List of nearest exoplanets

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Fomalhaut is a star 25 light-years away with an exoplanet (Fomalhaut b) that has been directly imaged in 2013 by NASA.

From the total of 3,544 known exoplanets orbiting around 2,659 different stars (as of December 1, 2016), only a small fraction are located in the vicinity of the Solar System. At the beginning of 2016, the nearest 74 exoplanets were confirmed to be located within 50 light-years (15.3 pc),[a] while some 49 other exoplanets had been proposed to exist. Among the estimated 1,400 stars located within 50 light-years, only 40 had been confirmed to have planetary systems with 14 other stars having unconfirmed exoplanet candidates.[1] Of these 40 star systems, half are visible with the naked eye (out of a total of about 133 visible stars located within 50 light-years),[b][1] and only five (Epsilon Eridani, Gliese 687, Gliese 674, Gliese 876, and Gliese 832) are among the nearest known 100 known systems.[c]

Reports of planetary systems first came in 1996 for three stars located over 40 light-years away: 55 Cancri,[2] Upsilon Andromedae,[2] and 47 Ursae Majoris.[3] Since 1999, more planets have been reported, including a total of five planets revolving around 55 Cancri, and four planets around Gliese 876, Upsilon Andromedae, and Mu Arae. Eight star systems have three confirmed planetary partners, five others have only two planets, while the remaining 23 systems have only one confirmed planet. A total of seven planets have been suggested to revolve around Gliese 667 C and HD 219134, six around HD 40307, and five planets around Tau Ceti and Gliese 163.

Among the confirmed the known planetary systems, 24 are located within 40 light-years, 14 are within 30 light-years, and only six are within 20 light-years. The closest exoplanet considered confirmed by NASA is Epsilon Eridani b,[4] 10.5 light-years away from our Solar System, while the closest known rocky planet is Gliese 674 b, 14.8 light-years away.[5] Planetary companions have been suggested to exist in some of the nine known star systems located within 10 light-years away, including a planetary companion in the closest system, Alpha Centauri (4.1 light-years away).[6]

Among the confirmed exoplanets within 50 light-years, more than half were found to revolve around their star closer and complete an orbit faster than Mercury does around the Sun, many of them with highly eccentric orbits. In term of their estimated minimum masses, 52 exoplanets are expected to be gas giants and the other 22 are likely Super-Earths. The smallest one, Gliese 581 e, is located 20 light-years away and is estimated to have a mass at least twice that of Earth's. Of the exoplanets within 50 light-years, three have been hypothesized to be potentially habitable (Gliese 667 Cc, Gliese 163 c, and Gliese 832 c),[7] and another three have been directly imaged (Fomalhaut b,[8] Ross 458(AB) c,[9] and VHS 1256-1257 b[10]). The International Astronomical Union took a public survey in 2015 towrds renaming some known the exoplanetary systems, including several of the nearest systems: Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, Pollux, 55 Cancri, Upsilon Andromedae, Gamma Cephei, 47 Ursae Majoris, and Mu Arae.[11]

Inclusion criteria[edit]

Unlike for bodies within the Solar System, there is no clearly established method for officially recognizing an exoplanet. The International Astronomical Union has detailed that "a period of at least five years since the discovery has been considered as a simple and satisfactory criterion to include exoplanets which can be considered as confirmed".[12] There have been a few examples where the existence of an exoplanet has been proposed, yet even after follow-up studies, their existence is considered doubtful by some skeptical astronomers. For example, Alpha Centauri Bb has received criticism on the methods used to propose the existence of the planet.[13] In addition, some of the exoplanets have been proposed but they have been disproved since. These include proposed exoplanets around Teegarden's star,[14] VB 10,[15] Gliese 581,[16][17] Gliese 876,[18][19] and CM Draconis.[20]

