List of national parks of India

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Valley of Flowers National Park is UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004.

National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger in 1973 to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species.

Further federal legislation strengthening protection for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s.

There are 104 existing national parks in India covering an area of 43,716 km2, which is 1.33% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, Dec. 2020). In addition to the above 75 National Parks covering an area of 16,608 km2 are proposed in the Protected Area Network Report (Rodgers & Panwar, 1988).  The network of parks will go up 176 after full implementation of the above report.

Definition[edit]

According to the Indian Ministry of Environment & Forests, a national park is "[a]n area, whether within a sanctuary or not, [that] can be notified by the state government to be constituted as a National Park, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, or zoological association or importance, needed to for the purpose of protecting & propagating or developing wildlife there in or its environment. No human activity is permitted inside the national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state under the conditions given in CHAPTER IV, WPA 1972".[1]

The List[edit]

List of national parks in India:[1][2]

State Name Notable Features Fauna Rivers and lakes inside the national park
Kerala Anamudi Shola National Park[1] The park is administered by Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Pampadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary, with Anamudi Shola providing connectivity between all these protected areas. Elephant, Tiger, Nilgiri tahr, Gaur, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Grizzled Giant Squirrel, Hanuman Langur, Sloth Bear, Flying Squirrels Pambar River
Karnataka Anshi National Park Part of Kali Tiger Reserve Great hornbill, tiger, leopard, black panther, bear, elephant. Kali River (Karnataka)
Meghalaya Balphakram National Park Balphakram means 'land of the eternal wind' according to the myth of the Garos. Wild water buffalo, red panda, elephant and eight cat species, including the tiger and marbled cat
Madhya Pradesh Bandhavgarh National Park Very high tiger density, so the saying : "In any other Park, you are lucky if you see a tiger. In Bandhavgarh, you are unlucky if you don't see (at least) one."

Gaurs reintroduced from Kanha National Park

Bengal tiger, striped hyena, caracal, gaur, sambar deer, nilgai, barking deer, chital,
Madhya Pradesh Omkareshwar National Park
Karnataka Bandipur National Park Dry deciduous forest is dominant. Also include moist deciduous forests and shrublands.

Together with the adjoining Nagarhole National Park , Mudumalai National Park and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, it is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Invasive Alien Species - Lantana bush, Parthenium

Chital, Bengal tiger, gray langurs, Indian giant squirrel, gaur, leopard, sambar deer, Indian elephants, honey buzzard, red-headed vulture Kabini River, Moyar River
Karnataka Bannerghatta National Park The park is part of a wildlife corridor for elephants which connects the BR Hills and the Sathyamangalam forest.

Moist deciduous forest valleys and scrubland on higher areas

Tiger, sloth bear, peacock, elephant, sambar deer, mouse deer

Jharkhand Betla National Park Tiger, Indian bison, elephant, hyenas, monkey, leopard North Koyal River
Odisha Bhitarkanika National Park A ramsar site Mangroves, saltwater crocodile, white crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild pigs, rhesus monkeys, olive ridley sea turtle, chital Brahmani River, Baitarani River, Dhamra River, Pathsala
Tripura Bison (Rajbari) National Park
Gujarat Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar Used to be a cheetah hunting ground

Has largest population of lesser florican

A grassland ecosystem

Successful conservation programs for the blackbuck, wolf and lesser florican (a bustard) are ongoing

Blackbucks, the endangered Indian grey wolf, the nocturnal striped hyena, Indian fox, golden jackal, jungle cat and many small mammals like hare, gerbil, field mice, mongoose and hedgehog.
West Bengal Buxa Tiger Reserve Nothern boundary along international border with Bhutan and eastern boundary touches Assam

The fragile "Terai Eco-System" constitutes a part of this reserve

The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to the north of Buxa, Manas National Park lies on east of Buxa

Buxa, serves as an international corridor for Asian elephant migration between India and Bhutan

Rajabhatkhawa Vulture Breeding Centre was established by Bombay Natural History Society to emulate the success of Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore

