List of national identity card policies by country
This is a list of identity card policies by country.
Identity card policies by country
Countries with compulsory identity cards
According to a 1996 publication by Privacy International, around 100 countries had enacted laws making identity cards compulsory. In these countries, the card must be shown on demand by authorised personnel under specified circumstances. Often alternative proof of identity, such as a driving licence, might be acceptable. Privacy International said that "virtually no common law country has a card".
The term "compulsory" may have different meanings and implications in different countries. Possession of a card may only become compulsory at a certain age. There may be a penalty for not carrying a card or other legally valid identification (a passport, for foreigners); in some cases a person may be detained until identity is proved. This way the police can identify fugitives. In some countries, police need a reason, such as crime suspicion or security risk. In other countries, police can ask for id without stating a reason. Random checks are rare, except in police states. Normally there is an age limit, such as 18, from which the possession is mandatory, even if 15- to 17-year-olds might need a card in order to prove that they are under 18.
(Albanian Identity Card)
|The Letërnjoftimi is an electronic biometric ID card, compulsory upon 16 years old and costs 1200 lek (€10).|
|Argentina||Documento Nacional de Identidad
(National Identity Card)
|The Documento Nacional de Identidad is issued at a person's birth, and updated at 8 and 14 years of age, and thereafter renewed every fifteen years. For many years, the DNI was issued as a small booklet (called libreta). In 2009, the DNI was revamped and digitalized; and booklets were issued along with a card (called tarjeta) simultaneously. Since 2012, DNIs are issued only in card format, and starting in 2015, they'll have a chip with information of the holder and NFC payment. The new DNI card is required to obtain a new Argentine Passport and there are penalties if they aren't renewed in time.|
|Belarus||N/A||Belarus has combined the international passport and the internal passport into one document. It follows the international passport convention but has extra pages for domestic use. The Belarusian passport is compulsory at 16. Reissued at 25, 45 and 100. Could be issued before 16 for travelling purposes.|
|Belgium||Identiteitskaart / Carte d’Identité / Personalausweis (Identity Card)||The card is first issued at age 12, compulsory by 15. Since the beginning of 2005 the eID (electronic IDentity-card) has been issued to Belgian citizens who apply for a new identity card. Apart from being a form of identification, the card also is used for authentication purposes. Future usages include using the eID as a library card, keycard for restricted areas or chatrooms and the digital signing of documents. It is expected that in 2009 all Belgians will have an eID card. The identity cards for Belgians living abroad are not electronic cards like those issued in Belgium. They are, however, equally valid and are accepted and used in the same way as the electronic identity card. They have to be carried at all times.|
|Bolivia||Cédula de Identidad (Identity Card)||The card is compulsory at 18. Rarely required by police.|
|Botswana||Omang (National Identity Card)||It is compulsory for all citizens at age 16, and there are penalties for not obtaining it within one month of turning 16 or obtaining citizenship, whichever comes last. Includes the image of the individual (no headgear or eyewear), their particulars, and their right thumbprint. Valid for 10 years, whereupon it must be renewed and a new photograph taken. Must be presented upon request by any agent of the state, and the state requires all non-state institutions to use the National ID card as the only acceptable means of identification for citizens - passports and driver's licences should not be used, even though they contain most of the information on the ID card, including the ID card number. There are penalties for being issued a replacement card when it has been lost, however, if it is changed to update information on it only the application fee must be paid (e.g. upon expiry, and legal name changes as when a woman gets married and assumes her husband's surname). Every time a new one is issued for whatever reason, a new photograph must be taken. The individual keeps their National ID card number for life, and in recent years it has been linked to the birth certificate number of newborn infants (it is the same number). The National ID card must be surrendered to the government upon the demise of the individual, at which time it will be exchanged with an official death certificate.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Lična Karta (Identity Card)||Compulsory at 16 and is to be carried at all times after turning 18.|
