rəsulzadə, Turkish: Mehmed Emin Resulzâde; (1884–1955) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918–1920). His expression "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!" ("The flag once raised will never fall!") became the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.


Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa served as first Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1970 to 2020. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1971.


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is considered by many as the founding father of Bangladesh

Apart from the founding leaders, the four key members of the Liberation Wartime government vice-president Syed Nazrul Islam, prime minister Tajuddin Ahmad, finance minister Muhammad Mansur Ali and home minister Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman (altogether known as 'Four National Leaders') and the Liberation Wartime armed forces chief Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani are hailed as vital figures in Bangladesh's independence.


Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594–1651) fled Tibet and unified the fiefdoms of Bhutan. He established the dual system of shared power between secular and Buddhist leadership that continues as a tradition to the present.




Yellow Thearch
Yellow Thearch
Yu the Great
Yu the Great
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong

The Yellow Thearch is revered as the legendary initiator of Chinese civilization, one of the cradles of civilization.[16]

Yu the Great is conventionally regarded as having inaugurated dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia dynasty, the first orthodox dynasty of China, in circa 2070 BC.[17]

In 221 BC, the State of Qin completed the conquest of the various Chinese kingdoms of the Warring States period and formed the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin dynasty.[18] Its monarch then took the title of Huángdì (皇帝; "Emperor") to reflect his prestigious status vis-à-vis prior rulers, thus becoming Qin Shi Huang.[18]

Sun Yat-sen was the founding father of the Republic of China and served as its first provisional president. He was officially conferred the title of Guófù (國父; "Father of the Nation") by the Nationalist government in AD 1940.[19] Today, he is still officially recognized as such in the Taiwan Area where the Republic of China continues to rule, while the People's Republic of China considers him the Gémìng Xiānxíngzhě (革命先行者; "Forerunner of the Revolution").[20]

Mao Zedong is regarded as the founder of the People's Republic of China,[21] even though the state has yet to officially confer the title "Father of the Nation" upon anyone.[22]


East Timor[edit]

Mari Alkatiri served as Prime Minister of East Timor from 2002 to 2006.


Mahatma Gandhi, father of the nation

Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) is considered the father of the nation and one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement.[23][24] He is regarded as the founder of the modern Republic of India. He is featured on the Indian rupee.


Sukarno, Founder of Indonesia

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta are the founders of Indonesia. They both signed the Proclamation of Independence which then read by Sukarno, proclaiming the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands on 17 August 1945. A day later, they were elected respectively as the first President and Vice President of Indonesia. As the Netherlands did not recognize the independence, both of them were prominent figures and were seen as symbol of unity among Indonesian people to fight against Dutch during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to The Hague for a Round Table Conference which then led to the recognition of Indonesian independence by the Netherlands on 23 December 1949.[25]

Mohammad Hatta, Founder of Indonesia

In the early days of its formal independence, Indonesia published a series of stamps that paired several local personage with American founding fathers and former presidents. They are: Sukarno paired with George Washington, for their leadership during the initial stage of independence; Mohammad Hatta paired with Abraham Lincoln, for their democratic ideals; Haji Agus Salim paired with Benjamin Franklin, for their foreign diplomacy; Alexander Andries Maramis paired with Alexander Hamilton, for their contribution in the country financial matters; and Sutan Sjahrir paired with Thomas Jefferson, for their political marvels.

Iran (Persia)[edit]

Cyrus the Great (600–530 BC) was the founder of the First Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. Many Iranians gather at his tomb in Pasargadae annually on the Cyrus the Great Day and Nowruz, the Persian New Year. Prior to the 1979 Revolution the 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran took place. It consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and First Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great.[26][27] The intent of the celebration was to demonstrate Iran's old civilization and history to showcase its contemporary advancements under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.[28][29]

Reza Shah is considered "the father of modern Iran" as he introduced many reforms and was the first Iranian head of state to ask foreign countries to refer to Iran by its endonym.[30][31] Ruhollah Khomeini is considered the founder of the modern Islamic State of Iran.[32]


Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of Israel's founding ideology known as Zionism. David Ben-Gurion was the first Prime Minister of Israel, and considered an important figure in the creation of the state of Israel.


Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō) (traditional reign 660–585 BC) was the first Emperor of Japan,[33] according to the traditional order of succession.[34] The Japanese national holiday National Foundation Day (建国記念の日, Kenkoku Kinen no Hi) is celebrated annually on 11 February in commemoration of the founding of the nation of Japan and the ascension of Emperor Jimmu to the imperial throne.[35]


Abdullah bin Al-Hussain was the founder and ruler of the Jordanian realm from 11 April 1921 until his assassination on the 20th of July 1951. He was the Emir of Transjordan, a British protectorate, until 25 May 1946,[36][37] after which he was the king of an independent Jordan. He was a 38th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad, as he belongs to the Hashemite family.


Alikhan Bokeikhanov, leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement.

There is no law in the country which officially recognizes a single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times.

Alikhan Bukeikhanov (1866–1937) was a Kazakh statesman, politician, publicist, teacher, writer and environmental scientist. He was leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement. He sided with the westernizers in the Kazakh political scene who were promoting the idea of the Western culture into the Kazakh steppe. In 1920, after the establishment of Soviet hegemony, Bukeikhanov joined the Bolshevik party and returned to scientific life. His earlier political activities caused the authorities to view him with suspicion, leading to arrests in 1926 and 1928. In 1926, Bukeikhanov was arrested on the charge of counter-revolutionary activity and put into Butyrka prison in Moscow. But due to the lack of evidence in the criminal case against him, he was released from prison. In 1930, the authorities banished him to Moscow, where he was arrested a final time in 1937 and executed.

Dinmukhamed Kunayev (1912–1993) was a Kazakh Soviet communist politician. He became first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan again in 1964 when Khrushchev was ousted and replaced by Brezhnev. He kept his position for twenty-two more years. He was an alternate member of the Politburo from 1967, and a full member from 1971 to 1987. During Kunayev's long rule, Kazakhs occupied prominent positions in the bureaucracy, economy and educational institutions. A Brezhnev loyalist, he was removed from office under pressure from Mikhail Gorbachev, who accused him of corruption. On 16 December 1986 the Politburo replaced him with Gennady Kolbin, who had never lived in the Kazakh SSR before. This provoked street riots in Almaty, which were the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev's tenure. In modern Kazakhstan, this revolt is called Jeltoqsan, meaning December in Kazakh.

Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union in December 1991. In 2010 Parliament of Kazakhstan named him Елбасы (Elbasy) which means "Leader of the Nation".

North Korea[edit]

Kim Il-sung was the founder of North Korea. He ruled from 1948 to 1994.


The first recorded ruler of Kuwait was Sheikh Abu Salman Sabah. However, Sheikh Mubarak Al-Kabir is known as the founder of the modern state of Kuwait. He was instrumental in moving the country away from the Ottoman Empire and toward British influence.


