List of nationalizations by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of industries, services, products, or companies that have been nationalized by country.

List[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Australia[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Most utilities were nationally owned before being privatized in 1994.

  • 2006 On May 1, 2006, newly elected Bolivian president Evo Morales announced plans to nationalize the country's natural gas industry; foreign-based companies were given six months to renegotiate their existing contracts.
  • 2008 On May 1, 2008, the nationalization of Bolivia's leading telecommunications company Entel was completed, previously having been owned by Telecom Italia.[4]
  • 2010 On May 1, 2010, the government nationalized the country's main hydroelectric plant, thereby assuming control over most of Bolivia's electrical generation and end-user sales.[4]
  • 2012 On May 1, 2012, the Morales government nationalized power grid operator Transportadora de Electricidad (TDE), until then 99.94% owned by Red Eléctrica de España. TDE owns and runs 73% of the power lines in Bolivia.[4]

Canada[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

  • 2003 Aurigny Air Services was bought by the States of Guernsey to keep precious routes from the island to London.

Chile[edit]

Croatia[edit]

On the break-up of Yugoslavia, The HDZ government nationalized private agricultural property and rezoned it under the guise of forest statesmanship, when their publicly professed agenda was to only complete the nationalization of the communists. Much of this land is in the process of being reinstated and the model rethought.

Cuba[edit]

After the Cuban Revolution of 1959 the Castro government gradually expropriated all foreign-owned private companies, most of which were owned by American corporations and individuals. The immediate trigger was the refusal by American owned oil refineries to refine the crude received from the Soviet Union. Faced with the prospect of no oil, Cuba nationalized the three American refineries. This action escalated the US embargo on Cuba, which responded by nationalizing all American owned property. Eventually all Cuban private property, largely owned by Cubans sympathetic to the Batista led dictatorship, was nationalized.

From 1966-68, the Castro government nationalized all remaining privately owned businesses in Cuba, down to the level of street vendors.

Castro had offered bonds at 4.5% interest over twenty years to U.S. companies, but U.S. ambassador Philip Bonsal requested the compensation up front and rejected the offer.[5] A minor amount of $1.3 million, was paid to U.S. interests before deteriorating relations ended all cooperation between the two governments.[5] The U.S. established a registry of claims against the Cuban government, ultimately developing files on 5,911 specific companies. The Cuban government has refused to discuss the compensation of U.S. claims and the U.S. government continues to insist on compensation for U.S. companies.[citation needed]

Czechoslovakia[edit]

  • 1945 Large manufacturing enterprises.
  • 1948 All manufacturing enterprises.

Egypt[edit]

France[edit]

Nationalisation dates back to the 'regies' or state monopolies organized under the Ancien Régime, for example, the monopoly on tobacco sales. Communications companies France Telecom and La Poste are relics of the state postal and telecommunications monopolies.

There was a major expansion of the nationalised sector following World War II.[6] A second wave followed in 1982.

  • 1938 Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF) (originally a 51% State holding, increased to 100% in 1982)[6]
  • 1945 Several nationalisations in France, including most important banks and Renault.[6] The firm was seized for Louis Renault's alleged collaboration with Nazi Germany, although this condemnation was without judgement and after his death, making this case remarkable and rare. A later judgement (1949) admitted that Renault's plant never collaborated. Renault was successful but unprofitable whilst nationalised and remains successful today, after having been partially privatized in 1996. France increased its 15% minority share holding in Renault to 19% in 2015.
  • 1946 Charbonnages de France, Electricite de France (EdF), Gaz de France (GdF)
  • 1982 François Mitterrand's alliance with Jean-Pierre Chevènement's Socialist Party faction CERES, committed France to an explicitly socialist ‘rupture with capitalism’. Full nationalisation (100%): the Compagnie Générale d'Electricité, the Compagnie Générale de Constructions Téléphoniques, Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann, Rhône-Poulenc, Saint-Gobain-Pont-à-Mousson, Thompson-Brandt. Partial nationalisation (51%+): Dassault, Honeywell-Bull, Matra, Roussel-Uclaf, Sacilor, Usinor. Thirty-nine banks, two financial houses, and the remaining 49% of the SNCF were also nationalised, taking the size of the French state to unprecedented levels within a year of Mitterrand's election as President in 1981.

The Paris regional transport operator, RATP Group, can also be counted as a nationalised industry.