|Brazil||Cédula de Identidade (Identity Card)||Compulsory to be issued since the age of 18 (though it can be substituted by a series of equivalent documents, see below). It is usually issued, for civilians, by each state's Public Safety Secretary, but other state departments — including the Armed Forces, the Police and some professional councils — can issue alternate identity cards too. There is a national standard, but each state can include minor differences (usually numbering scheme, font, printed seal and background pattern. The front has a picture (with an electronic stamp on it), right thumb print and signature (for illiterate people the phrase "não assina" — cannot sign — is printed in its place). The verse has the unique number (RG, registro geral), expedition date, full name of the person, name of the parents, place (town, state) and date of birth, CPF number and other optional information. It is green and plastified, officially 102 × 68 mm, but lamination tends to make it slightly larger than the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-2 standard of 105 × 74 mm, resulting in a tight fit in most wallets. Only recently the driver's licence received the same legal status of an identity card in Brazil. There are also a few other documents, such as cards issued by the national councils of some professions (doctors, accountants, dentists, engineers, lawyers etc.), which are considered equivalent to the national identity card for most purposes.|
|Bulgaria||Лична карта (Identity Card)||First issued and is compulsory after turning the age of 14. The new Bulgarian ID cards were introduced in 1999. They follow the general pattern in the EU and replaced the old, Soviet-style "internal passports", also known as "green passports". Since January 1, 2007, the Bulgarian identity card can be used to travel within the European Union. Since 29 March 2010 new Bulgarian identity cards were introduced with embedded chip with personal data.|
|Burma/ Myanmar||National Registration Card (Identity Card)||Myanmar citizens are required to have a National Registration Card (NRC), while non-citizens are given a Foreign Registration Card.|
|Chile||Cédula de Identidad (Identity card)||First issued at age 2 or 3, it is compulsory at 18, and has to be carried at all times.|
|China||Resident Identity Card||First issued at school age, it is compulsory at 16.|
|Colombia||Cédula de Ciudadanía (Identity card)||Registro Civil de Nacimiento (Birth record) issued when the parents register the newborn. Tarjeta de identidad is issued at age of 7. From June 26, 2013, is available the new format (coloured blue) with biometric features. The previous format (coloured pink) is still valid until the minor reaches 14, when he or she has to request the new blue format. Cédula de Ciudadanía is compulsory at the age of 18, and from July 31, 2010, the only valid format is the yellow one. It has to be carried at all times and must be presented to police or the military upon their request.|
|Costa Rica||Cédula de identidad (Costa Rica)||Every citizen immediately must carry an ID card after turning 18.|
|Croatia||Osobna iskaznica (Identity card)||The Croatian identity card is compulsory for citizens of Croatia who have a permanent residence in Croatia and are at least 16 years old. It also obliged by law to be carried at all times.|
|Cuba||Carnét de identidad (Identity card)||N/A|
|Cyprus||Greek: Δελτίο Ταυτότητας
Turkish: Kimlik Kartı (Identity card)
|Compulsory at 12.|
|Czech Republic||Občanský Průkaz (Civil card)||Compulsory at 15.|
|Dominican Republic||Cédula de Identidad y Electoral (CIE)(Personality Verification Card)||If needed, an underage ID card may be obtained at the age of 16, yet the official ID (which will allow the individual to vote) is obtained at 18.|
|Egypt||بطاقة تحقيق الشخصية (Personality Verification Card)||The Personality Verification Card is compulsory at the age of 16. Issued by the Civil Registry Office which is subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. Not carrying the ID card is only penalised by fine not exceeding 200 EGP.|
|El Salvador||Documento Único de Identidad (Unique Identity Document)||Every citizen 18 years or older must carry this ID card.|
|Estonia||Isikutunnistus (Identity card)||Compulsory by law, but there is no penalty for not having one. Many electronic services are available (legally binding digital signatures, internet banking, internet voting, strong authentication to government and private websites). Citizens carrying ID cards are not required to carry drivers licence and registration.|
|Gambia||Gambian National Identity Card||All Gambian citizens 18 years or older are required to hold a Gambian National ID Card.|
|Germany||Personalausweis (Identity Card)||Compulsory for all German citizens aged 16 or older to possess either a "Personalausweis" (identity card) or a passport, but not to carry it. While police officers and some other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents, the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that very moment. Fines may only be applied if an identity card or passport is not possessed at all, if the document is expired or if one explicitly refuses to show ID to the police. If one is unable to produce an ID card or passport (or any other form of credible identification) during a police control, one can (in theory) be brought to the next police post and detained for a maximum of 12 hours, or until positive identification is possible. However, this measure is only applied if the police have reasonable grounds to believe the person detained has committed an offence.