Askar Akayev served as first post-Soviet President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 to 2005.


Fa Ngum is widely considered a founding father of the Lao people. In present day Laos, Kaysonne Phomvihane and Prince Souphanouvoung are considered the fathers of the Marxist-Leninist state.


Bechara El Khoury and Riad El Solh served as the first president and the first Prime Minister respectively of Lebanon after the French mandate in 1943.


Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903–1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.



Genghis Khan posthumous portrait

Genghis Khan (c. 1162–1227), who by uniting the nomadic tribes founded the Mongol Empire, is generally regarded as the father of modern-day Mongolia.[citation needed] Although downcast during the communist-era, Genghis Khan's reputation surged after the democratic revolution in 1990.


Anawrahta is considered to be founder of ancient Burmese Kingdom of Pagan.

General Aung San is the founder of modern Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although he did not live to see the country's independence, he is credited in forming the basic structure of the independence movement and government. Aung San started his political career in 1930 as the editor of Rangoon University's newspaper – where he accused one of the colonial administrators in Burma of misconduct. In late 1940 he went to Japanese controlled Taiwan and Xiamen to receive military training, and he led the Burmese National Army, spearheading the Japanese invasion of Burma. Later, he switched sides to the Allies, and helped in the Burma Campaign. After the war, he was appointed to the government of a returning British administration, and was able to negotiate Burma's independence. He helped organized the Panglong Agreement in February 1947, achieving independence for all Burmese territories. However, on Saturday, 19 July 1947, Aung San, along with his cabinet ministers, was assassinated at the secretariat building in Rangoon.

U Nu served as first Prime Minister of Myanmar from 1948 to 1956.

General Ne Win was one of the founders of Tatmadaw. On 1962, 15 years after the independence, he led a military coup that brought him to power. Ne Win established the Burmese Way to Socialism which ruled Burma for 26 years.


Prithvi Narayan Shah was largely responsible for the unification of Nepal, and is considered to be the founder of Nepal. His vision of ruling over a unified Nepal is said to have started when atop a hill near Nepa Valley (Present day Kathmandu), he decided he would like to rule over it. His strategic plan was very successful and his successors continued to build on his progress.[38] Prithvi Narayan Shah's descendants continued to rule over Nepal for a total of 240 years before the 2006 democracy movement in Nepal toppled the constitutional power exercised by King Gyanendra, before abolishing the monarchy in 2008.



Pakistan's founder is Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who is hailed as Quaid-e-Azam or "Great Leader" and Baba-e-Qaum or Father of Nation. He founded not only the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but is credited for creating an entirely new nation state. Other prominent founders include the poet Muhammad Iqbal or spiritual Father, believed to be the first person to propagate the idea of a state for India's Muslims, Fatima Jinnah (Mother of nation) and members of Pakistan's first Cabinet such as Liaquat Ali Khan, A. K. Fazlul Huq, Abdul Rab Nishtar, Malik Feroze Khan Noon, Khwaja Nazimuddin and I. I. Chundrigar. Some historians credit the Muslim reformist Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as a founder of Pakistan because he provided the Two-Nation Theory which played a central role in the perception of Pakistan and its Muslim nationalist ideology largely based on Iqbal's philosophy and views.


Palestinian political leader Yasser Arafat has been considered by some commentators as being the "founding father" of Palestine.[39][40] Born in 1929 in Cairo, Egypt, Arafat soon became a supporter of Arab nationalism and anti-Zionism; in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood against the newly independent State of Israel.[41] From 1969 until 2004, he served as the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a Palestinian nationalist organization which engaged in a numerous guerilla conflicts with the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the second half of the 20th century.[42] Beginning from 1983 onwards, Arafat based himself in Tunisia and switched to a tactic of negotiating with the Israeli government, acknowledging Israel's right to exist in a UN resolution and supporting a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the Israeli government to end the conflict between it and the PLO, including the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit.[43] In 1994, he returned to Palestine and promoted self-government for the Palestinian territories, receiving the Nobel Peace Prize the same year. Among Palestinians, Arafat is viewed as a martyr who symbolized the national aspirations of his people.[44]


There is no law in the Philippines which officially recognizes any single individual as the "Father of the Nation". Either title may be associated with any of the following prominent historical persons, owing to their impact on the country during their respective times: José Rizal (1861–1896) was a Filipino nationalist during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after an anti-colonial revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not actively involved in its planning or conduct, he ultimately approved of its goals which eventually led to Philippine independence. He is widely considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines, and is implied by Philippine law to be one of the national heroes. He was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere, and El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. Andrés Bonifacio (1863–1897) De facto President and a leader during the Philippine Revolution in 1896, which saw armed resistance against the Spanish Empire. Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964) Leader of the latter part of the Philippine Revolution and first president of the Philippines through the 1899 Malolos Congress, which oversaw the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution. Manuel Roxas served as first President of independent Philippines from 1946 to 1948.


Saudi Arabia[edit]

King Abdulaziz Al Saud, also known as Ibn Saud, is the founding father of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He served as first King from 1932 to 1953.


Lee Kuan Yew (1923–2015), often referred to by his initials "LKY", was the first prime minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for three decades. He helped to built the economy from a third world country to a first world country and turned Singapore from a mudflat swamp to a metropolis after the separation from Malaysia in 1965.

South Korea[edit]

Syngman Rhee, founding father of South Korea.

Syngman Rhee was the first president and founding father of South Korea at the time of the establishment of the country in 1948.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Official Photographic Portrait of Don Stephen Senanayaka (1884–1952)

Prince Vijaya is considered to be the first King of Sri Lanka with King Dutugemunu honored as the first king to unify Sri Lanka. D. S. Senanayake (1883–1952) is widely known as the modern (post independence) father of the nation. William Gopallawa (1896–1981) was the first Constitutional President while J. R. Jayewardene (1906–1996) was the first Executive President.




Naresuan (1590–1605), who retook most of Siam from the Burmese

King Taksin the Great (1734–1782), who reunited Siam following the collapse of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.

Rama I (1737–1809), founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam.


Alp Arslan (1029–1072) was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire. He greatly expanded the Seljuk territory and consolidated his power, defeating rivals to the south and northwest, and his victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, in 1071, ushered in the Turkoman settlement of Anatolia.

Osman I (1258–1324), was the leader of the Kayi tribe and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.

Mehmed the Conqueror (1432–1481), was an Ottoman sultan who ruled from August 1444 to September 1446, and then later from February 1451 to May 1481. When he ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.

Mahmud II (1785–1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization"). Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.

Atatürk, the founding father of the Republic of Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938) was the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. Following the First World War, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) in 1923.[45] He subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of transforming the old multinational Ottoman state into a new secular republic.[46]


Saparmurat Niyazov served as first post-Soviet President of Turkmenistan from 1990 to 2006.

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Initially independent emirates part of the Trucial states, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan established the United Arab Emirates by joining the seven independent emirates into a federation.