The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union adopted in 2003 a working definition on the upper limit for what constitutes a planet as not being massive enough to sustain thermonuclear fusion of deuterium. Some studies have calculated this to be somewhere around 13 times the mass of Jupiter, and therefore objects more massive than this are usually classified as brown dwarfs.[21] Large uncertainties exist in the estimated masses of distant objects, including exoplanets. Generally the mass of an exoplanet has been inferred from measurements on changes in the radial velocity of the host star; but this allows for an estimate on the exoplanet's orbital parameters, but not on their orbital inclination (i). Because of this challenge, most exoplanets only have an estimated minimum mass (Mreal*sin(i)). Their true masses are expected to come close to this minimum, as there is only about 13% chance for the mass of an exoplanet to be more than double its minimum mass.[22] However, some proposed exoplanets were later shown to be massive enough to fall above the threshold of 13 Jupiter masses, and are likely brown dwarfs. This has been the case for WISE 0458+6434 B,[23] WISE 1217+1626 B,[24] 2M 0746+20 B,[25][26] SDSS J1416+1348 B,[27] HD 104304 B,[28] SCR 1845-6357 B,[29] and Gliese 22 B.[30]

There are known examples of potential free-floating sub-brown dwarfs, sometimes referred as "rogue planets", that are excluded from this list, such as WISE 0855–0714,[31] UGPS 0722-05,[32] WISE 1541−2250,[33] and WISE 1828+2650.[34] For the purpose of this list, an exoplanet is regarded as unconfirmed when there is only a single (primary) report which presents its discovery, but there are no follow-up papers confirming their existence. Some stars fall close to the 50 ly threshold and are not included in this list: 51 Pegasi (50.1 ly),[35] Tau Boötis (50.9 ly),[36] Gliese 758 (51.4 ly).[37]

List[edit]

Key to colors
° Mercury, Earth and Jupiter (for comparison purposes)
Unconfirmed exoplanets
# Confirmed multiplanetary systems
Exoplanets believed to be potentially habitable[7]
Host star system Companion exoplanet (in order from star) References
Name Distance
(ly)
Apparent
magnitude