As driving licences are not legally accepted forms of identification in Germany, most persons actually carry their "Personalausweis" with them. more
|Greece||Αστυνομική Ταυτότητα (Police Identity Card)||In Greece, the biggest change in Identity Documents Law happened in 2000, when some fields of the Police Identity Card (as Greeks call it) were rejected. These fields included religion, addresses, biometric characteristics and fingerprint. Oppositely, some fields were added. These are Latin transliterations of name and surname, blood type and Rhesus of the owner. Under this law, all Greeks over 12 years old must go to a police office to ask for an Identity Card. In Greece, there are many everyday things you cannot do without an ID. In fact, according to an older law, the Police ID is the only legal identity document and no one has a right to ask for more identity documents. Since the 1980s all legal services in Greece must be done with this ID. Also, you can travel within the EU with a Greek National ID card. Carrying the ID is not compulsory; however during routine police checks, if you are found without an ID, the police officer may take you to the nearest police station for further investigation.|
|Guatemala||Documento Personal de Identificación (National Identity Document)||Identity cards are issued to any Guatemalan and legal residents. For children between 0 and 12 years the document is golden shaded; between 13 and 17 years the document is silvered. Documents for Guatemalan citizens are blue  and for legal residents are red.
Guatemalan constitution requires personal identification via documentation, person rooting or the government. If the person cannot be identified may be sent to a judge until identification is provided.
|Hong Kong||N/A||See main article Hong Kong Identity Card. Identity cards have been used since 1949, and been compulsory since 1980. Children are required to obtain their first identity card at age 11, and must change to an adult identity card at age 18.|
|Hungary||Személyi igazolvány (Identity card)||See  (in Hungarian) It is compulsory to possess an ID or passport from the age of 14. A driving license can be also used for identification from the age of 17. Private entities however, are legally required to accept passport or driver's licence for proof, but often do not accept them, only the ID card, thus in effect almost all citizens have the ID card. Police has the legal power to stop people on streets at random and ask for ID paper only if they have any proof that the person was involved in a crime, or is a witness. If the person has no proof for identification he/she can be detained for maximum 24 hours. It is a common misconception in Hungary that the Police can ask for your ID at any time, but since 1990 this is not the case.|
|Indonesia||Kartu Tanda Penduduk (Identity card)||Kartu Tanda Penduduk for Indonesian citizens and the KITAP's or permanent residents card holder. The card is issued upon reaching the age of 17 or upon marriage.|
|Iran||کارت هویت (Identity card)||The Iranian national identity card is compulsory for citizens and permanent residents, aged 15 and over.|
|Israel||Hebrew: תעודת זהות, Arabic: بطاقة هوية
|The Teudat Zehut is first issued at age 16 and is compulsory by 18.|
|Jordan||بطاقة شخصية (Personal card)||First issued at age 16 and is compulsory by 18.|
|Kenya||N/A||All citizens (and permanent residents) are issued a national identification card at age 18. ID cards are the most common forms of identification, although passports can also be used interchangeably in most instances.|
|Kuwait||N/A||All residents of Kuwait must have a Civil ID card. The parents of newborns should apply for registration of the child within 60 days after birth. An expatriate must apply for a civil ID card within 30 days of getting his residency.|
|Latvia||Personas apliecība (identity card)||See  (In English) An identity card or passport is the mandatory personal identification document for a citizen of Latvia or a non-citizen who lives in Latvia and has reached 18 years of age.|
|Lebanon||بطاقة هوية (identity card)||The is a compulsory identity document issued in Lebanon. The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior and is the main form of identification on the territory of the Republic of Lebanon. All Lebanese are obliged by law to carry their identity cards with them at all times and are subject to fines should they not. As of 30 June 2006, all Lebanese nationals must hold the new magnetic Identification Card.|
|Luxembourg||N/A||First issued at age 15 and only issued to Luxembourg citizens, who are required by law to carry it at all times.|
|Macedonia||Лична карта (Identity card)||Issued by the ministry of interior to citizens with permanent residence in Macedonia. It is compulsory at the age of 18.|
|Madagascar||N/A||Kara-panondrom-pirenen'ny teratany malagasy (Carte nationale d'identité de citoyen malagasy). Possession is compulsory for Malagasy citizens from age 18 (by decree 78-277, 1978-10-03).|
|Malaysia||MyKad||Issued at age 12, and updated at 18. MyPR for Permanent Resident. MyKas for temporary residents. Non-compulsory MyKid before age of 12. MyKad and MyPR must be carried at all times. Cards are differentiated by colour. MyKad is blue, MyPr is red and MyKas is green.|
|Malta||Karta ta' l-Identità renamed to Karta tal-Identità in 2014 (Identity card)||Karta tal-Identità Issued at 14, updated at 16, compulsory at 18.|
|Mauritius||Mauritian National Identification Card||Every Mauritian citizen who has reached 18 years old has to apply for a National ID card, which is one of the few accepted forms of identification, including a passport.|
|Moldova||Buletin de identitate (Identity card)||The Buletin de identitate is compulsory at 16.|