Germany[edit]

The railways were nationalised after World War I. Partial privatisation of Deutsche Bahn is currently underway, as of 2008.

Large sections of the mining, banking, and shipping industries either became dependent on government money or were placed entirely under care of the Weimar Republic in the wake of the Great Depression; these were later reprivatized between 1934-1937 by the Nazi regime.[7]

Most enterprises in East Germany were nationalised following World War II. After reunification, an agency, Treuhand, was established to return them to private ownership, however many were liquidated.

  • 2008 Renationalization of the "Bundesdruckerei" (Federal Print Office), which had been privatized in 2001.

Greece[edit]

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

The nationalised banks were credited by some, including Home minister P. Chidambaram, to have helped the Indian economy withstand the global financial crisis of 2007-2009.[8][9]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Railways were nationalised in the 1940s as Córas Iompair Éireann.

  • 2007 On August 3, 2007, the Irish government were offered a stake in Eircom's copper network infrastructure.[10] Ireland's telephone networks were privatised in 1999.
  • 2009 On January 16, 2009, the Irish Government nationalised Anglo Irish Bank to secure the bank's viability.[11]
  • 2010 State-owned Anglo Irish Bank is to take majority control of one of Ireland's largest companies QUINN group bringing it under Public ownership.[12]

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

The regime of Benito Mussolini extended nationalisation, creating the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) as a State holding company for struggling firms, including the car maker Alfa Romeo. A parallel body, Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (Eni) was set up to manage State oil and gas interests. Fascist Italy had nationalized over three-fourths of its economy by 1939, more so than any nation other than the Soviet Union. Mussolini had earlier boasted in 1934 that “Three-fourths of Italian economy, industrial and agricultural, is in the hands of the state." By 1939 the Italian state had taken over four-fifths of Italy’s shipping and shipbuilding, three-fourths of pig iron production, and nearly half of the steel industry.

Japan[edit]

Korea[edit]

  • 1946 USAMGIK nationalized all railroad companies in southern Korea and made Department of Transportation. This now becomes Korail.

Many lands, enterprises and industries were also nationalized in northern Korea after World War II, which later became the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1948.

Lithuania[edit]

In 2011 Snoras bank was nationalized.

Latvia[edit]

In 2008 Parex Bank was nationalized.

Malta[edit]

Mexico[edit]

  • 1938 The Expropriation of the Petroleum Industry: President Lázaro Cárdenas issued a decree that the petroleum companies were in rebellion against the government and under the powers granted him under the Expropriation Act passed by the Congress of Mexico in late 1936 expropriated them. March 19, 1938, union personnel took control of the properties.[13]
  • 1982 The nationalization of the Mexican banking system made by President José López Portillo in response to the debt crisis. Under the Carlos Salinas de Gortari presidency (1988–1994) the nationalized banks were privatized very rapidly between 1991 and 1992 to Mexican family groups privatized.[14]

The Netherlands[edit]

  • 2008 The state nationalizes the Dutch activities of Belgian-Dutch banking and insurance company Fortis, which had come in solvability problems due to the international financial crisis.
  • 2013 SNS Bank is nationalized. It had been in trouble for more than a year, not able to find a private investor. On February 1, 2013, Jeroen Dijselbloem (Dutch minister of Finance) declares SNS nationalized.

New Zealand[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • 1972: On January 2, 1972, Prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, after East Pakistan broke away, announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities except textiles industry and lands.[15]

Philippines[edit]

During the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, important companies such as Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Philippine Airlines, Meralco and the Manila Hotel were nationalized. Other companies were sometimes absorbed into these government-owned corporations, as well as other companies, such as National Power Corporation (Napocor) and the Philippine National Railways, which in their own right are monopolies (exceptions are Meralco and the Manila Hotel). Today, these companies have been reprivatized and some, such as PLDT and Philippine Airlines, have been de-monopolized. Others, like government-owned and controlled corporation Napocor, are in the process of privatization.

Poland[edit]

  • 1946 Following World War II the government nationalized all enterprises with over 50 employees.