Mass
(M)
Label Massmin
(MJ)
Radius
(RJ)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery year
Sun° 0 −26.7 1 Mercury 0.00017 0.0349 0.387 88.0 0.205
Earth 0.00314 0.0911 1 365.3 0.0167
Jupiter 1 1 5.20 4,333 0.0488
Alpha Centauri 4.36 1.33 0.93 Bb 0.0036 0.04 3.24 ~0 2012 [38][39][40][41]
Bc 0.92 0.10 ~12.4 <0.24 2015 [42][43]
Proxima Centauri 4.2 11.13 0.123 b 0.0040 0.05 ~11.2 2016 [44]
Luhman 16 6.59 23.0 ~0.04 (AB)b ~10 2013 [45][46]
Epsilon Eridani 10.49 3.73 0.83 b 1.55 3.39 2,500 0.29 30.1 2000 [47][48][4]
c ~0.1 <40 ~100,000 ~0.3 2002 [49]
Groombridge 34 11.70 8.08 0.38 Ab[d] 0.0168 0.0717 11.4 ~0 2014 [50]
Epsilon Indi 11.81 4.83 0.76 Ab 0.97 8.6 >10,000 2002 [51]
Tau Ceti 11.90 3.50 0.78 b 0.0063 0.105 14.0 0.16 2012 [52][53]
c 0.0098 0.195 35.4 0.03 2012 [53][54]
d 0.011 0.374 94.1 0.08 2012 [53][55]
e 0.0135 ~0.14 0.552 168 0.05 2012 [7][53][56][57]
f 0.021 1.35 642 0.03 2012 [53][57][58]
Kapteyn's star 12.76 8.8 0.28 b 0.015 ~0.14 0.168 48.6 0.21 2014 [7][59]
c 0.022 0.311 122 0.23 2014 [60]
Wolf 1061 14.00 10.1 0.25 b[d] 0.0043 0.0355 4.89 0 2015 [61]
c[d] 0.0134 ~0.14 0.0843 17.9 0.19 2015 [7][62]
d[d] 0.0164 0.204 67.3 0.32 2015 [63]
Gliese 687 14.77 9.15 0.41 b 0.058 0.164 38.1 0.04 2014 [64]
Gliese 674 14.81 9.38 0.35 b 0.04 1.13 0.039 4.69 0.07 2007 [65][66]
Gliese 876# 15.29 10.2 0.33 d 0.017 0.0208 1.94 0.081 50 2005 [67][68]
c 0.64 0.130 30.2 0.002 48 2000 [67][69]
b 1.93 0.208 61.0 0 84 2000 [67][70]
e 0.039 0.334 125 0.073 59.5 2010 [67][71]
Gliese 832# 16.16 8.67 0.45 c 0.0157 ~0.15 0.162 35.7 0.03 2014 [7][72]
b 0.69 3.6 3,420 0.08 2008 [73][74][75]
Gliese 682 16.6 11.0 0.27 b 0.014 0.08 17.5 0.08 2014 [7][76]
c[d] 0.027 ~0.16 0.176 57.3 0.1 2014 [7][77]
Gliese 229 18.8 8.12 0.58 Ab[d] 0.101 0.97 471 0.1 2014 [78][79]
82 G. Eridani# 19.7 4.26 0.85 b 0.0085 0.121 18.3 ~0 2011 [80][81]
c 0.0076 0.204 40.1 ~0 2011 [80][82]
d 0.015 0.350 90.3 ~0 2011 [80][83]
Gliese 581# 20.4 10.5 0.31 e 0.0061 0.028 3.15 0.32 2009 [84][85]
b 0.05 0.041 5.37 0.031 2005 [84][86]
c 0.017 0.073 12.9 0.07 2007 [84][87]
d 0.019 0.22 66.6 0.21 2007 [88]
HD 219134 21.3 5.57 0.78 b 0.012 0.143 0.0385 3.09 0 85.1 2015 [89]
c 0.011 0.065 6.77 ~0 2015 [90]
f 0.028 0.146 22.8 ~0 2015 [91]
d 0.067 0.235 46.7 ~0 2015 [92]
g 0.034 0.375 94.2 ~0 2015 [93]
e 0.012 2.56 1,840 0.34 2015 [94]
h 0.28 3.06 2,200 0.37 2015 [95]
Gliese 667# 23.6 10.2 0.33 Cb 0.0176 0.051 7.20 0.13 2009 [96][97][98]
Ch 0.0035 0.0893 16.9 0.06 2013 [96][97][99]
Cc 0.0119 ~0.13 0.125 28.1 0.02 2011 [7][96][97][100]
Cf 0.0085 ~0.12 0.156 39.0 0.03 2013 [7][96][97][101]
Ce 0.0085 ~0.12 0.213 62.2 0.02 2013 [7][96][97][102]
Cd 0.0160 0.276 91.6 0.03 2012 [96][97][103]
Cg 0.0145 0.549 256 0.08 2013 [96][97][104]
HD 95872 24.7 9.9 0.95 b[d] 4.6 5.2 4,380 0.06 2015 [105]
Fomalhaut 25.1 1.16 1.92 b 3.0 115 ~320,000 0.11 2008 [106][107]
61 Virginis# 27.9 4.74 0.95 b 0.016 0.0502 4.22 0.12 2009 [108][109]
c 0.057 0.218 38.0 0.14 2009 [108][110]
d 0.072 0.476 123 0.35 2009 [108][111]
HD 192310# 28.8 6.13 0.78 b 0.053 0.32 74.7 0.13 2010 [112][113]
c 0.076 1.18 526 0.32 2011 [114]
Gliese 433# 29.0 9.79 0.48 b 0.0167 0.06 7.37 0.05 2009 [115][116]
c 0.14 3.6 3,700 0.17 2012 [117]
Gliese 849# 29.7 10.4 0.49 b 0.9 2.35 1,910 0.012 2006 [118][119]