|Morocco||بطاقة التعريف الوطنية (National identification card)||The national identity card is the ID of the citizens of Morocco (in Arabic : بطاقة التعريف الوطنية). This is an official document which allows any citizen to prove his identity and therefore it is valid, his Moroccan nationality. It is compulsory for all citizens aged over 18 years, but it can be obtained from the age of 16. A new version of the card is out, it has the form of a credit card. The Directorate General of National Security (DSMS) of Morocco announced it will issue a new electronic national identity card (NIEC) on 1 April 2008. The current national maps will be gradually replaced in four years. The NIEC is biometric and provides citizens of a birth certificate, residence certificate, extract of birth and citizenship certificates.|
|Montenegro||Lična karta (Identity card)||The Montenegrin identity card (Lična karta/Лична карта) is compulsory at the age of 16, but can be issued at 14 and has to be carried at all times after turning 18. It is issued only to Montenegrin citizens with permanent residence in Montenegro. While it is the most often used official identification document, three other hold the same status — Passport, Driver's licence and Refugee ID card. Old style IDs, that refer to the no longer existing states of SFRY or FRY, are not valid since 2011.|
|Mozambique||Bilhete de identidade (Identity card)||N/A|
|Netherlands||Identiteitskaart (Identity card)||Although it is not compulsory to carry a proof of identity at all times, since 1 January 2005 it is compulsory to show identification, when an authorized officer asks for it, from the age of 14. An authorized officer can only do so under certain circumstances. Such circumstances include suspicious behaviour, committing any offence, or if a person is interviewed as a witness of a crime. Identity checks at events where the public order may be in danger are also allowed. Otherwise random identity checks by the police are not allowed in principle but can happen in certain areas such as a train station or suspicious areas such as where prostitution is rife, and a fine for not showing proof of identity may be successfully challenged in such cases. The fine for not being able to show proof of identity when legally required is €60 (16 and over) or €30 (if 14 or 15). Proof of identity is also required when opening a bank account and when entering an employment contract.|
|North Korea||"Identity Card", "Travel Pass" (with specified destination of travel and written permission)||Photos
North Korea is probably the country which imposes the strongest fines for citizens not carrying ID cards. To travel North Koreans need not only an identity card, but also a "travel pass", with specified destination and written permission. Sometimes citizens may be punished with time in a labour camp for not carrying their cards, however this is often only a short sentence and people are usually released upon presentation of the card at a later date. Although much is not known about the properties of the card, it is probably plastic and similar in size to most European ID cards. Between 2004 and 2008, all records were transferred to an electronic Korean-language central database. Obtaining a driving license in North Korea is not usual - except in the case of professional drivers, mechanics and assistants - as number of cars owned by the public is very limited, making Pyongyang one of the only state cities without much traffic. Most people do not have passports because of restricted movement by the state, and usually only government officials are issued them. North Koreans working abroad are issued contracts between North Korea and the host country to allow for travel, and government officers often accompany and supervise workers. See also North Korea passports
|Panama||Cedula de Identidad (identity card)||Cedula de Identidad. Required at 18. Panamanian citizens must carry their Cedula at all times.|
|Pakistan||N/A||Computerized National Identity Card (CNIC). First made at the age of 18, not compulsory to carry all the time. The card is mandatory for opening bank accounts, for passport and almost all substantial monetary transactions from car, land to high-value assets.|
|Palestinian National Authority||بطاقة هوية (identity card)||Identification Card. First made on the age of 16, The fields in it are identical to those in ID cards issued by Israeli civil administration prior to the Oslo accords, fields include Full name (four names), Mother name, date of birth, birthplace, Gender, Religion, place of issuance, and issue date. in addition to an appendix that includes address, marital status, name and ID number of and listing of partner, and previous name(s), in addition to a listing of children names. The document "validity" is incubated until the Israeli authorities approve it.|
|Peru||Documento Nacional de Identidad.||National Document of Identification or Documento Nacional de Identidad (DNI). Citizens can have a minor DNI but at the age of 17 they are encouraged to renew their DNI to get an Adult DNI. At 18, it is compulsory.|
|Poland||Dowód osobisty (Identity card)||Polish National Identity Card The card is compulsory at 18. Those who do not comply with the relevant law are subject to restriction of freedom for up to 1 month or fine penalty. Until 1939 there were no compulsory id cards in Poland. However, with German and Russian occupation they arrived, and after 1945 were hold by communist government. Today it is still obligatory to have ID card for Polish citizen, No exceptions, even if somebody possesses a valid passport, however there are other documents treated as useful for identification in some legal/govt. purposes(e.g. elections and "sailor book"). Also there is no law requiring Polish citizen to have any ID card in public space/during driving with driving license(so for e.g. police say "Please show me Your ID with driving license, if You have). But if You have with You the ID card and not show during control, on ask/question(even with only "Please show me"), You can be fined if the police after searching You personally found it. Foreigners(not citizens with issued ID card ) are obligated by law to have ID in public space/private.|