Portugal[edit]

  • 1974 In the years following the Carnation Revolution, the Junta de Salvação Nacional and Provisional Governments nationalized all the banking, insurance, petrol and industrial companies. Among those companies were Companhia União Fabril (CUF), the assets of the Champalimaud family and SONAE. Along with the telecommunications companies, which were state-owned even before the Revolution, many of the nationalized companies were reprivatized in the 1980s and 1990s. In the agricultural sector, according to government estimates, about 900,000 hectares (2,200,000 acres) of agricultural land were occupied between April 1974 and December 1975 in the name of land reform; about 32% of the occupations were ruled illegal. In January 1976, the government pledged to restore the illegally occupied land to its owners, and in 1977, it promulgated the Land Reform Review Law. Restoration of illegally occupied land began in 1978.[18][19]
  • 2008: BPN - Banco Português de Negócios bank nationalised to prevent its collapse.

Romania[edit]

  • 1948 With the Decree 119 of June 11, 1948, the new communist regime nationalised all private companies and their assets leading to the transformation of the economy from a market economy to a planned economy.
  • 1950 With the Decree 92 of April 19, 1950, a huge number of private houses and lands are confiscated.

Russia/Soviet Union[edit]

  • 1918 All manufacturing enterprises, many retailing enterprises, any private enterprises, the whole banking sector, agrarian sector, others. Later the government of Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy that shifted the country somewhat towards market economics until the end of the revolutionary period and Stalin's acquisition of power.
  • 1998 The Yeltsin government began seizing Gazprom assets, claiming that the company owed back taxes. Privatization of Gazprom from the mid-1990s had been reduced to 38.37% with the intention of achieving full privatization. However, the stake of the Russian Government in Gazprom has since been increased to 50% with Vladimir Putin's plan to increase the stake to a controlling position. Gazprom is also buying up both Russian and other international utility companies.
  • 2013 The space industry is renationalized. The government created a new corporation—United Rocket and Space Corporation—in August 2013 because of a string of recent rocket launch failures. According to Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, "The failure-prone space sector is so troubled that it needs state supervision to overcome its problems."[20]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

  • The government nationalized the oil producer company Aramco in 1980.

Spain[edit]

  • 1941 Railways were nationalised, as RENFE, in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War.
  • 1944. Nationalization of the Airline Iberia.
  • 1945. The State buys a 79% share of telephone operator Telefónica.
  • 1983 Nationalization without compensation of Rumasa. Separate business were later privatized.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sweden[edit]

  • 1939-1948 Nationalisation of most of the private railway companies.
  • 1957 The mining company LKAB is nationalized. The state had owned 50% of the corporation's shares, with options to buy the remainder, since 1907.[40]
  • 1992 A minor part of the banking sector is nationalized.[41]

Tanzania[edit]

The Arusha Declaration was proclaimed in 1967 by President Julius Nyerere, which aimed to achieve self-reliance through nationalising key sectors of the economy such as banks, large industries and plantations were therefore nationalised. This failed, worsening Tanzania's economic problems until foreign aid and liberalisation took effect in the 1980s and 1990s.[42]

Turkey[edit]

After the abolition of Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), foreign concessions were suppressed, rail transport, electric power generation and distribution, telephone network and other big industrial firms were nationalized by Turkish government between 1928 and 1940.[43]

United Kingdom[edit]

Nationalization was a key feature of the first post World War II Labour government, from 1945 to 1951 under Clement Attlee. The coal and steel industries were just two of many industries or services to be nationalised, while the formation of the National Health Service in 1948 entitled everyone to free healthcare. The subsequent Conservative governments led by Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan, Alec Douglas-Home and Edward Heath allowed practically all of the nationalized industries and services to remain in public ownership, as part of the Post-War Consensus. However, the election victory of Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives in 1979 saw the vast majority of nationalized industries, services and utilities privatized within a decade. The National Health Service was allowed to continue. The Labour Party initially opposed Thatcher's privatization, but the party's commitment to nationalisation had been abandoned by the time it swept back into power in 1997 under Tony Blair.[68] However, in February 2008, Blair's successor Gordon Brown nationalized the failing Northern Rock bank during the Great Recession.[69] The much larger Royal Bank of Scotland and Halifax Bank of Scotland were part nationalized for the same reason in October of that year. After nearly four years in public ownership, Northern Rock was sold to Virgin Money and Royal Bank of Scotland agreed a branch sale to the Santander Group in November 2011. However, Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds remain in public ownership five years later and in November 2012 the Public Accounts Committee warned that it could be many years before the banks are sold and the £66 billion so far invested in these banks may never be recovered.[70]

British assets nationalised by other countries[edit]

United States[edit]