Islam Karimov served as first post-Soviet President of Uzbekistan from 1991 to 2016.


Kinh Dương VươngLạc Long Quân and the Hùng Kings were the founders of the Hồng Bàng dynasty – the first dynasty of Vietnam and laid the foundation to form the country of Vietnam.


Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din ruled as first independent King of Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen from 1918 to 1948.



Skanderbeg, the ruler of Albania from 1443 to 1468
Qemali, founder of the Republic of Albania





Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]


  • Mythical rulers of Bulgaria date back as far as 3rd millennium BC.




  • Višeslav was one of the first dukes of Croatia, and the early attested by name.
  • Tomislav is celebrated as the first king of Croatia and the founder of the first united Croatian state.
  • Ante Starčević, has been referred to as Father of the Nation due to his campaign for the rights of Croats within Austria-Hungary and his propagation of a Croatian state in a time where many politicians sought unification with other South Slavs.
  • Franjo Tuđman, first President of the Republic of Croatia 1990–99.[54] Self-proclaimed "Father of the Nation".[55]


Makarios III was the first President of Cyprus and is often called the Father of the Nation.[56]

Czech Republic[edit]

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk was the first president of Czechoslovakia. Václav Havel was the first president of the Czech Republic. Czechs has also story about grandfathe Czech who was leader (vojvoda) of several slavic tribes. Also, Samo, the merchant, was important because he helped the tribes against Frankish empire.


Niels Ebbesen (1308 – 21 November 1340)
  • Dan (king) (or Halfdan) is the name of the legendary earliest king of the Danes and Denmark, mentioned in medieval Scandinavian texts. He is said to be the progenitor of the nation and the Danish Royal House according to Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum.
  • Gorm the Old, the first recorded ruler of Denmark, reigning from c.  936 to his death c.  958. The current Queen Margrethe II of Denmark can trace her heritage back to Gorm the Old. He is called the founder of the kingdom of Denmark, though at the time he did not control the whole country, only Jutland.
  • Harald Bluetooth was the son of Gorm the old and the first to unite Denmark into a single country by uniting the tribes. Harald ruled as king of Denmark from c. 958 – c. 986. He was baptized and the first Christian king of Denmark and helped Christianize the Danes, which is proclaimed on the Jelling stone.
  • Niels Ebbesen was a Danish squire and national hero who liberated Denmark, which had been patented away to German barons and landlords. He is known for his killing of Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg in 1340, and in doing so returning control of Jutland and Funen back to the Danish king.


Edgar Savisaar served as first post-Soviet Prime Minister of Estonia from 1991 to 1992.


Pehr Evind Svinhufvud served as first Prime Minister of Finland from 1917 to 1918.




Before the national unification of Germany in 1871, German nationalists sought out multiple legendary founders of the German nation, such as Arminius, Charlemagne and – as championed by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Richard WagnerHenry the Fowler. Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), the "Iron Chancellor", engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany in 1871. Modern, democratic Germany was decisively shaped by the "Fathers of the Basic Law" in the 1948 Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee, and by the first German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. For reunified Germany, the slogan "Wir sind das Volk!" ("We are the people!") became symbolic, thus making all Germans founders of modern Germany.





According to Anonymus the fejedelem who made the Magyars settle into the Carpathian Basin in 896 AD was Árpád. His dynasty reigned over the Hungarian Kingdom from the ninth century until 1301. In Hungary Stephen I of Hungary is commonly regarded as the founder of the nation. He was Hungary's first king and united the Magyar people into the Kingdom of Hungary. Amongst others, Lajos Kossuth is supposed to be the Pater Patriae. He is known as the leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 against the Habsburgs, and therefore founder of the modern Hungarian Republic.


Jón Sigurðsson was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.[59] He was the first president of the Althingi, restored as a legislative branch in 1875.


The Irish Free State was established after the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), in which Éamon de Valera, Cathal Brugha and Michael Collins were key leaders. However, they became antagonists in the Irish Civil War (1922–23), in which Collins and Brugha were killed and de Valera defeated. For decades, the inheritors of the opposing factions bypassed these sensitivities to honour the earlier leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916, in particular the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic: Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Éamonn Ceannt, Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, and Joseph Plunkett.



Modern Italy[edit]


It is likely that the Kosovans regard Ibrahim Rugova as a key figure, since he was the one that brought an independence movement of Kosovo from the fall of Yugoslavia. Additionally, Rugova ruled Kosovo from the 1992 till 2006 as president of the nation, and ever since has been regarded as the National Hero of Kosovo, and led to further independence in 2008 from Serbia to which now 97 nations have recognised Kosovo as of September 2021.


Most Latvians regard Kārlis Ulmanis, a key figure in the Latvian war of independence and four-times Prime Minister of Latvia, as being the founding father of modern Latvia.



The first and the only king (1251–1263) of Lithuania, Mindaugas, is seen as the founder of the Lithuanian state, as is commemorated on Statehood Day on 6 July.[61] Dr. Jonas Basanavičius, activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival in the turn of the 19th century into the 20th, who participated in every major event leading to the independence of Lithuania, member of the Council of Lithuania which on 16 February 1918 declared Lithuania an independent state, is universally considered the "Patriarch of the Nation".[62]


Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes





Prince William I of Orange (1533–1584) or William the Silent, is known as the father of the Netherlands. He led the Dutch in their Revolt against Spain for their independence. Today he is often called Vader des Vaderlands ("Father of the Fatherland").[63]

North Macedonia[edit]

Kiro Gligorov (first president of independent Macedonia).[64]


King Harald Fairhair, who unified Norway and ruled c. 872–930, is often considered the founder of the nation.

Usually the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll in 1814, consisting of 112 men from most of the country, in Norway often referred to as Eidsvoll Men or the Fathers of the Constitution.[65]



Kingdom of Poland and Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów:

  • Mieszko I (c. 920/45–992), the first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state. He was a Duke of the Polans from about 960 until his death. Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Přemyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader and charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding an alliance with Bohemia first, and then with Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country of greatly expanded territory, with a well-established position in Europe. Mieszko I also appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document from about 1085, called "Dagome iudex", which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).
  • Bolesław I Chrobry (967–1025), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. He was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by his wife, Dobrawa of Bohemia. He supported the missionary views of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, and Bruno of Querfurt. The martyrdom of Adalbert in 997 and his imminent canonization were used to consolidate Poland's autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire. This perhaps happened most clearly during the Congress of Gniezno (11 March 1000), which resulted in the establishment of a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno. This See was independent of the German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which had tried to claim jurisdiction over the Polish church. Following the Congress of Gniezno, bishoprics were also established in Kraków, Wrocław and Kołobrzeg, and Bolesław formally repudiated paying tribute to the Holy Roman Empire. In the summer of 1018, in one of his expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where he installed his son-in-law Sviatopolk I as ruler. According to legend, Bolesław chipped his sword when striking Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, in honor of this legend, a sword called Szczerbiec ("Jagged Sword") would become the coronation sword of Poland's kings. Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist, and statesman. He not only turned Poland into a country comparable to older western monarchies, but he raised it to the front rank of European states. Bolesław conducted successful military campaigns in the west, south and east. He consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern-day Poland, including Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen, Lusatia, and Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs. Finally, as the culmination of his reign, in 1025 he had himself crowned King of Poland. He was the first Polish ruler to receive the title of rex (Latin: "king").
Gen. Józef Piłsudski (first on the left) Ignacy Jan Paderewski (next to Piłsudski in the a civil coat) and Stanisław Wojciechowski (behind Paderewski), future second President of Poland, during the opening ceremony of the Legislative Sejm, 9 February 1919.