|Portugal||Cartão de Cidadão(Citizen card)||As of 2006 the government has issued the Cartão do Cidadão (Citizen Card). The older Bilhete de identidade which has been compulsory at 10, is still in limited use. All citizens starting at the age of 6 are required to obtain an identity card, but are not required to carry them.|
|Qatar||Qatari ID Card||As of 2014 the government has issued a Qatari ID Card to every Qatari citizen and resident over the age of 15. There are currently two types of cards in use, the smart card can be used to identify in government websites as well as for easier access to the country.|
|Romania||Carte de identitate (identity card)||The Carte de identitate is compulsory at 14.|
|Russia||Internal passport||A Russian Internal Passport is compulsory at 14 (but there is no penalty for not having one until the age of 16) and it is reissued at age 20 and 45. Citizens can use any other document for identification, although in certain cases an internal passport is required (e.g. notarial transactions, sale of land and other high-value assets).|
|Saudi Arabia||بطاقة الأحوال المدنية (Civil identity card)||The National ID Card "Bitaqat Al-Ahwal Al-Madaniya" (Arabic: بطاقة الأحوال المدنية) Issued at 15 for males, compulsory at 17. Non-compulsory for females but issued at 18.|
|Serbia||Lična karta (Identity card)||The Lična karta (Лична карта) is compulsory at the age of 16, but it can be obtained when a person turns 10. It is issued only to Serbian citizens with permanent residence in Serbia as well as foreign citizens residing in Serbia. While it is the most often used official identification document, three other hold the same status — Passport, Driver's licence and Refugee ID card. Old style IDs, that refer to the no longer existing states of SFRY or FRY, will be valid until their expiry date and no longer than December 31, 2016. It has to be carried at all times when in public.|
|Singapore||National Registration Identity Card||It is compulsory for all citizens and permanent residents to apply for the NRIC from age 15 onwards, and to re-register their cards for a replacement at age 30. It is not compulsory for bearers to carry the card at all times, nor are they compelled by law to show their cards to police officers conducting regular screening while on patrol, for instance. The NRIC is also a required document for several places, such as renewal of the passports, voting for any election or national service, where if any failure will result in a denial to do so. In contrast to other countries, the NRIC also states the bearers' race.|
|Slovakia||Občiansky preukaz (Citizen card)||Občiansky preukaz (Citizen card) is compulsory at the age of 15. It serves the purpose of general identification towards the authorities. It features a photograph, date of birth and the address. Every card has a unique number.|
|Slovenia||Osebna izkaznica (identity card)||The Osebna izkaznica is compulsory for citizens of Slovenia who have a permanent residence in Slovenia, are at least 18 years old, and do not have a passport. It can be issued to citizens under 18 on request by their parent or legal guardian. It also obliged by law to be carried at all times.|
|South Africa||N/A||An Identity Document (ID) is issued at age 16 to all citizens; and permanent residents. Although passports and driver's licences are also acceptable forms of identification, banks only accept IDs. Your ID has a barcode, a photo, and your unique ID number. Information (including age and gender but excluding race) is referenced under your ID number: accounts, criminal record, voting history, driver's licence etc. You need an ID in order to apply for a passport, bank account, driver's licence or tertiary studies, as well as to register to vote. In most cases employers will also request a photocopy of your ID in order to process your appointment. Your voting history as well as any firearm licences are documented in your ID booklet. As one's ID may be required for some of the functions listed above, some SA permanent residents, may elect to keep their ID document on their person.|
|South Korea||주민등록증 (Identity card)||Korean citizens are issued a national ID card at the age of 17. This card will have a unique "Citizen's Registration Number" (jumin deungnok beonho; Korean: 주민등록번호 - see main article Resident registration number (South Korea)). The first six numbers indicate the citizen's date of birth, while the last seven numbers includes information such as where the birth was registered. This number is used by Korean citizens for all forms of record-keeping, including online.|
|Spain||Documento Nacional de Identidad (National identification document)||The Documento Nacional de Identidad (DNI) (Spanish Wikipedia) is compulsory at 14, can be issued before if necessary (to travel to other European countries, for example). By law, it has to be carried at all times, and it is routinely used for identification, and it is often photocopied by private and public bureaus. Many public and private transactions cannot be made without showing this ID. Since 2006, it is being replaced by the Electronic DNI.|
|Sri Lanka||National Identity Card
தேசிய அடையாள அட்டை
All citizens over the age of 16 need to apply for a National Identity Card (NIC). Each NIC has a unique 10 digit number, in the format 000000000A (where 0 is a digit and A is a letter). The first two digits of the number are your year of birth (e.g.: 88xxxxxxxx for someone born in 1988). The final letter is generally a 'V' or 'X'. An NIC number is required to apply for a passport (over 16), driving license (over 18) and to vote (over 18). In addition, all citizens are required to carry their NIC on them at all times as proof of identity, given the security situation in the country. NICs are not issued to non-citizens, but they too are required to carry some form of photo identification (such as a photocopy of their passport or foreign driving license) at all times. In addition the Department of Post may issue an identity card with a validity of five years, this may be gained in lieu of an NIC if the latter is unable to be issued.