c 0.77 ~5 7,050 0.22 2013 [120]
HD 102365 30.1 4.89 0.85 b 0.05 0.46 122 0.34 2011 [121][122]
Gliese 176 30.7 9.97 0.49 b 0.027 0.066 8.78 0 2007 [123][124]
c 0.044 0.18 40 ~0 2009 [125]
Gliese 436 33.1 10.7 0.45 c 0.0009 0.059 0.0185 1.37 86.7 2012 [126][127]
b 0.07 0.38 0.0289 2.64 0.19 85.8 2004 [126][128]
d 0.00085 0.058 2012 [126][129]
Gliese 649 33.7 9.62 0.54 c 0.03 0.043 4.48 0.2 2013 [130][131]
b 0.33 1.14 598 0.3 2009 [130][132]
Pollux 33.8 1.15 2.08 b 2.9 1.69 590 0.02 2006 [133][134]
Gliese 86 35.2 6.17 0.80 Ab 4.0 0.11 15.8 0.046 2000 [135][136]
HIP 57050 35.9 11.9 0.34 b 0.30 0.164 41.4 0.31 2010 [137][138]
54 Piscium 36.1 5.8 0.79 Ac 0.09 0.186 31.0 0.04 2013 [139][140]
Ab 0.23 0.295 62.2 0.60 83 2003 [139][141]
HD 85512 36.4 7.67 0.69 b 0.011 0.26 58.4 0.11 2011 [142][143]
GJ 180 38 10.9 0.43 b 0.026 ~0.17 0.103 17.4 0.11 2014 [7][144]
c 0.020 ~0.16 0.129 24.3 0.09 2014 [7][145]
Ross 458 38.1 9.76 0.6 (AB)c 11.3 1.07 1,170 10,000,000 2014 [9]
Gliese 1132 39.3 13.5 0.18 b[d] 0.0051 0.103 0.0154 1.63 0 2011 [146]
Gliese 179 40.1 12.0 0.36 b 0.82 2.41 2,290 0.21 2010 [147][148]
55 Cancri# 40.2 5.95 0.91 e 0.026 0.178 0.0156 0.737 <0.06 85 2004 [149]
b 0.8 0.113 14.7 0.016 1996 [150][151]
c 0.169 0.240 44.3 0.053 2002 [152]
f 0.144 0.78 261 0.0002 2007 [153]
d 3.8 5.76 5,200 0.025 53 2002 [154]
HD 69830# 41.1 5.95 0.86 b 0.033 0.0785 8.67 0.1 13 2006 [155][156]
c 0.038 0.186 31.6 0.13 13 2006 [155][157]
d 0.058 0.63 197 0.07 13 2006 [155][158]
Innes' star 41.3 11.5 0.35 b 0.031 ~0.18 0.119 26.2 0.05 2014 [7][159]
VHS 1256-1257 41.5 17.8 0.073 b 11.2 ~102 ~1,400,000 2015 [160]
HD 147513 41.7 5.37 0.92 b 1.21 1.32 528 0.26 2003 [161][162]
HD 40307# 42.4 7.2 0.77 b 0.012 0.0468 4.31 0.2 2008 [163][164]
c 0.020 0.0812 9.62 0.06 2008 [163][165]
d 0.028 0.134 20.4 0.07 2008 [163][166]
e 0.011 0.189 34.6 0.15 2012 [163][167]
f 0.0114 0.248 51.6 0.02 2012 [163][168]
g 0.022 ~0.16 0.6 198 0.29 2012 [7][163][169]
GJ 1214 42.4 14.7 0.15 b 0.020 0.238 0.0141 1.58 0.27 88.2 2009 [170][171]
Upsilon Andromedae# 43.9 4.09 1.27 b 0.62 0.059 4.62 0.011 ~90 1996 [172][173]
c 1.8 0.86 241 0.24 11.3 1999 [172][174][175]
d 10.2 2.55 1,280 0.32 25.6 1999 [172][176][175]
e 1.06 5.25 3,850 0.0054 2010 [172][177]
Gamma Cephei 45.0 3.22 1.4 Ab 1.85 2.05 903 0.049 9.6 2003 [178][179]
47 Ursae Majoris# 45.9 5.10 1.03 b 2.5 2.1 1,078 0.032 1996 [180][181]
c 0.54 3.6 2,390 0.098 2001 [180][182]
d 1.64 11.6 14,000 0.16 2010 [180][183]
HIP 79431 47.0 11.3 0.49 b 2.1 0.36 112 0.29 2010 [184][185]
Nu2 Lupi# 48.3 5.65 0.91 b 0.0166 0.093 11.6 0.18 2011 [186]
c 0.036 0.167 27.6 0.16 2011 [187]
d 0.03 0.411 107 0.43 2011 [188]
Gliese 163# 48.9 11.8 0.4 b 0.033 ~0.16 0.0607 8.63 0.0106 2012 [7][189][190]
e 0.012 0.10 19.5 0.32 2013 [191]
c 0.023 0.125 25.6 0.094 2012 [189][192]
f 0.023 0.33 108 0.41 2013 [191]
d 0.070 1.03 601 0.40 2013 [189][193]
HD 176051 48.9 5.22 0.71 Bb 1.5 1.76 1,020 ~0 2010 [194]
Gliese 317 49.2 12.0 0.42 b 1.81 1.15 692 0.11 45 2007 [195][196][197]
c 2.0 ~30 >7,300 0.81 2007 [198]
HD 38858 49.6 5.97 0.886 b 0.096 1.04 407 0.27 2011 [199]
Mu Arae# 49.8 5.15 1.08 c 0.033 0.091 9.64 0.17 2004 [200]
d 0.52 0.92 311 0.066 2004 [201]
b 1.68 1.5 643 0.13 2000 [202]
e 1.81 5.23 4,200 0.099 2010 [203]