Fathers of Polish Independence:



  • Burebista is considered the great king who unified all the Dacian tribes. He is also known for creating a powerful empire that stretched from west to the Adriatic Sea and Southern Germany, from east to the Black Sea, from north to Southern Poland and from south to Greek Macedonia and Eastern Thrace. He is considered by many Romanians as a national hero. The Dacian Kingdom under Burebista was the greatest territorial extent in Romania's history.
  • Decebalus and Trajan are considered to be the fathers of the Romanian people, as Roman veterans were settled on the present-day territory of Romania following Trajan's Dacian Wars.[citation needed]
  • Basarab I the Founder (c. 1270-1351/1352) was the great voivode of Wallachia. Basarab either came into power between 1304 and 1324 by dethroning or peacefully succeeding the legendary founder of Wallachia, Radu Negru, or in 1310 by succeeding his father, Thocomerius. In 1330 he defeated Charles I of Hungary at the battle of Posada, and the first independent Romanian state was consequently founded. He founded the Basarab dynasty and his descendants ruled Wallachia for more than three centuries. From the middle of the 14th century, some foreign chronicles used derivations of his name: "Basarab", when referring to Wallachia.
  • Michael the Brave (1558–1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600). He is considered one of Romania's greatest national heroes. Since the 19th century, Michael the Brave has been regarded as a symbol of the unity of all Romanians, as his reign marked the first time all states mainly inhabited by Romanians were under the same ruler.
  • Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the first leader of the modern Romanian state. He presided over Wallachia and Moldavia in a personal union, which later became permanent even though he was forced to abdicate.
  • Carol I was the first King of Romania that obtained the independence of the country.
  • Ion C. Brătianu established the foundation of the modern Romanian State.
  • Mihail Kogălniceanu established the foundation of the modern Romanian State.
  • Ferdinand I was King of Romania when the country gained Transylvania and Bessarabia.


San Marino[edit]

Saint Marinus was the founder of the world's oldest surviving republic, San Marino, in 301. Tradition holds that he was a stonemason by trade who came from the island of Rab on the other side of the Adriatic Sea (modern Croatia), fleeing persecution for his Christian beliefs in the Diocletianic Persecution.


The honorific Father of the Fatherland (Отац Отаџбине) has been given to Saint Sava,[71] Karađorđe,[72] and Miloš Obrenović, the latter having been given it by the National Assembly during his lifetime.[73]


Many Slovaks see Great Moravia as their ancestors, which would make Mojmír I a founder.


France Bučar is a Slovenian politician, legal expert and author. Between 1990 and 1992, he served as the first chairman of the freely elected Slovenian Parliament. He was the one to formally declare the independence of Slovenia on 25 June 1991. He is considered one of the founders of Slovenian democracy and independence. He is also considered, together with Peter Jambrek, as the main author of the current Slovenian constitution. Jože Pučnik was president of DEMOS and one of the main persons in the Slovenian fight for independence. The largest Slovenian airport is named Letališče Jožeta Pučnika (Jože Pučnik airport). Lojze Peterle was first prime minister of Slovenia and Milan Kučan was the first president.


The Catholic Monarchs of Spain

The Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, unified Spain in the 15th century. Both came from the noble House of Trastámara. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the first to inherit the dynastic union and the first Habsburg monarch. His successor, Philip II of Spain, established a capital in Madrid. The first Bourbon King of Spain was Philip V of Spain, who is also responsible for the de jure unification of the country.


While Sweden had existed as a monarchy of sorts long before his time, Birger Jarl, father of and regent for Valdemar, King of Sweden, can be said to have established Sweden as a nation. Birger was Jarl in the years 1248–66.

Gustav I of Sweden, who secured Sweden's independence from Denmark in 1523, is often considered a father of the nation.


Both the anonymous Eidgenossen who drew up the Federal Charter of 1291, or the liberal statesmen who helped found the modern Swiss Confederation in 1848 can be considered the founders of Switzerland. Among the latter, those who became the first members of the Swiss Federal Council were perhaps the most notable: Ulrich Ochsenbein, Jakob Stämpfli, Jonas Furrer, Josef Munzinger, Henri Druey, Friedrich Frey-Herosé, Wilhelm Matthias Naeff and Stefano Franscini.[citation needed]


Ukraine's historical roots can be traced back to Kievan Rus' in 879, with Volodymyr I as the Grand Prince of Kyiv.

After the 13th-century Mongol invasion devastated Kievan Rus', the principalities of Halych and Volodymyr-Volynskyi merged into the state of Galicia-Volhynia by Danylo Romanovych, who also reunited Galicia-Volhynia with the ancient capital of Kyiv by 1253.

In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Petro Doroshenko led the largest of the Cossack uprisings against the Commonwealth and the Polish king.

Mykhailo Hrushevsky was the President the Central Council of Ukraine People's Republic.

Leonid Kravchuk is the First President of Ukraine elected in 1991.

Vatican City[edit]

Peter the Apostle is seen as the first pope.

Vatican City took on its modern form under the Lateran Treaty signed by Pope Pius XI.


Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

Vere Bird served as first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 1981 to 1994.


Manuel Belgrano and José de San Martín were important figures in early Argentina.


Lynden Pindling is considered the "Father of the Nation". He served as first Prime Minister of the Bahamas from 1967 to 1992. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1973.


Errol Barrow served as first Prime Minister of Barbados from 1966 to 1976.


George Cadle Price (1919–2011) is considered to be the Father of the Nation of Belize.[74][75] He served as head of government of British Honduras, later Belize from 1961 to 1984. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1981.


Simon Bolivar (1783–1830) and Antonio José de Sucre (1795–1830) are considered to be the founders of Bolivia.


Pedro I, founder and first Emperor of Brazil

Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467/68–1520) commander of the first Portuguese fleet to arrive in South America. José Bonifácio de Andrada (1763–1838), known as "Patriarch of Independence", is considered the maximum leader of the Independence movement because of his intellectual mentorship and political prominence, and Pedro I of Brazil (1798–1834), son of the King João VI of Portugal, the symbol of the "center of force and union", according to the Bonifácio strategy.