Indian leopard, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, giant squirrel, gaur, chital and wild boar

Eurasian griffon, Amur falcon

Endangered species include leopard cat, Bengal florican, regal python, Chinese pangolin, hispid hare, hog deer lesser adjutant, white-rumped vulture, slender-billed vulture, chestnut-breasted partridge, rufous necked hornbill, ferruginous pochard and great hornbill

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Campbell Bay National Park
Maharashtra Chandoli National Park
Tripura Clouded Leopard National Park
Jammu and Kashmir Dachigam National Park Only area where Kashmir stag is found[3]
Rajasthan Desert National Park Great Indian bustard
Assam Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Feral horse Brahmaputra, Lohit River, Dibru
Assam Dehing Patkai National Park Dihing river
Assam Raimona National Park
Uttar Pradesh Dudhwa National Park Tiger, Sambar deer, hog deer
Kerala Eravikulam National Park[4] Declared a Sanctuary in 1975 with the intention of protecting the indigenous population of Nilgiri Tahr

The land of “Neelakurinji”, the flower that blooms once in twelve years

Anamudi, the highest peak of western ghats, is located here

Vegetation - Rolling grasslands, with shola forests in upper parts

Nilgiri tahr, Neelakurinji

lion-tailed macaques, gaur, Indian muntjac and sambar deer

Pambar River (Kerala)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Galathea National Park
Uttarakhand Gangotri National Park Gaumukh Glacier Ganga
Gujarat Gir Forest National Park Asiatic lion Hiran, Shetrunji River, Datardi, Shingoda, Machhundri, Godavari and Raval
West Bengal Gorumara National Park The park is rich in large herbivores including Indian rhinoceros, gaur, Asian elephant, sloth bear, chital, and sambar deer Jaldhaka, Naora
Uttarakhand Govind Pashu Vihar National Park
Himachal Pradesh Great Himalayan National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site
Maharashtra Gugamal National Park
Tamil Nadu Guindy National Park Has more than 2000 chitals, 493 blackbucks and 84 jackals.
Tamil Nadu Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park has 8 species of whales and 21 small coral islands
Chhattisgarh Guru Ghasidas National Park Largest national park of chhattisgarh
Ladakh Hemis National Park Largest National park in India
Himachal Pradesh Inderkilla National Park
Tamil Nadu Indira Gandhi Sanctuary and National Park Tigers, leopards, elephants, wildboars, deers, dhole.
Chhattisgarh Indravati National Park Wild Asian buffalo, tiger reserve, hill mynas
West Bengal
Jaldapara National Park Indian rhinoceros
Uttarakhand Jim Corbett National Park First national park in India (established in 1936 as Hailey National Park).

Report titled  ‘Status of Tigers Co-predators and Prey in India’, released by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for 2018-19 revealed that national park has 14 tigers per 100 square kilometers which is highest in India.

Ramganga
Haryana Kalesar National Park Yamuna
Madhya Pradesh Kanha National Park Barasingha or swamp deer
Chhattisgarh Kanger Ghati National Park
Telangana Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
Assam Kaziranga National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site Indian rhinoceros
Manipur Keibul Lamjao National Park Only floating park in the world Loktak Lake
Rajasthan Keoladeo National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site
Sikkim Khangchendzonga National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site. Houses the third highest peak on the planet, Mt. Kangchenjunga. The Zemu glacier, one of the largest in Asia, is located within the park. musk deer, snow leopard, Himalayan tahr, dhole, sloth bear, viverrids, Himalayan black bear, red panda, Tibetan wild ass, Himalayan blue sheep, serow, goral and takin Teesta (to the east)
Himachal Pradesh Khirganga National Park
Jammu and Kashmir Kishtwar National Park
Karnataka Kudremukh National Park
Madhya Pradesh Kuno National Park Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project, India's first cheetah sanctuary
Madhya Pradesh Madhav National Park
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park
Telangana Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
Assam Manas National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site, contiguous with Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. 2 types of biomes - grasslands biome and forest biome. Rhinos were reintroduced in 2008 under Indian Rhino Vision from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary and Kaziranga National Park Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog Manas
Madhya Pradesh Mandla Plant Fossils National Park
Gujarat Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch Threat - Coral bleaching Corals, sponges, jellyfish, endangered sea turtles such as green sea turtles, olive ridleys and leatherbacks, dugongs, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, blue whales
Kerala Mathikettan Shola National Park The park is located between other reserve forests like Eravikulam National Park and Pampadam Shola National Park Elephants
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Middle Button Island National Park moist deciduous forest surrounded by sandy beaches and shallow seas with clear water Corals, dugongs, dolphins, sea turtles, blue whales, spotted deer, water lizards and monitor lizards
Goa Mollem National Park contains several important temples dating to the Kadambas of Goa, and home to waterfalls, such as Dudhsagar Falls and Tambdi Falls.
Arunachal Pradesh Mouling National Park Forms the western part of Dihang-Dibang biosphere reserve takin, goral, Indian leopard, Bengal tiger, barking deer, serow and red panda Siyom (to the west)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Mount Harriet National Park Important bird area as attributed by BirdLife International