|Taiwan||National Identification Card
|The National Identification Card of Taiwan is issued to ROC nationals who are 14 years or older and have household registration in the Taiwan area. It is compulsory at 14.|
|Thailand||บัตรประจำตัวประชาชน (Thai national ID card)||National ID card is compulsory for all citizens at the age of 7.|
|Tunisia||Tunisian National Identification Card||Tunisia's National ID card is compulsory for all citizens 18 years or older, but with the approval of a parent, a Tunisian may apply for an ID card prior to their 18th birthday.|
|Turkey||Nüfus Cüzdanı (Identity card)||The Nüfus Cüzdanı is compulsory right after birth without photograph, at the age of 15 a photograph must be stuck on. It has to be carried at all times and it is often photocopied by bureaus, banks, etc.|
|Uganda||National ID Card||First issued in 2014 on a voluntary basis. Will become compulsory for all citizens above the age of 16 by 2016.|
|Ukraine||N/A||Internal Ukrainian passport is compulsory (to possess but not to carry) at age of 16.|
|United Arab Emirates||National ID Card||Every person residing in the United Arab Emirates, must have an ID card.|
|Uruguay||Cédula de Identidad (Identity card)||It is mandatory for all citizens, resident citizens, or resident aliens, even for children from 45 days old.|
|Venezuela||Cédula de Identidad (Identity card)||In Venezuela it is called Cédula de Identidad, it is mandatory at the age of 10 and is renewed every 10 years|
|Vietnam||Giấy chứng minh nhân dân (People's proof document)||Known as giấy chứng minh nhân dân ("people's proof document"), it is compulsory for all Vietnamese citizens over 14.|
|Zimbabwe||National Registration Card||Zimbabwean citizens are required to apply for National Registration at the age of sixteen. They are issued a plastic card that has to be carried at all times by law.|
Countries with non-compulsory identity cards
These are countries where official authorities issue identity cards to those who request them, but where it is not illegal to be without an official identity document. For certain services, identification is needed, then e.g. passports or identity cards issued by banks etc. or (not always) driver's licenses can be used.
|Austria||Austrian identity card|
|Canada||Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) issues the Canada Permanent Resident Card to permanent residents of Canada. In the past Canadian citizenship cards were issued to new Canadians upon naturalization and established Canadians (upon request). As of 2012 these cards have been discontinued.|
|Finland||A national identity card exists, usable all over the EU, but commonly people use their driving licences or national social security cards as ID.|
Main article: French national identity card
In the past, identity cards were compulsory, had to be updated each year in case of change of residence and were valid for 10 years, and their renewal required paying a fee. In addition to the face photograph, the card included the family name, first names, date and place of birth, and a unique national identity number relating to the national INSEE registry, which is also used as the national service registration number, and as the Social Security account number for health and retirement benefits.
Later,[when?] the laws were changed so that any official and certified document (even if expired and possibly unusable abroad) with a photograph and a name on it, issued by a public administration or enterprise (such as a rail transport card, student card, driving licence or passport) could be used as proof of identity. Also, law enforcement (police, gendarmerie) can now accept photocopies of these documents when performing identity checks, provided that the original document is presented within two weeks. For financial transactions, any of these documents must be equally accepted as proof of identity.