Canadian Fathers of Confederation

The name "Fathers of Confederation" is given to those who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864, and the London Conference of 1866, to establish the Canadian Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation.[76] Queen Victoria, who supported and encouraged this process, is known as the Mother of Confederation. She was the first Monarch under the 1867 Constitution and personally chose Ottawa as Canada's capital city. The political leaders who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation".[77]

Caribbean Community[edit]

Errol Barrow (Barbados: 1920–1987); Forbes Burnham (Guyana: 1923–1985); Michael Manley (Jamaica: 1924–1997); and Eric Williams (Trinidad and Tobago: 1911–1981) were the leaders who brought forth regional integration among the Caribbean Community.[78]


Posthumous (1854) portrait of the Founding Fathers of the Chilean Republic. From left to right: José Miguel Carrera, Bernardo O'Higgins, José de San Martín, Diego Portales.

Bernardo O'Higgins (1778–1842) and José Miguel Carrera (1785–1821) are usually considered the founders of Chile. Diego Portales (1793–1837) is sometimes considered due to his influence in the 1833 Constitution.


Simón Bolívar, was founder of Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Francisco de Paula Santander wrote the first constitution of Colombia. Antonio Nariño ("Precursor of the Independence") and Camilo Torres were the most relevant statesmen of the First Republic.

Costa Rica[edit]

Juan Mora Fernández, first Head of State of Costa Rica.[79] José María Castro Madriz, First President of the Republic and proclaimed "Founder of the Republic" by Congress[80] Juan Rafael Mora Porras, President during Costa Rica's campaign against William Walker, proclaimed "Hero and Liberator" by Congress.


Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is considered the Cuban Founding Father. In 1868 he freed his slaves and declared the independence of Cuba, which began the Ten Years' War (1868–1878).

José Martí is a Cuban national hero.

Modern day Cuba was shaped by Fidel Castro with help from Che Guevara during the Cuban Revolution.


Patrick John served as first Prime Minister of Dominica from 1978 to 1979.

Dominican Republic[edit]

Juan Pablo Duarte (1813–1876), Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (1817–1861) and Matías Ramón Mella (1816–1864) are considered the Fathers of the Country. Duarte is featured on the $1 coin and on the now discontinued $1 bill; Sanchez on the $5 coin and on the also discontinued $5 bill; Mella on the $10 coin and on the also discontinued $10 bill.[81]


El Salvador[edit]


Eric Gairy served as head of government of Grenada from 1967 to 1979. Independence from United Kingdom was achieved in 1974.


Jeyson Siguenza is considered by many to be the founding father of Guatemala.



Toussaint L'Ouverture

Toussaint Louverture (1743–1803) and Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758–1806) were revolutionary and early political leaders of Haiti. Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion were also important figures of early Haiti.


Jose Cecilio del Valle and Francisco Morazan are considered the founders of the Honduran nation.


Norman Manley is particularly noted for his role in securing universal suffrage for the country's population in 1944 along with founding the People's National Party. Manley also served as Chief Minister of Jamaica from 1955 to 1962. Alexander Bustamante was an influential union leader and as founder of the Jamaican Labour Party. Bustamante served as the then colony's first Chief Minister from 1953 to 1955 and later went on to lead Jamaica to independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, becoming the country's first Prime Minister.


According to the decrees of the Congress of the Union of Mexico issued in 1822 and 1823,[82] the Mexican founders are Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753–1811), Ignacio Allende (1769–1811), Juan Aldama (1774–1811), Mariano Abasolo (1783–1816), José María Morelos (1765–1815), Mariano Matamoros (1770–1814), Leonardo Bravo (1764–1812), Miguel Bravo (unknown–1814), Hermenegildo Galeana (1762–1814), Mariano Jiménez (1781–1811), Xavier Mina (1789–1817), Pedro Moreno (1775–1817), and Víctor Rosales (1776–1817).

Nine of the thirteen founders are buried in the Monument to Independence in Mexico City.[83]




Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia is considered the founder of Paraguay. He was named perpetual dictator as of the country's formation.


José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar led Peru to independence and forged the country.[84]

Pachacuti, the 9th Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco, is the founder of the Inca Empire.

Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Saint Lucia[edit]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

South America[edit]

José de San Martín,[85] Simón Bolívar,[86] Antonio José de Sucre, Francisco de Paula Santander,[87] Francisco de Miranda[88] have been referred to as the founding fathers of the region comprising modern day Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Panama.


Johan Ferrier served as first President of Suriname from 1975 to 1980.

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Eric Williams served as first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 1962 to 1981.


José Gervasio Artigas is considered to be the founder of Uruguay. He was a staunch democrat and federalist, opposed to monarchism and centralism.

United States[edit]

George Washington, chief among the founders of the United States, called "the Father of his country" (Pater Patriae)

Within the large group known as "the Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, the Signers (who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776) and the Framers (who were delegates to the Federal Convention and took part in framing or drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States). Some historians have suggested a revised definition of the "Founding Fathers", including a significantly broader group of not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesmen, soldiers, diplomats, and ordinary citizens took part in winning U.S. independence and creating the United States of America.[89] Eminent American historian Richard B. Morris, in his 1973 book Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, identified the following seven figures as the key founders: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.


Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) is considered to be the founder not only of Venezuela, but of many of the region's countries as the Gran Colombia, which also included Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia and Bolivia.[citation needed] José Antonio Páez led the separation of Venezuela from the Gran Colombia and formed the modern statehood of the country. Scholars credit president Rómulo Betancourt as the founding father of modern democratic Venezuela, and Hugo Chávez as the founding father of modern totalitarian Venezuela



Early colonial era[edit]

Captain Arthur Phillip was the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the first British colony in Australia.[90]

Late colonial and federation era[edit]

Sir Henry Parkes, colonial Australian politician, premier of New South Wales and "Father of Federation"

Sir Henry Parkes is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. However, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition.[91]

Andrew Inglis Clark is another founding father of Australia. He largely wrote the Australian Constitution in addition to developing the Hare-Clark system of voting and pushing for universal adult suffrage and other progressive ideals that would become law early in Australia's history.

Alfred Deakin also stands out as a significant founding father as he attended all the Federation Conferences, he gave up 10 years of senior political appointments to travel the country promoting federation and was Australia's first Attorney General. He was instrumental in securing Edmond Barton as the first Prime Minister while Deakin went on to be Australia's 2nd, 5th and 7th Prime Minister. Deakin was responsible for establishing the High Court, Australian Navy, and many other important acts of parliament. Sir Robert Menzies is on record for saying he was Australia's greatest Prime Ministers.[92]

John Dunmore Lang. Although passing away over two decades before federation, John Dunmore Lang was a strong advocate of a federation of the Australian colonies as a democratic republic, independent from the British Empire.[93][94]

Sir Edmund Barton was the first Australian Prime Minister.