  • 1917: Merck & Co. seized by the government during the war, later became a private company, separate from the original Merck Group operating outside of the US.
  • 1917: All U.S. railroads were operated (but not owned) by the Railroad Administration during World War I as a wartime measure. Railroads were returned to private control in 1920.
  • 1918: The U.S. telephone system was nationalized on July 31, 1918, and placed under control of the Post Office department. It was returned to private ownership on July 31, 1919.[71]
  • 1939: Organization of the Tennessee Valley Authority entailed the nationalization of the Tennessee Electric Power Company.
  • 1971: The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) is a government-owned corporation created in 1971 for the express purpose of relieving American railroads of their legal obligation to provide inter-city passenger rail service. The (primarily) freight railroads had petitioned to abandon passenger service repeatedly in the decades leading up to Amtrak's formation.
  • 1976: The Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) was created to take over the operations of six bankrupt rail lines operating primarily in the Northeast; Conrail was privatized in 1987. Initial plans for Conrail would have made it a truly nationalized system like that during World War I, but an alternate proposal by the Association of American Railroads won out.
  • 1980s: Resolution Trust Corporation seized control of hundreds of failed Savings & Loans.
  • 2001: In response to the September 11 attacks, the airport security industry was nationalized and put under the authority of the Transportation Security Administration.
  • 2008: Some economists consider the government's takeover of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and Federal National Mortgage Association to have been nationalization (or renationalization).[72][73] The conservatorship model used with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is looser and more temporary than nationalization.[74]
  • 2009: Some economists consider the government's actions through the Troubled Asset Relief Program with regards to Citigroup to have been a partial nationalization.[75] Proposal was made that banks like Citigroup be brought under a conservatorship model similar to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, that some of their "good assets" be dropped into newly created "good bank" subsidiaries (presumably under new management), and the remaining "bad assets" be left to be managed under the supervision of a conservatorship structure.[74] The government's actions with regard to General Motors in replacing the CEO with a government-approved CEO is likewise being considered as nationalization.[76][77] On June 1, 2009, General Motors filed for bankruptcy, with the government investing up to $50 billion and taking 60% ownership in the company. President Barack Obama stated that the nationalization was temporary, saying, "We are acting as reluctant shareholders because that is the only way to help GM succeed"[78]

Venezuela[edit]

  • 2007 On May 1, 2007, the government stripped the world's biggest oil companies of operational control over massive Orinoco Belt crude projects, a controversial component in President Hugo Chávez's nationalization drive.
  • 2008 On April 3, 2008, Chávez ordered the nationalization of the cement industry.[79]
  • 2008 On April 9, 2008, Chávez ordered the nationalization of Venezuelan steel mill Sidor, in which Luxembourg-based Ternium currently holds a 60% stake. Sidor employees and the Government hold a 20% stake respectively.[80]
  • 2008 On August 19, 2008, Chávez ordered the take-over of a cement plant owned and operated by Cemex, an international cement producer. While shares of Cemex fell on the New York Stock Exchange, the cement plant comprises only about 5% of the company's business, and is not expected to adversely affect the company's ability to produce in other markets. Chávez has been looking to nationalize the concrete and steel industries of his country to meet home building and infrastructure goals.[81]
  • 2009 On February 28, 2009, Chávez ordered the army to take over all rice processing and packaging plants.[82]
  • 2010 On January 20, 2010, Chávez signed an ordinance to nationalize six supermarkets under the system of retail stores of a French company because of increasing price and speculation hoarding illicit.[83]
  • 2010 On June 24, 2010, Venezuela announced the intention to nationalize oil drilling rigs belonging to the U.S. company Helmerich & Payne.[84]
  • 2010 On October 25, 2010, Chávez announced that the government was nationalizing two U.S.-owned Owens-Illinois glass-manufacturing plants.[85]
  • 2010 On October 31, 2010, Chávez said his government will take over the Sidetur steel manufacturing plant. Sidetur is owned by Vivencia, which had two mineral plants appropriated by the government in 2008.[85]
  • 2015 Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro promises to nationalize food distribution.[86]

Vietnam[edit]

  • According to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1980, land ownership of farmers disappeared, the State owned land across the country and people have the right to temporary use of land, as a slow result of the Land reform in North Vietnam from 1953 to 1956.[87][88]
  • After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, the government nationalized nearly all the property of the "landlords" and "comprador" in South Vietnam, property of the church and of the government of South Vietnam. All private enterprise was nationalized without compensation down to the street vendors, however "shadow companies" continued to operate.

