List of natural disasters in Haiti

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Throughout its history, Haiti has suffered cyclones, hurricanes, tropical storms, torrential rains, floods and earthquakes.

The hurricane season in Haiti lasts from June to the end of November.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of natural disasters which have struck Haiti.[1]

Disasters[edit]

Districts of
Map of Haiti
1564 
  • Earthquake[2]
1684 
  • Earthquake
1691 
  • Earthquake
1751
  • 18 October: Earthquake at Port-au-Prince. The city was destroyed.[3]
  • 3 June: Earthquake at Port-au-Prince and areas to the south. The city and towns were destroyed.[4] · .[5]
1816
1842
1887
  • 23 September: Earthquake in the western region of Haiti.
1904
1909
1915
  • 12 August: cyclone on the southern peninsula, which devastated Jacmel and Jérémie.
1935
1946
1952
1954
  • 11–12 October: Hurricane Hazel affected every part of Haiti. At more than 249 km/h, the hurricane devastated the country, killing several thousand people.
1963
1964
1966
  • 29 September: Hurricane Inez devastated, at more than 170 km/h, the Sud and Ouest départements
1972
  • 20 May: Floods in the Cayes-Jacmel region. 20 people lost presumed dead, considerable property damage.
1980
  • 5 August: Hurricane Allen, at more than 270 km/h, struck the south coast, especially the Cayes-Jacmel region, causing approximately 200 deaths.
1984
1986
  • 1 June: Floods in the Cayes-Jacmel region. 20,000 hectares of land were flooded and several thousand homes damaged.
  • 23 October: flooding at Ile de la Gonâve. 31 killed, 906 homeless, more than 380 houses destroyed or damaged.
1987
1988
1989
  • 23 February: flooding in Île de la Gonâve. 4,945 familles affected, 1,527 houses destroyed and 1640 damaged.
1994
  • 12 and 13 November: Hurricane Gordon crossed the Sud-Est département and the southern peninsula, causing flooding and approximately 2,000 deaths and disappearances.
1998
  • 23 September: Hurricane Georges devastated the Sud-Est and Nord-Ouest départements, causing 147 deaths, 34 serious injuries, 40 disappearances, and 167,500 displaced.
2002
  • 24–27 May: Flooding on the southern peninsula. The town of Camp Perrin and the settlements of L'Asile and Anse-à-Veau were worst affected by the tropical storms. 31 dead, 14 disappeared and more than 7,000 displaced in the dans le Sud département.[8]
2004
  • 23–24 May: Torrential rains which pounded the south-east of Haiti during the night caused 1,232 deaths, 1,443 disappearances and 31,130 displaced persons.[9]Mapou[10][11] Belle-Anse with 432 dead, Bodary with 350 dead and Fonds-Verrettes with 237 victims, all located in the Sud-Est département, were the places most badly hit.
    The gravity of this situation led the interim government of Boniface and Latortue to declare Friday 28 May a day of national mourning.
  • 10 September: Hurricane Ivan struck the southern peninsula and west coast, causing serious damage in several areas due to flooding.
  • 18–19 September: Hurricane Jeanne crossed the western section of Haiti and the Artibonite, causing flooding which killed 1,870. In addition: 2,620 injured, 846 disappeared and 300,000 displaced. With more than 3,000 dead, Gonaïves was the most seriously affected city.[12]
Hurricane Dennis, 10 July 2005 at 16:15 UTC.
2005
2006
  • 22 and 23 November: heavy rain caused flooding in Grand'Anse Department and the Nippes and Nord-Ouest départements, causing damage to roadways including the collapse of a bridge across Ravine Sable at Trou-Bonbon.[13]
2007
Trajectory of Hurricane Hanna in 2008, prior to its extra-tropical transition
2008
  • 16 August: Tropical Storm Fay crossed the entire country.[14]
  • 26 August: Hurricane Gustav crosses the south peninsula, including the Sud and Grand'Anse départements, causing approximately 77 deaths and 8 disappearances, together with serious destruction of property. 15,000 families were affected by the storm, which destroyed 3,000 houses and damaged 11,458.
  • 1 September: Hurricane Hanna ravaged the Artibonite and Nord-Est départements. Several towns were flooded, including Gonaïves.[15] One death was officially confirmed. In addition to Gonaïves, several towns in Jacmel, Nord-Est, Sud and Sud-Est were flooded..
  • 6 September: Hurricane Ike, a category 4 hurricane, grazed the western coastline of Haiti, leading to heavy rain in Nord, Ouest and Nord-Ouest départements.
2009
  • 20 October: heavy rain in the Haitian capital and its suburbs. Carrefour, in the southern suburbs, was completely flooded.
2010
  • 12 January: the magnitude 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on 12 at 16:53, local time. The earthquake killed between 46,000 and 316,000 people. Its epicentre was at approximately 25 km from Port-au-Prince, the capital. A dozen secondary shocks of magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 were registered during the hours which followed.
  • 20 January: A second earthquake[16][17] of magnitude 6.1 occurred on 20 January 2010 at 06:03 local time. Its epicentre was at approximately 59 km west of Port-au-Prince, and at least 10 km beneath the surface.
  • 20 October: A cholera epidemic hit outside of Port-au-Prince, killing at least 3,597 and sickening over 340,000.[18]
  • 5 November: Hurricane Tomas hits and kills at least 10 Haitiens causing damage and worsening the cholera epidemic.
2016
  • 3–4 October: Hurricane Matthew hits Haiti with catastrophic flooding of up to 40 inches and storm surge of up to 10 feet.[19] At least 580 people were killed and more than 35,000 left homeless by the storm.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Natural disasters of Haiti (French)
  2. ^ Jules Trousset, Nouveau Dictionnaire encyclopédique universel illustré, 1886–1889, tome 3, p. 214
  3. ^ L'historien Médéric Louis Élie
  4. ^ In 1770, the historian Moreau de Saint-Méry reported that "la ville entière fut renversée" ("the entire city was turned upside down")
  5. ^ Moreau de Saint-Méry, Description topographique, physique, civile, politique et historique de la partie française de l'Ile Saint Domingue, quoted in Claude Prepetit, "Tremblements de terre en Haïti, mythe ou réalité ?", Le Matin, Issue 33082, 9 October 2008
  6. ^ Madiou, Thomas. Histoire d'Haïti. Tome V: 1811–1818; p. 368
  7. ^ Séisme en Haïti, la bonne carte tectonique
  8. ^ According to the Haitian Office of Civil Protection, quoted by Haiti-Press Network on 5 June 2002
  9. ^ According to a report dated 8 June 2004 by Haitian Civil Protection
  10. ^ Le cri de Mapou
  11. ^ Haïti - Pays en crise
  12. ^ Sources: Civil Protection, 4 October 2004
  13. ^ Inondations en Haïti 25 novembre 2006
  14. ^ Course of Tropical Storm Fay, 2008
  15. ^ "La ville est inondée et en certains endroits l'eau atteint deux mètres... De nombreux habitants sont réfugiés sur les toits des maisons depuis hier soir pour fuir la montée des eaux". ("The town is flooded and at certain points the water is up to two metres ... Numerous residents have taken refuge on house roofs since yesterday evening, in flight from the rising waters"), Alta Jean-Baptiste, Director of Civil Protection.
  16. ^ Un nouveau séisme de magnitude 6 frappe Haïti
  17. ^ Haïti : nouveau séisme de magnitude 6,1
  18. ^ "Haiti cholera outbreak prompts fresh UN aid plea". BBC News. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  19. ^ "Hurricane Matthew advisory 22". National Hurricane Center. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016. 

External links[edit]