Federated States of Micronesia[edit]

Chief Justice Andon Amaraich is regarded as "one of the founding fathers of the Federated States of Micronesia".[95][96]


Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara is widely viewed as the "Founding Father" of an independent Fiji.[97][98][99][100][101]


Marshall Islands[edit]


New Zealand[edit]

Maori people consider Kupe, a mythologised figure who led the first Polynesian migration to New Zealand from Hawaiki in the 10th century, to be a founding figure and the common ancestor of all Maori. In the 19th century, the Scottish businessman, James Busby, drafted the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and co-authored the Treaty of Waitangi with the Royal Navy officer, William Hobson. It is considered by many to be the founding document of the nation of New Zealand.[citation needed]


Papua New Guinea[edit]

Grand Chief Sir Michael Somare is viewed as the "Founding Father" of Papua New Guinea.[102][103][104][105] The leading figure during the country's transition to independence from Australia, he was Papua New Guinea's first Prime Minister.


Solomon Islands[edit]


George Tupou I founded the modern Kingdom of Tonga

King George Tupou I, who united his country and established the contemporary Kingdom of Tonga, has been described as Tonga's "founding father".[106][107]



Former states and other territories[edit]

Arabian Peninsula[edit]

Before the Islamic prophet Muhammad completed his migration to Yathrib (present day Medina), the Arabian peninsula was divided by tribalism. Spread out and distant, region to region. After the migration in 622 AD, Muhammad began to spread the word of Islam to the other Arab tribes outside of Mecca. Through this preaching and military expeditions, he accumulated a large army of loyal followers and returned to Mecca to conquer it in the name of Islam in 629 AD. At the time of his death in 632 AD, the region was bounded into one polity under the flag of Islam. After his death, the 4 Caliphs of the Rashidun Caliphate expanded the territory which led to victories against the Byzantine and Persian empires.


Although the first known ruler of Bohemia was Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia, the real unifier of various Slavic tribes in Bohemia and creator of nation was Duke Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor is regarded as the "Father of the Homeland" in the Czech Republic, because during his time the Kingdom of Bohemia experienced the greatest prosperity. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937) is widely revered as the Liberator President who played the chief role in the 1918 melding of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia into the Czechoslovak Republic, and who served as President of the Republic from 1918 to 1935.


Kingdom of England[edit]

It was King Athelstan (893/895–939) who united the several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England around the year 927, when he became King of the English as opposed to his previous title, King of the West Saxons. However, his fame is often overshadowed by his predecessor and grandfather Alfred the Great (871–899), who set in motion the unification of the English kingdoms and could also claim to be the nation's founder.

Ancient Korea[edit]

For ancient Korea, Hwanung (환웅/桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검/檀君王儉) were the legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea. The founding date is usually calculated as 3 October 2333 BC; 3 October is a South Korean national holiday known as Gaecheonjeol (개천절/開天節, "Festival of the Opening of Heaven"). However, in North Korea, Gaecheonjeol is not celebrated and recognized at all, unlike South Korea.

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Osman I, the founding father of the Turkish Empire

By the end of the 14th century, most of Anatolia was controlled by various Anatolian beyliks due to the collapse of the Seljuk dynasty in the area. The Seljuk dynasty had established both the Seljuk Empire, which was founded by Tughril and the Sultanate of Rum, with the first one being responsible for the Turkification of Anatolia. Osman I unified the beyliks under one banner, proclaiming the Ottoman Empire.

Russian Empire[edit]

Kingdom of Scotland[edit]

The fictionalising medieval poem The Wallace (c. 1477) celebrated William Wallace (died 1305) as one of the founder-heroes of Scotland's struggle to preserve/re-establish independence from Plantagenet England.[111]

Serbia and Montenegro[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

  • Vladimir Lenin – Officially one among many equal founders of the country, Lenin was, de facto, the paramount leader, founder of the Soviet Union and the CPSU, the party that ruled it via one-party rule as well as the founding father of the modern Russian state. He died soon after the country's founding and retained a special status of secular apotheosis for the rest of the country's history.

Republic of Texas[edit]


Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia[edit]

Union of South Africa[edit]

  • Louis Botha was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, and Jan Smuts, its second prime minister, was a prominent advocate of unification and seen in more recent polls as the Union of South Africa's greatest historical leader.
  • Jan van Riebeeck was treated as a South African founding father by the South African government during the apartheid era, being featured on statues and the country's currency (although the likeness was erroneous and was actually that of another man).[114][115]