Zimbabwe[edit]

  • Zimbabwe has nationalized its food distribution infrastructure.

Other countries[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Senate passes railway nationalisation into law". Buenos Aires Herald. 15 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Avanza la nacionalización del ferrocarril: el Gobierno estatizó los trenes de Entre Ríos". iProfesional. 24 September 2013.
  3. ^ The Constitutional Centre of Western Australia | The Role of The High Court
  4. ^ a b c "Bolivia announces nationalization of electrical grid". The Washington Post. 1 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  5. ^ a b Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 224, p252. ISBN 0-06-014259-6.
  6. ^ a b c Myers (1949)
  7. ^ Bel, Germà (February 2010). "Against the Mainstream: Nazi privatization in 1930s Germany" (PDF). The Economic History Review. 63 (1): 35–36. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.2009.00473.x. JSTOR 27771569.
  8. ^ PSU banks' policies saved India from financial blushes: Chidambaram
  9. ^ The importance of public banking Archived 2010-08-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Eircom and State in broadband swap?
  11. ^ Government nationalises 'fragile' Anglo Irish Bank
  12. ^ Anglo Irish Bank's €700m Quinn plan
  13. ^ The Expropriation of the Petroleum Industry of Mexico in 1938
  14. ^ Marois, Thomas (2008). "The 1982 Mexican Bank Statization and Unintended Consequences for the Emergence of Neoliberalism". Canadian Journal of Political Science. 41 (1): 143–167. doi:10.1017/s0008423908080128.
  15. ^ US Country Studies. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved 2006-11-07.
  16. ^ Syed Fazl-e-Haider (May 3, 2012). "The state-owned Pakistan Steel Mills". Asia Times. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  17. ^ a b Iftikhar Firdous (December 15, 2011). "Railways, Steel Mills taken off the chopping block". The Tribune Express, Iftikhar Firdous. Retrieved 31 May 2012. In a major blow to the economic liberals in government, the federal cabinet decided against the privatisation of eight of the largest state-owned companies, including Pakistan Steel Mills
  18. ^ "Portugal". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. In the mid-1980s, agricultural productivity was half that of the levels in Greece and Spain and a quarter of the EC average. The land tenure system was polarized between two extremes: small and fragmented family farms in the north and large collective farms in the south that proved incapable of modernizing. The decollectivization of agriculture, which began in modest form in the late 1970s and accelerated in the late 1980s, promised to increase the efficiency of human and land resources in the south during the 1990s.
  19. ^ "Portugal Agriculture". The Encyclopedia of the Nations
  20. ^ Messier, Doug (2013-08-30). "Rogozin: Russia to Consolidate Space Sector into Open Joint Stock Company". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  21. ^ a b Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  22. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  23. ^ "When bus services were nationalised". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 28 December 2008.
  24. ^ Ceylon Year Book 1959 (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics, Ceylon. p. xiii.
  25. ^ "Origins". Renuka Holdings PLC.
  26. ^ "Colombo port nationalised". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 3 August 2008.
  27. ^ Ceylon Year Book 1959 (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics, Ceylon. p. xiv.
  28. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxxiii. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  29. ^ "Chronologies of Tamils & Sri Lanka". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. 12 September 2011.
  30. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  31. ^ "Bank of Ceylon is nationalised". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 27 July 2008.
  32. ^ Thangakone, Jeya (16 November 2009). "History and Development of Insurance Industry of Sri Lanka". The Island (Sri Lanka).
  33. ^ Wickramasinghe, Wimal (22 February 2006). "Bancassurance still a new experience in Sri Lanka". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).[permanent dead link]
  34. ^ a b c "Shell buy back not a nationalisation". Sunday Observer (Sri Lanka). 14 November 2010.
  35. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  36. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  37. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxxiv. ISBN 978-1-4422-5585-2.
  38. ^ a b Karunanayake, Nandana (2008). "18: Sri Lanka". In Banerjee, Indrajit; Logan, Stephen. Asian Communication Handbook 2008. Singapore: Asian Media Information and Communication Centre, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, Nanyang Technological University. pp. 446–460. ISBN 9789814136105.
