List of nearest exoplanets

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Exoplanet Fomalhaut b (Dagon), 25 light-years away, with its parent star Fomalhaut blacked out, as pictured by Hubble in 2012.[1] In 2020 this object was determined to be an expanding debris cloud from a collision of asteroids rather than a planet.[2]
Distribution of nearest exoplanets

There are 4,354 known exoplanets, or planets outside the Solar System that orbit a star, as of October 1, 2020; only a small fraction of these are located in the vicinity of the Solar System.[3] Within 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years), there are 97 exoplanets listed as confirmed by the NASA Exoplanet Archive.[a][4] Among the over 400 known stars within 10 parsecs,[b][5] around 60 have been confirmed to have planetary systems; 51 stars in this range are visible to the naked eye,[c][6] nine of which have planetary systems.

The first report of an exoplanet within this range was in 1998 for a planet orbiting around Gliese 876 (15.3 light-years (ly) away), and the latest as of 2020 is one around AU Microscopii (32 ly). The closest exoplanet found is Proxima Centauri b, which was confirmed in 2016 to orbit Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Solar System (4.25 ly). HD 219134 (21.6 ly) has six exoplanets, the highest number discovered for any star within this range.

Most known nearby exoplanets orbit close to their star and have highly eccentric orbits.[citation needed] A majority are significantly larger than Earth, but a few have similar masses, including two planets (around YZ Ceti, 12 ly) which may be less massive than Earth. Several confirmed exoplanets are hypothesized to be potentially habitable, with Proxima Centauri b and three around Gliese 667 C (23.6 ly) considered the most likely candidates.[7] The International Astronomical Union took a public survey in 2015 about renaming some known extrasolar bodies, including the planets around Epsilon Eridani (10.5 ly) and Fomalhaut.[d][8]

Exoplanets within 10 parsecs[edit]

Key to colors
° Mercury, Earth and Jupiter (for comparison purposes)
# Confirmed multiplanetary systems
Exoplanets believed to be potentially habitable[7]
Confirmed exoplanets[4]
Host star system Companion exoplanet (in order from star) Notes and additional planetary observations
Name Distance
(ly)
Apparent
magnitude

(V)
Mass
(M)
Label
[e]
Mass
(M)[f]
Radius
(R)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery year
Sun° 0 −26.7 1 Mercury 0.055 0.3829 0.387 88.0 0.205
Earth 1 1 1 365.3 0.0167
Jupiter 317.8 10.973 5.20 4,333 0.0488
Proxima Centauri# 4.2441 11.13 0.123 b >1.2 ~1.1? 0.0486 11.2 0.109 ~133? 2016 [9][7][10][11][12] 1 candidate[13]
c 7 1.489 1,928 0.04 133 2020
Barnard's Star 5.958 9.511 0.144 b >4.2 0.430 232 0.04 2018 [14][15]
Wolf 359# 7.895 13.54 0.09 c >3.8 0.018 2.69 0.15 2019 [15]
b >43.9 1.845 2,940 0.04 2019
Lalande 21185 8.307 7.52 0.46 b >2.7 0.0789 12.9 0.12 2017 [15][16]
Epsilon Eridani 10.446 3.73 0.83 Ægir 248 3.39 2,500 0.50 ~25? 2000 1 inferred planet and a disc[17][18]
Lacaille 9352# 10.721 7.34 0.489 b >4.2 0.068 9.26 0.03 2019 1 candidate[15][19]
c >7.6 0.120 21.8 0.03 2019
Ross 128 11.007 11.1 0.168 b >1.4 ~1.2? 0.0496 9.87 0.12 2017 [20]
Struve 2398 B# 11.490 9.7 0.248 b >15.7 0.261 91.3 0.06 2019 [15]
c >13.1 0.428 192 0.03 2019
Groombridge 34 A# 11.618 8.1 0.38 b >3.03 0.072 11.4 0.094 ~61? 2014 [21][22][23]
c 36 5.4 7,600 0.27 ~61? 2018
Tau Ceti# 11.753 3.50 0.78 g >1.7 0.133 20.0 0.06 2017 2 retracted and 2 candidates
[24][25][7][26][27][28]
h >1.8 0.243 49.4 0.23 2017
e >3.9 ~1.6? 0.538 163 0.18 2017
f >3.9 1.33 640 0.16 2017
Epsilon Indi A 11.869 4.83 0.762 b 1030 11.55 16,500 0.26 64.25 2002 Not confirmed until 2018[29]

[30][31]