Andaman wild pigs (an endangered species), saltwater crocodiles, turtles and robber crabs. The park is also a butterfly hotspot.

Telangana Mrugavani National Park
Tamil Nadu Mudumalai National Park Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Second oldest National Park in India. Largest National Park in Tamil Nadu. Bengal tiger, indian leopard, dhole, golden jackal, sloth bear, Indian elephants, gray langur, Lion tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, gaur, sambar deer, chital deer, Indian muntjac, Indian spotted chevrotain, wild boar

Rodents include the Indian giant squirrel and the red giant flying squirrel

Moyar River
Rajasthan Mukundra Hills National Park National Chambal Sanctuary is part of the national park
Tamil Nadu Mukurthi National Park Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is also UNESCO World Heritage Site.The park was created to protect its keystone species, the Nilgiri tahr

characterized by montane grasslands and shrublands interspersed with sholas

Nilgiri tahr
Mizoram Murlen National Park
Karnataka Nagarhole National Park Kabini reservoir separates Nagarhole from Bandipur National Park Carnivores - Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, dhole, sloth bear and the striped hyena.

Herbivores - chital, sambar deer, barking deer, four-horned antelope , gaur, wild boar, and Indian elephant.

Other mammals - gray langur, bonnet macaque, jungle cat, leopard cat, slender loris, small Indian civet and Asian palm civet , Indian brown mongoose and stripe-necked mongoose, European otter, Indian giant flying squirrel, Indian giant squirrel, porcupine, golden jackal, chevrotain, hare and Indian pangolin

Arunachal Pradesh Namdapha National Park The national park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude.

The park is located between the Dapha bum range of the Mishmi Hills and the Patkai range

Easternmost National Park of India

The area falls under both the Palearctic and Indo Malayan biogeographic areas

Vegetation zones from evergreen, moist deciduous to temperate broadleaved and coniferous forest types to alpine vegetation

Namdapha flying squirrel, red panda, dhole, Malayan sun bear, Indian wolf, Asiatic black bear, gaur, stump-tailed macaque, Assamese macaque and rhesus macaque. Noa Dihing River
Assam Nameri National Park
Uttarakhand Nanda Devi National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve
Maharashtra Navegaon National Park
West Bengal Neora Valley National Park
Meghalaya Nokrek National Park UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve
Andaman and Nicobar Islands North Button Island National Park
Nagaland Ntangki National Park
Assam Orang National Park Named Rajiv Gandhi National Park in 1992, but rolled back because of public opposition
Kerala Pambadum Shola National Park Forms part of Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary

It is a part of Palani hills

Keystone species - Nilgiri Marten

Nilgiri marten, Nilgiri wood pigeon, Nilgiri langur, Nilgiri flycatcher, Blue rock-thrush
Madhya Pradesh Panna National Park
Andhra Pradesh Papikonda National Park Royal Bengal Tiger, Leopards, rusty-spotted cat, King Cobra

It is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area and home to some endangered species of flora and fauna.[5]

Godavari river
Madhya Pradesh Pench National Park[6] Rudyard Kipling's 'Jungle Book' was set in this NP.
Kerala Periyar National Park An elephant reserve and a tiger reserve

Located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats

The sanctuary surrounds Periyar Lake, a reservoir that formed when the Mullaperiyar Dam was erected in 1895.