Identity cards are still issued, but are free of charge, and not compulsory. Legislation has been published for a proposed compulsory biometric card system, which has been widely criticised, among others by the "National commission for computing and liberties" (Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés, CNIL), the national authority and regulator on computing systems and databases. Identity cards issued since 2004 include basic biometric information (a digitized fingerprint record, a printed digital photograph and a scanned signature) and various anti-fraud systems embedded within the laminated card.
The French health insurance card, a smart card named "Carte Vitale 2", includes a digital photograph and other personal medical information in addition to identity elements. The previous version included a chip and a magnetic stripe, but contained very little information.
|Iceland||The National Register of Persons ("Þjóðskrá") issues national identity cards ("Nafnskírteini") to all teenagers in the year they become 14 years old. They do not state citizenship and are not usable outside the Nordic passport union. People in Iceland are required to present identification if asked by police, but driving licenses and various other ID cards are acceptable as well as the identity card.|
|Italy||Carta d'Identità (Italian Wikipedia) may be issued to anyone resident in Italy and to Italian citizens living abroad. It is issued after the 15th birthday. It is not compulsory to have it or to carry it, unless expressly ordered by public security authorities. The latest version is the Italian electronic identity card.|
|Liechtenstein||The Principality of Liechtenstein has a voluntary ID card system for citizens, called the "Identitätskarte".|
|Lithuania||Asmens tapatybės kortelė (Identity card). Passport or Identity card is compulsory at age 16.|
|Japan||There is an optional Juki Net (住基ネット Jūki netto?) card for Japanese citizens, corresponding to the compulsory Jūminhyō (住民票?) record of residential address. The compulsory Certificate of Alien Registration (外国人登録証明書 Gaikokujin Tōroku Shōmeisho?) that all resident foreigners were required to have is being replaced with a resident's ID card that is essentially the same as the Juki Net card, and resident foreigners are now registered in Jūminhyō, together with Japanese family (if any). Foreigners who enter the country on a visa that is valid for 3 months or less need only a passport with a valid landing permit. Driving licenses, National Health Insurance Cards (国民健康保険証 Kokumin Kenkō Hoken Shō?), Certificates of Alien Registration (or the new resident's ID card that replaces it) and passports containing a registration for a Certificate for Alien Registration are accepted as IDs for most purposes. Health insurance cards do not have a photograph of their owner.|
|Mexico||The National Electorate Institute("Insituto Nacional Electoral" (INE)) issues a Voting card (Credencial para votar) for Mexican citizens when they become 18 years old. The card is compulsory in order to participate in Federal level elections, and is the de facto ID for most legal transactions.|
Main article: Identity documents in Sweden
Having an identity card in Sweden is not mandatory, but it is needed in several situations, e.g. for bank services or when picking up a package at a post office.
|Switzerland||The Swiss identity card is issued to any citizen. It is not mandatory to carry, but it or a passport is needed in some situations. Driver's licenses are not always valid as identity document as they don't expire and can be old.|
|Tonga||Tonga's National ID Card was first issued in 2010, and it is optional, along with the driver's licenses and passports. Either one of these are mandatory for to vote though. Applicants need to be 14 years of age or older to apply for a National ID Card.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||The Elections and Boundaries Commission (EBC) is responsible for the issuing of National Identification Cards. A National Identification (ID) Card is issued to a citizen or eligible resident when they register to vote. The National ID Card is an electoral document used as proof of identity when voting. It is also accepted as a primary form of identification within Trinidad and Tobago, and can be obtained before voting age. Eligible for the card are citizens of Trinidad and Tobago of 15 years of age or older, and Commonwealth citizens 15 years of age or older who have resided legally in Trinidad and Tobago for at least one year immediately preceding the application. The National ID Card is valid for 10 years. It is not, however, mandatory when voting; other forms if ID, including passport or driver's permit, can be presented.|
|United States||The Passport card is issued to citizens upon request. Although its main purpose is for land and sea travel under the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, under the REAL ID Act, the passport card is also accepted for domestic air travel. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U.S. Passport Card may be used in the Employment Eligibility Verification Form I-9 (form) process. The passport card is considered a "List A" document that may be presented by newly hired employees during the employment eligibility verification process to show work-authorized status. "List A" documents are those used by employees to prove both identity and work authorization when completing Form I-9. The passport card can be used as valid proof of citizenship and of identity both inside and outside the United States. Most people, however, use state issued driver's licenses, or state-issued (generally by the state's DMV) non-driver's ID cards, as identity cards.
In several states there is an obligation to identify oneself to the police on request. See Stop and identify statutes. In the past, compulsory ID cards or something compulsory resembling ID cards have existed, such as internal passports for freed African Americans before the abolition of slavery, and the draft cards for men(during times when men were conscripted into the army).