Statistics[edit]

Planetary systems[edit]

Systems by planet count
Confirmed
exoplanets
No. of
systems
Systems
5 1 55 Cancri
4 3 Gliese 876, Upsilon Andromedae, Mu Arae
3 8 82 G. Eridani, Gliese 581, 61 Virginis, HD 69830, HD 40307, 47 Ursae Majoris, Nu2 Lupi, Gliese 163
2 5 Gliese 832, Gliese 667, HD 192310, Gliese 433, Gliese 849
1 23
Total 40
0 14
Systems by distance
Distance Confirmed
systems
Unconfirmed
systems
< 10 light-years 1 2
10–20 light-years 6 7
20–30 light-years 8 1
30–40 light-years 10 2
40–50 light-years 16 2
Systems visible with the naked eye?[204]
Visible host star? Confirmed
systems
Unconfirmed
systems
Yes (V < 6.5) 20 3
No (V > 6.5) 21 11

Exoplanets[edit]

Exoplanets by minimum estimated mass
Mass range[205] Confirmed Unconfirmed
Sub-Earth-mass <0.0015 MJ (<0.5 M) 0 2
Earth-mass 0.0015–0.006 MJ (0.5–2 M) 1 4
Super-Earth-mass 0.006–0.03 MJ (2–10 M) 22 28
Neptune-mass 0.03–0.15 MJ (10–50 M) 20 7
Jupiter-mass 0.15–2 MJ (50–600 M) 24 3
Super-Jupiter-mass >2 MJ (>600 M) 8 3
Total 74 47
Exoplanets by orbital radius
Orbital radius Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 0.4 AU 43 34 Mercury orbits at 0.39 AU
0.4–1.0 AU 7 4 Earth orbits at 1.0 AU
1.0–5.2 AU 19 4
>5.2 AU 6 4 Jupiter orbits at 5.2 AU
Exoplanets by orbital period
Orbital period Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 90 days 40 29 Mercury takes 88 days
90–365 days 10 8
1–12 years 20 4 Jupiter takes 11.9 years
>12 years 5 5
Exoplanets by orbital eccentricity
Orbital eccentricity Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 0.02 14 9 Earth's is 0.0167
0.02–0.20 41 22
Mercury's is 0.205
> 0.20 18 11
Exoplanets by discovery year
Year Confirmed Unconfirmed
1996 3 0
1999 2 0
2000 5 0
2001 1 0
2002 2 2
2003 3 0
2004 4 0
2005 2 0
2006 5 0
2007 5 2
2008 5 0
2009 8 1
2010 9 0
2011 11 1
2012 3 12
2013 2 9
2014 3 9
2015 1 12
2016 1 0
Total 74 49