The park is made up of tropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests, grasslands and stands of eucalyptus

Malabar parakeet, Malabar grey hornbill, Nilgiri laughing thrush, Nilgiri blue robin, great hornbill, Malabar pied hornbill, lion-tailed macaque, hairy-winged bat Periyar river, Pamba river
Mizoram Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park Chhimtuipui River
Himachal Pradesh Pin Valley National Park
Uttarakhand Rajaji National Park Mainly known for elephants, tigers, leopards and several species of birds, reptiles and mammals. Ganga river
Andhra Pradesh Rajiv Gandhi National Park (Rameswaram)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
Rajasthan Ranthambore National Park Tiger Reserve.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Saddle Peak National Park
Jammu and Kashmir Salim Ali National Park
Madhya Pradesh Sanjay National Park[7]
Maharashtra Sanjay Gandhi National Park , Indian Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Bonnet Macaque, Spotted Deer, Hanuman Langur, Indian Flying Fox, Indian Hare, Barking Deer, Porcupine, Palm Civet, Mouse Deer
Rajasthan Sariska Tiger Reserve
Madhya Pradesh Satpura National Park
Kerala Silent Valley National Park[8] Located in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Contiguous with the proposed Karimpuzha National Park to the north and Mukurthi National Park to the north-east

Home to the largest population of lion-tailed macaques

Famous for "Save Silent Valley" movement

4 forest types : 1. West-coast tropical evergreen forest (600 to 1100 m), 2. Southern subtropical broad leaved hill forest (1300 to 1800 m), 3. Southern montane wet temperate forest (above 1900 m) and 4. Grassland.

Indian bison, Travancore flying squirrel, Salim Ali's fruit bat, Stripe-necked mongoose, Blue-winged parakeet, Crimson-backed sunbird Kunthipuzha River
Himachal Pradesh Simbalbara National Park
Manipur Sirohi National Park
Odisha Simlipal National Park Tiger, leopard, Asian elephant, sambar, barking deer, gaur, jungle cat, wild boar
West Bengal Singalila National Park
Andaman and Nicobar Islands South Button Island National Park Dugong, dolphin, water monitor lizard, blue whale and smallest National park in India
Andhra Pradesh Sri Venkateswara National Park
Haryana Sultanpur National Park
West Bengal Sundarbans National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site
Maharashtra Tadoba National Park Tiger
Uttarakhand Valley of Flowers National Park UNESCO World Heritage Site, Most beautiful national park in the world
Bihar Valmiki National Park Tiger Reserve
Gujarat Vansda National Park Leopard, Dhole, Rhesus Macaque, Common Palm Civet, Hanuman Langur, Small Indian Civet, Four-Horned Antelope, Wild Boar, Indian Porcupine, Barking Deer, Striped Hyena, Jungle Cat, Flying Squirrel, Pangolin and Indian Giant Squirrel.
Madhya Pradesh Van Vihar National Park

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "National Parks". wiienvis.nic.in. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  2. ^ "National Parks in India: 103 National Parks and 544 Wildlife Sanctuaries". www.careerpower.in. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  3. ^ Kashmir Stag (Hangul)
  4. ^ "Eravikulam National Park".
  5. ^ "2-ANDHRA PRADESH AND TELANGANA.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  6. ^ The Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh parts of the Pench National Park are administered separately. Tigris called Collar Wali is found there which has given 29 cubs in total.
  7. ^ The Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh parts of the Sanjay National Park are administered separately.
  8. ^ "Silent Valley - Kerala Forest Dept".

National parks in india www.thestudytrack.in

External links[edit]