Countries with no identity cards
These are countries where official authorities do not issue any identity cards. When identification is needed, e.g. passports, identity cards issued by banks etc., or cards that are not mainly identity cards like driver's licenses can be used. Most countries that are not listed at all in this page have no National ID Card.
|Australia||In 1985, there was a failed proposal to create an Australia Card. In 2006 the Australian Government announced the introduction a non-compulsory Access Card that would act as a gateway to services administered by The Department of Human Services. This project, however, was terminated in November 2007. Class A identification documents in most Australian states include Driver's License (issued by the state government), Firearms License (issued by the state government), 18+ Card (issued by the state government), Australian Passport (issued by the Federal government), foreign passport, or Residency/Citizenship documents (issued by the Federal government).|
|Denmark||No national identity card. When needed, e.g. in banks, a passport or driver's license is used or, for age checks, a municipal identity card. Against authorities a health insurance card (without photo) can be used.|
|Fiji||There is no national ID Card, although, in 2010 and 2012, there have been proposals for a compulsory identity card ideas that did not progress.|
|India||India is currently piloting an ID card system, see Multipurpose National Identity Card (India). Proof of identity such as passport, ration card, PAN card, or driving license is mandatory for issuing essentials such as electricity, water, cell-phone SIM cards, etc. Those without proof of identity can often not obtain such basics.|
|Ireland||There is no requirement for Irish or UK citizens to identify themselves in Ireland. Citizens who were born in Ireland or the UK are allowed to travel within the Common Travel Area without producing a passport, but should be able to provide photographic identification on demand (although some airlines still require passport). All others are required to show a passport, or National Identity card in the case of EEA nationals. There is a voluntary Aoischárta Náisiúnta / National Age Card available to residents over 18, showing name, date of birth, sex, photograph, and unique card number, intended to allow young people to prove they are legally allowed to buy alcohol; it is a "proof of age" card, and has no legal value as an identity card Ireland started issuing a e-passport card in a handy "credit card size" in October 2015 (for an additional fee of €35) to applicants aged more than 18 years who already held a valid Irish passport booklet. This Irish Passport Card is usable for travel within most of Europe and a handful of countries and territories outside.|
|New Zealand||Acceptable types of identification for proof of identification may include New Zealand and foreign passports, New Zealand Firearms Licence, National ID Card (other countries), New Zealand driving licence with a credit/bankcard, Supergold card, birth certificate or citizenship certificate. Requirements vary according to the purpose.|
|Norway||No national identity card, but other identity cards exist which are needed e.g. in the bank if not using a passport or driver´s license. Bank issued debit cards, usually VISA, have had a photo ID on the back since the 1980s. The banks have stated that they no longer intend to issue ID-cards on their debit and credit cards, as they think ID-cards should be a public service. This requires people who do not have a drivers license to bring their passport in many situations. Norway decided in 2007 to introduce a voluntary national identity card, to be usable for travel to EU countries, but they are delayed and are planned to be introduced in 2017 but can be much more delayed. The reason for the delay is that the responsible authority requires absolute security on both the cards and the validation of the identity at issuance.|
|Philippines||No national identity card. However, in an effort to hasten applications for government services, the government is now issuing the Unified Multi-Purpose ID (UMID) as the single identity card for the four main government agencies namely, the Social Security System (SSS), Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), and the Pag-IBIG Fund (Home Development Mutual Fund).|
|United Kingdom||Compulsory identity cards were to be introduced under the Identity Cards Act 2006. Initial cards, not yet compulsory, were introduced for those who wanted them in 2009, but the requirement and the cards were abolished by the Identity Documents Act 2010 after a change of government. When a formal identity document is needed, a passport or a driver's licence is needed. For simpler cases like age verification, if having no driving licence, there are simpler age proof cards, certified under the "Proof of Age Standards Scheme".|
- As noted above, certain countries do not have national ID cards, but have other official documents that play the same role in practice (e.g. driver's license for the United States). While a country may not make it de jure compulsory to own or carry an identity document, it may be de facto strongly recommended to do so in order to facilitate certain procedures.
- In most countries, non-resident foreign citizens have to be able to identify themselves through a passport. For residents with "foreign" characteristics (e.g. skin color, dialect) possession of an acceptable identity card might be useful to reduce the risk of harassment from the police and other authorities.
- In many countries, people suspected of crime will be detained until their identity is proven even in countries not requiring an identity card.
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