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Listed values are primarily taken from The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, while complete list is compiled from the following databases:
    "Exoplanet Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Full table. 
    "Exoplanets Data Explorer". Exoplanet Orbit Database. California Planet Survey. Click the "+" button to visualize additional parameters. 
    "Open Exoplanet Catalogue". Click the "Show options" to visualize additional parameters. 
    "Exoplanet Archive". Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. NASA. 
  2. ^ According to the Bortle scale, an astronomical object visible to the naked eye under "typical" dark-sky conditions in a rural area if it has an apparent magnitude smaller than +6.5. To the unaided eye, the limiting magnitude is +7.6 to +8.0 under "excellent" dark-sky conditions (with effort).[204]
  3. ^ For reference, the 101st closest know star system in November 2014 was 82 Eridani (19.7 ly).[206]
  4. ^ This recently-discovered exoplanet is regarded as unconfirmed as there is only a single (primary) report discussing its existence.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Powell, Richard (2006). "Stars within 50 light years". An Atlas of the Universe. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  2. ^ a b Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Williams, Eric; Hauser, Heather; Shirts, Phil (1997). "Three New 51 Pegasi Type Planets". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 474 (2): L115–L118. Bibcode:1997ApJ...474L.115B. doi:10.1086/310444. 
  3. ^ Butler, R. P.; Marcy, Geoffrey W. (1996). "A Planet Orbiting 47 Ursae Majoris". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 464 (2): L153–L156. Bibcode:1996ApJ...464L.153B. doi:10.1086/310102. 
  4. ^ a b "Confirmed Planet Overview Page — Eeps Eri b". NASA. Retrieved 2016-04-23. 
  5. ^ Chou, Felicia (2015-07-30). "NASA's Spitzer Confirms Closest Rocky Exoplanet". JPL. NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  6. ^ Dumusque, X.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Ségransan, D.; Sahlmann, J.; et al. (2012). "An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B" (PDF). Nature. 491 (7423): 207–211. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..207D. doi:10.1038/nature11572. PMID 23075844. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog". Planetary Habitability Laboratory. University of Puerto Rico in Arecibo. 2015-09-01. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  8. ^ Harrington, J. D.; Villard, Ray (2013-08-01). "NASA's Hubble Reveals Rogue Planetary Orbit For Fomalhaut". NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-18. 
  9. ^ a b "Ross 458 (AB) c". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  10. ^ Cooley, Brian (2015-05-11). "Rare direct image of a super-Jupiter exoplanet". CNET. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  11. ^ "NameExoWorlds — 20 nameable systems". International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  12. ^ Lee, Rhodi (2015-09-18). "Want To Name An Exoplanet? Here's Your Chance". Tech Times. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  13. ^ Carlisle, Camille (2012-10-18). "Planet Found in Alpha Centauri System". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  14. ^ Barnes, J.R.; Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Rojo, P.; Arriagada, P.; et al. (July 2012). "ROPS: A New Search for Habitable Earths in the Southern Sky". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 424 (1): 591–604. arXiv:1204.6283Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.424..591B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21236.x. 
  15. ^ "VB 10 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  16. ^ "GJ 581 f". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  17. ^ "GJ 581 g". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  18. ^ "GJ 876 f". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2014-04-01. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  19. ^ "GJ 876 g". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2014-04-01. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  20. ^ Morales, Juan Carlos; Ribas, Ignasi; Jordi, Carme; Torres, Guillermo; Gallardo, José (2009). "Absolute Properties of the Low-mass Eclipsing Binary CM Draconis". The Astrophysical Journal. 691 (2): 1400–1411. arXiv:0810.1541Freely accessible. Bibcode:2009ApJ...691.1400M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1400. 
  21. ^ Boss, Alan P.; Butler, R. Paul; Hubbard, William B.; Ianna, Philip A.; Kürster, Martin; et al. (2007). "Working Group on Extrasolar Planets". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 1 (T26A): 183. Bibcode:2007IAUTA..26..183B. doi:10.1017/S1743921306004509. 
  22. ^ Cumming, Andrew; Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Wright, Jason T.; et al. (2008). "The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 120 (867): 531–554. arXiv:0803.3357Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008PASP..120..531C. doi:10.1086/588487. 
  23. ^ "WISE 0458+6434 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  24. ^ "WISE 1217+16A b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  25. ^ "2M 0746+20 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  26. ^ "2M 0746+20". Open Exoplanet Catalogue. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  27. ^ "SDSS 141624 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  28. ^ "HD 104304 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  29. ^ "SCR 1845 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  30. ^ "GJ 22 B b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  31. ^ Clavin, Whitney; Harrington, J. D. (2014-04-25). "NASA's Spitzer and WISE Telescopes Find Close, Cold Neighbor of Sun". NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
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External links[edit]