  39. ^ Lanka risks losing image, investment
  40. ^ A Historic Journey Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag, April 2006
  41. ^ Stopping a Financial Crisis, the Swedish Way
  42. ^ "BBC: Tanzania profile". BBC. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  43. ^ "Mustafa Kemal Atatürk". guide-martine.com. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  44. ^ Schifferes, Steve (February 18, 2008). "The lessons of nationalisation". BBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  45. ^ http://www.historytoday.com/dt_main_allatonce.asp?gid=9859&g9859=x&g9857=x&g30026=x&g20991=x&g21010=x&g19965=x&g19963=x&amid=9859
  46. ^ SN 1825 -Nationalisation of the UK Coal Royalties, 1938 : Compensation Payments
  47. ^ William Ashworth, The state in business: 1945 to the mid 1980s (1991).
  48. ^ Martin Chick, Industrial policy in Britain 1945-1951: economic planning, nationalisation and the Labour governments (2002).
  49. ^ Robert A. Brady, Crisis in Britain. Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government (1950) excerpt
  50. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 77-32
  51. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 43-77.
  52. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 352-401
  53. ^ a b Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 132-8
  54. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 284-306
  55. ^ Brady, Crisis in Britain pp 236-83
  56. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
  57. ^ Blair, Alasdair M. (1997). "The British iron and steel industry since 1945". Journal of European Economic History. 26 (3): 571.
  58. ^ a b "What was the last nationalisation?", BBC News, 18 February 2008
  59. ^ Lohr, Steve (11 April 1986). "RESCUED BANK SOLD BY BRITAIN". New York Times.
  60. ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 12 February 2002 (pt 16)
  61. ^ "Northern Rock to be nationalised". BBC News. February 17, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  62. ^ "HIGHLIGHTS-Britain nationalises Bradford & Bingley". Reuters. September 29, 2008.
  63. ^ "London and Continental Railways Limited (Oral statement)" (Press release). Department for Transport. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010.
  64. ^ "Cardiff Airport 'should be privatised', its ex-chairman says". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  65. ^ "Network Rail to become public sector body in 2014". Railnews. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  66. ^ "Airport in £1 public ownership deal". BBC News. 2013-11-24. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  67. ^ East Coast train line to be put into public control BBC News 16 May 2018
  68. ^ Schifferes, Steve (February 18, 2008). "The lessons of nationalisation". BBC News.
  69. ^ "Northern Rock to be nationalised". BBC News. February 17, 2008.
  70. ^ "MPs: Sale of RBS or Lloyds 'not for years'". BBC News. November 16, 2012.
  71. ^ The Wires Go to War: The U.S. Experiment with Government Ownership of the Telephone System During World War I
  72. ^ US rescue of Fannie, Freddie poses taxpayer risks
  73. ^ Diamond and Kashyap on the Recent Financial Upheavals
  74. ^ a b Baxter, Lawrence; Brown, Bill; Cox, Jim (February 27, 2009). "Finally, A Bridge to Somewhere". Huffington Post.
  75. ^ Nature of Citi stake debatable
  76. ^ Am I the Last Capitalist? Obama Falters on Rick Wagoner, GM, and the Auto Industry - Mary Kate Cary (usnews.com)
  77. ^ "If, in fact, Wagoner resigned because somebody in government said, 'You have to resign,' then I think we have nationalized the auto industry, at least GM, and I think that's bad to have the government have a socialized car industry," -Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa)
  78. ^ The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/01/AR2009060101480.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  79. ^ Al Jazeera English - Americas - Chavez nationalises cement industry Archived 2008-05-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  80. ^ "Venezuela to nationalize steelmaker Sidor: union". Reuters. April 9, 2008.
  81. ^ "Venezuela Seizes Cemex - Forbes.com". Archived from the original on October 10, 2008.
  82. ^ "Chavez sends army to rice plants". BBC News. March 1, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  83. ^ Venezuela quốc hữu hóa 6 siêu thị ngoại quốc[permanent dead link] (in Vietnamese)
  84. ^ Frank Jack Daniel (June 24, 2010). "Venezuela to nationalize U.S. firm's oil rigs". Reuters.
  85. ^ a b the CNN Wire Staff (November 2, 2010). "Venezuela nationalizes private steel plant". CNN.com.
  86. ^ https://news.yahoo.com/venezuela-nationalize-food-distribution-191734377.html
  87. ^ Development of Propert Law in Cambodia, Vietnam and China
  88. ^ Ownership regimes in Vietnam