  1. ^ "Congo Celebrates 50th Anniversary of Independence". Congo Planet. Congo News Agency. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  2. ^ The 'Father of Modern Egypt' school includes: Henry Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965); Arthur Goldschmidt, Jr., Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988); Albert Haurani, A History of the Arab Peoples (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002); Jean Lacouture and Simonne Lacouture, Egypt in Transition, trans. Francis Scarfe (New York: Criterion Books, 1958); P.J. Vatikiotis, The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). The following internet sources, while not necessarily scholarly, show how widespread this interpretation is. "History," The Egyptian Presidency, 2008, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (accessed 29 October 2008); Metz, Helen, Chapin. "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48," Egypt: a Country Study, 1990, (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48: The Father of Modern Egypt," Travel to Egypt – Egypt Travel Guide, 2007, (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt,", 2008, (accessed 29 October 2008).
  3. ^ Joseph Roberts, Liberia's first President! Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine The African American Registry
  4. ^ Diller, Daniel; Moore, John (1995). The Middle East. Congressional Quarterly. p. 308.
  5. ^ Walker, James W (1992). "Chapter Five: Foundation of Sierra Leone". The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 94–114. ISBN 978-0-8020-7402-7., originally published by Longman & Dalhousie University Press (1976).
  6. ^ Redmond Shannon (13 April 2016). "Saint John historian illuminates story of Thomas Peters, prominent black loyalist". New Brunswick: CBC News. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  7. ^ A Tribute to Thomas Peters
  8. ^ "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". 21 December 2021.
  9. ^ Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918–1919. University of California Press. p. 147. ISBN 9780520018051. Aram pasha, as he was known to friend and foe alike, had been a veritable founder of the Armenian republic.
  10. ^ Libaridian, Gerard J. (1991). Armenia at the crossroads: democracy and nationhood in the post-Soviet era: essays, interviews, and speeches by the leaders of the national democratic movement in Armenia. Watertown, Massachusetts: Blue Crane Nooks. p. 19. ISBN 9780962871511. Aram Manukian (1879–1919), a leading member of the Dashnaktustiune, organized the defense of Van in 1915 and Yerevan in 1918. He is considered the founder of the Republic of Armenia in 1918.
  11. ^ Asryan, Armen (2005). "Արամ Մանուկյանը հայոց մեծ ողբերգության տարիներին [Aram Manukyan in the Years of the Great Armenian Tragedy]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian). № 1 (1): 54. ISSN 0135-0536.
  12. ^ Virabyan, Amatuni, ed. (2009). Արամ Մանուկյան. Փաստաթղթեր և նյութերի ժողովածու [Aram Manukian: Collection of documents and materials] (PDF) (in Armenian). Yerevan: National Archives of Armenia. p. 2. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014: "...20–րդ դարասկզբի հայոց ազգային–ազատագրական շարժման ականավոր ղեկավար, Վանի ինքնապաշտպանության ղեկավար, 1918թ. մայիսյան հերոսամարերի կազմակերպիչ, Հայաստանի Հանրապետության կերտող Արամ Մանուկյանի..."{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  13. ^ Harutyunyan, Arpi; Barseghyan, Haykuhi (16 March 2012). "Derision at "Servile" Putin Fan Club in Armenia". No. 634. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Archived from the original on 18 September 2014. " Armenian national figure like Aram Manukyan, founder of the [1918] First Republic," Levon Shirinyan, who holds the chair of politics and history at Yerevan's teacher-training university.
  14. ^ Ahmed, ABM Shamsuddin (2012). "Iliyas Shah". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  15. ^ Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.
  16. ^ Yang, Zhenhai (2020). The Yellow Emperor's Inner Transmission of Acupuncture. p. 62. ISBN 9789882371132.
  17. ^ Ebrey, Patricia; Liu, Kwang-Ching (2010). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. p. 10. ISBN 9780521124331.
  18. ^ a b Perkins, Dorothy (2013). Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture. p. 408. ISBN 9781135935627.
  19. ^ Yin, Xiong (2015). 至樂齋詩抄 第二部. p. 181. ISBN 9787516616048.
  20. ^ Xie, Xuanjun (2017). 少数民族入主中国史略. p. 403. ISBN 9781387255351.
  21. ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (1996). Mao Zedong: Founder of the People's Republic of China. ISBN 9781562945312.
  22. ^ Liu, Wenbin (2015). 思想独舞.
  23. ^ "India becomes first Asian country to participate as 'Guest of Honour' in international book fair".
  24. ^
  25. ^ H.J. Van Mook (1949). "Indonesia". Royal Institute of International Affairs. 25 (3): 274–285. doi:10.2307/3016666. JSTOR 3016666.; Charles Bidien (5 December 1945). "Independence the Issue". Far Eastern Survey. 14 (24): 345–348. doi:10.2307/3023219. JSTOR 3023219.; Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and History. Yale University Press. pp. 325. ISBN 978-0-300-10518-6.; Reid (1973), p. 30
  26. ^ Amuzegar, The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution, (1991), pp. 4, 9–12
  27. ^ Narrative of Awakening : A Look at Imam Khomeini's Ideal, Scientific and Political Biography from Birth to Ascension by Hamid Ansari, Institute for Compilation and Publication of the Works of Imam Khomeini, International Affairs Division, [no date], p. 163
  28. ^ Nina Adler (14 February 2017). "Als der Schah zur größten Party auf Erden lud". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  29. ^ Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty)
  30. ^ "The Pahlavi Dynasty – خاندان پهلوی". Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  31. ^ ID, Maziyar (15 March 2020). "Reza Shah The Great: Father of Modern Iran". Lessons from History. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  32. ^ "international relations :: The Iranian revolution – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". 15 December 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  33. ^ Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 神武天皇 (1)
  34. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 28–29.
  35. ^ Hardacre, Helen (1989). Shinto and the State, 1868–1988, pp. 101–102.
  36. ^ Kamal S. Salibi (15 December 1998). The Modern History of Jordan. I.B.Tauris. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-86064-331-6.
  37. ^ Hashemite Monarchs of Jordan, "The Emirate of Transjordan was founded on 11 April 1921, and became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan upon formal independence from Britain in 1946"
  38. ^ Bowman, John S. (5 September 2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  39. ^ "The Father of Palestine". The Atlantic. 10 August 2005.
  40. ^ "Yasser Arafat: Father of a nation". Daily Sabah. 23 December 2017.
  41. ^ Bernadette Brexel (2003). Yasser Arafat. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 12.
  42. ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-58234-049-4.
  43. ^ The Oslo Accords: international law and the Israeli-Palestinian peace agreements, By Geoffrey R. Watson, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-19-829891-5, page 33
  44. ^ As'ad Ghanem Palestinian Politics after Arafat: A Failed National Movement:Palestinian Politics after Arafat, Indiana University Press, 2010 p.259.
  45. ^ "Turkey – Location, Geography, People, Economy, Culture, & History". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  46. ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim; Mirza, Mahan (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400838554 – via Google Books.
  47. ^ Maenchen-Helfen 1973, p. 407.
  48. ^ Krum, Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  49. ^ Токушев, Д. "История на българската средновековна държава и право", Сиби, С. 2009
  50. ^ Runciman, p. 152
  51. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 127, ISBN 954-427-216-X
  52. ^ "Bulgaria after Simeon". Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
  53. ^ There has been no Macedonian state since the days of the Ancient Macedon that was finally abolished in 148 BC and 1945, when Communist Yugoslavia established its constituent republic with such name. It is unlikely that the contemporary Republic of Macedonia founded in 1991, may establish credible historical link to the medieval Samuel's state. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, Columbia Encyclopedia, Collier's Encyclopedia, the Great Russian Encyclopedia, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium and the Cambridge Medieval History, Samuel was Tsar of Bulgaria.
  54. ^ Predrag Matvejević; Vidosav Stevanović; Zlatko Dizdarević (1999). Gospodari rata i mira. Feral Tribune. p. 64. ISBN 9789536359400.
  55. ^ James Minahan (1 January 2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7. On 15 June 1997 Franjo Tudjman, the self-proclaimed "Father of the Nation," was elected for another five-year term
  56. ^ Varnava, Andrekos; Michael, Michalis N. (2013). The Archbishops of Cyprus in the Modern Age: The Changing Role of the Archbishop-Ethnarch, their Identities and Politics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443850810. Retrieved 17 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  57. ^ Carl A.P. Ruck and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth (Carolina Academic Press, 1994), ch. ix "Theseus:Making the New Athens" pp. 203–222
  58. ^ Brewer, David The Greek War of Independence, London: Overlook Duckworth, 2011 p. 130.
  59. ^ Birgir Hermannsson. (2005). Understanding nationalism : studies in Icelandic nationalism, 1800–2000. Stockholm Univ. p. 174. ISBN 91-7155-148-4. OCLC 238669014.
  60. ^ V. Creation of the Italian Kingdom Archived 7 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ Budrytė, Brigita (6 July 2019). "Karaliaus Mindaugo paslaptys: nuo gimimo ir karūnavimo – iki charakterio ir mirties". (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  62. ^ "Signataras J.Basanavičius – tautos patriarchas, pasilikęs gyventi lenkų užimtame Vilniuje". (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  63. ^ Small Planet Named After Willem the Silent, (in Dutch)
  64. ^ Dawisha, Karen; Parrott, Bruce (1997). Politics, Power and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe. ISBN 9780521597333.
  65. ^ "Why did the Norwegian constitution of 1814 become a part of positive law in the nineteenth century?". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  66. ^ John V. A. Fine; John Van Antwerp Fine (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
  67. ^ Walter Rothholz (2003). Political culture in the Baltic Sea Region and in Eastern Europe. Aland-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-936402-04-9. The founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church (SPC) was Saint Sava (1169–1236), the son of the great Serbian national leader Stefan Nemanja.
  68. ^ Vasilije Krestić (2004). Great Serbia: truth, misconceptions, abuses : papers presented at the International Scientific Meeting held in the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade, October 24–26, 2002. SANU. pp. 236, 250. ISBN 978-86-7025-377-3. In fact, the work is dedicated to the ashes of the Father of Serbia, that is, to Karadjordje, whom he compares with the greatest men of the 19th century. Throughout the work, Njegos asks the Serbs to live up to the model set by the heroes of ...
  69. ^ Yugoslavia. Narodna skupština (1936). Stenografske beleške Narodne skupštine Kraljevine Jugoslavije. p. 1284. Караћорће бити оснивач Србије
  70. ^ "Velika Mrlja U Istoriji Srbije: Dan kad je ubijen otac nacije – vožd Karađorđe!". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  71. ^ Branko Pešić (1988). Spomen hram Sv. Save na Vračaru u Beogradu: 1895–1988. Sveti arhijerejski sinod Srpske pravoslavne crkve. Отац Отаџбине Св. Сава је надахнуо Немањи –ну државу идеалима хришћанског патриотизма и створио слободну цркву у слободној држави. Држа –ва је Отечество – земља мојих ота –ца. Држава не сме да буде импери –ја, јер где ...
  72. ^ Durde Jelenić (1923). Nova Srbija i Jugoslavija, 1788–1921. p. 56. ОТАЦ ОТАЏБИНЕ – КАРАЂОРЂЕ ПЕТРОВИЋ
  73. ^ Milutin D. Nešić (1920). Knez Mihailo. Štamparija braće grujić i prometnog D.D. С државнога балкона у згради Народне Скупштине (Велика пивара) читаше се прокламација народу српском, да је повраћен па престо отац отаџбине Велики Милош. Ко је видео како је та одлука за час угасила оне упаљене ...
  74. ^ "Respect to Father of the Nation, George Cadle Price". Amandala. Belize City, Belize. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  75. ^ "Father of the Nation, George Cadle Price, passes". The San Pedro Sun. San Pedro Town, Belize. 19 September 2011. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  76. ^ Library and Archives Canada. Fathers of Confederation. Collections Canada: Canadian Confederation.
  77. ^ Canada History: Fathers of Confederation. Access History Web Company: The History Project.
  78. ^ Granger, David (16 February 2017). "The Spirit of Chaguaramas". CARICOM. Georgetown, Guyana: Government of CARICOM. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  79. ^ "Juan Mora Fernández". 27 June 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  80. ^ "Francisco María Oreamuno Badilla". 27 June 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  81. ^ es:República Dominicana#Independencia nacional
  82. ^ "Colección Muro de Honor" (PDF). MX: H. Congreso de la Unión, México. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  83. ^ "Monumento de la Independencia" (PDF). MX: INAH, México. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  84. ^ Timothy Anna, The fall of the royal government in Peru, pp. 237–238.
  85. ^ "Central & South America". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  86. ^ "Statue of Venezuela's founding father unveiled in Tehran in presence of Chavez".
  87. ^ "Bentham Project".
  88. ^ "Francisco de Miranda and Andrés Bello lectures at The Bolívar Hall". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  89. ^ R.B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  90. ^ "Governor, soldier, spy: Uncovering the history of Arthur Phillip". ABC News. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  91. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  92. ^
  93. ^ "WHO WAS JOHN DUNMORE LANG?". Dunmore Lang College, Macquarie. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  94. ^ "John Dunmore Lang". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  95. ^ "The Federated States of Micronesia Mourns the loss of one of its Founding Fathers: Chief Justice Andon Amaraich", Government of the F.S. Micronesia, 28 January 2010
  96. ^ "FSM chief justice dies in Hawaii". Radio New Zealand International. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  97. ^ "Biography on Fiji's founding father released", Fiji Daily Post, 14 October 2009
  98. ^ "Fiji's founding father, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, to be buried on home island today". Radio New Zealand International. 2 May 2004. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  99. ^ "Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara – prime minister of Fiji". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  100. ^ "Fiji profile – timeline". BBC News. 4 January 2018.
  101. ^ "Fiji founding father, Ratu Mara, dies", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 19 April 2004
  102. ^ Speech in honour of Sir Michael Somare Archived 9 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine by President Gloria Arroyo of the Philippines
  103. ^ "Somare returns as PNG leader". Radio New Zealand International. 6 August 2002. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  104. ^ "Prime Minister opens student admin building named after him", Divine Word University
  105. ^ "Step aside Chief!", Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, 14 September 2007
  106. ^ "Uncertain Times: Sailors, Beachcombers and Castaways as "Missionaries" and Cultural Mediators in Tonga (Polynesia)", Françoise Douaire-Marsaudon, in Margaret Jolly, Serge Tcherkézoff & Darrell Tryon (eds.) Oceanic Encounters: Exchange, Desire, Violence, July 2009, ISBN 978-1-921536-28-1
  107. ^ Peter Lyon (1991). "Tonga: Two contemporary tendencies". The Pacific Review. 4 (3).
  108. ^ Rurik (Norse leader) Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  109. ^ Rurik Dynasty (medieval Russian rulers) Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  110. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–15. ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9. Retrieved 27 April 2010. For all the salient differences between these three post-Soviet nations, they have much in common when it comes to their culture and history, which goes back to Kievan Rus', the medieval East Slavic state based in the capital of present-day Ukraine.
  111. ^ Lynch, Michael, ed. (2007). "Culture". The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780199234820. The Wallace (c. 1477) by Blind Harry (fl. 1470–92) mythologized a national founder-hero in decasyllabic couplets mixed with stanzaical, lyrical verse.
  112. ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. pp. 84 & 86. ISBN 978-0-14-014581-6.
  113. ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-14-014581-6.
  114. ^ Southern African Currency Page (2018). "Suid-Afrikaanse Rand South African Rand Old Rand Notes (1970–1994)". Southern African Currency Page. Southern African Currency Page. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 4 July 2018. Van Riebeeck was the Dutch colonial administrator who established Cape Town in 1652, and is a significant figure in South African, and especially Afrikaner, history. Many Afrikaners view van Riebeeck as the father of the Afrikaner nation. Van Riebeeck also featured on the reverse of the R20 note, albeit indirectly, with an image of van Riebeeck's landing party (three ships) and the (old) South African Coat of Arms, with the Latin motto "Ex Unitate Vires" – "From Unity, Strength" (also translated as "Unity Creates Strength").
  115. ^ "So whose face was on old SA money?". IOL Business Report.