Gliese 1061# 11.980 7.52 0.113 b >1.4 0.021 3.20 <0.31 2019 two solutions for d's orbit[32]
c >1.7 0.035 6.69 <0.29 2019
d >1.6 0.052 12.4 <0.54 2019
YZ Ceti# 12.108 12.1 0.130 b >0.75 0.0156 1.97 0.0 2017 1 candidate
[33][34][15]
c >1.2 0.0209 3.06 0.04 2017
d >1.1 0.0276 4.66 0.03 2017
Luyten's Star# 12.199 11.94 0.29 c >1.2 0.0365 4.72 0.12 2017 [7][35][15]
b >2.2 ~1.4? 0.090 18.6 0.03 2017
d >10.8 0.712 414 0.17 2019
e >9.3 0.849 542 0.03 2019
Teegarden's Star# 12.496 15.40 0.08 b >1.1 0.0252 4.91 0 2019 [36]
c >1.1 0.0443 11.4 0 2019
Kapteyn's Star# 12.829 8.8 0.28 c >6.9 0.311 121 0.07 2014 [37] 1 disputed candidate[38][15]
Wolf 1061# 14.046 10.1 0.25 b >1.9 0.0375 4.89 0.03 2015 [7][39][15]
c >3.6 ~1.5? 0.0890 17.9 0.03 2015
d >6.5 0.421 184 0.02 2015
Gliese 83.1# 14.584 12.30 0.14 b >30.9 0.403 242 0.18 2019 1 candidate[15][40][note 1]
c >71.6 0.870 768 0.33 2019
Gliese 674 14.839 9.38 0.35 b >11.2 0.039 4.69 0.23 2007 [41][42][15]
Gliese 687# 14.840 9.15 0.41 b >17.2 0.163 38.1 0.17 2014 [43][15][40]
c >16.0 1.165 728 0.40 2019
Gliese 876# 15.250 10.2 0.33 d 6.8 0.0208 1.94 0.12 59.5 2005 [44][15]
c 230 0.133 30.2 0.001 59.5 2000
b 720 0.213 61.0 0.001 59.5 1998
e 15 0.342 125 0.18 59.5 2010
Gliese 832# 16.194 8.67 0.45 c >5.4 ~1.7? 0.164 35.7 0.06 2014 [7][45][15]
b >206 3.67 3,830 0.06 2008
40 Eridani A 16.386 4.4 0.84 b >8.5 0.224 42.4 0.04 ~72? 2018 [46]
Gliese 3323# 17.533 12.2 0.164 b >2.0 ~1.3? 0.0328 5.36 0.2 2017 [47]
c >2.3 0.126 40.5 0.2 2017
Gliese 251 18.204 9.65 0.372 b >4.0 0.0818 14.2 0.10 2020 2 previous candidates; replaced by a single-planet solution[48][15][16]
LP 816-60 18.311 11.46 0.23 b 2? 93.9 2019 [15][failed verification]
Gliese 205# 18.592 7.97 0.63 b >10.3 0.109 16.9 0.11 2019 [15]
c >13.8 0.689 271 0.04 2019
Gliese 229 A# 18.777 8.14 0.58 c >7.3 0.339 122 0.19 2020 Ab not confirmed until 2020.[49]
b >8.5 0.898 526 0.10 2014
Gliese 752 A 19.286 9.13 0.46 b >13.6 0.338 106 0.03 2018 [50][15]
Gliese 754 19.289 12.23 0.18 b >9.8 0.277 78.4 0.03 2019 [15]
Gliese 588# 19.298 9.31 0.46 b >2.4 0.049 5.81 0.04 2019 [15]
c >10.3 0.530 206 0.06 2019
82 G. Eridani# 19.582 4.26 0.85 b >2.7 0.121 18.3 ~0 2011 2 candidates
[51][52][53]
c >2.4 0.204 40.1 ~0 2011
d >4.8 0.350 90 ~0 2011
e >4.8 0.509 147 0.29 2017


Gliese 784 20.083 7.97 0.5 b >9.4 0.059 6.66 0.05 2019 [15]
Gliese 555 20.370 11.32 0.29 b >30.1 0.727 450 0.04 2019 [15]
Gliese 581# 20.545 10.5 0.31 e >1.7 0.0282 3.15 0.0 ~45? 2009 2 disputed candidates and a disc
[54][55][56][57]
b >16 0.0406 5.37 0.0 ~45? 2005
c >5.5 0.072 12.9 0.0 ~45? 2007
Gliese 338 B 20.658 7.0 0.64 b >10.3 0.141 24.5 0.11 2020 [58]
Gliese 625 21.114 10.2 0.30 b >2.8 0.0784 14.6 ~0.1 2017 [59]
HD 219134# 21.306 5.57 0.78 b 4.7 1.60 0.0388 3.09 ~0 85.05 2015 [60][61][62]
c 4.4 1.51 0.065 6.77 0.062 87.28 2015
d >16 >1.61 0.237 46.9 0.138 ~87? 2015
f >7.3 >1.31 0.146 22.7 0.148 ~87? 2015
g >11 0.375 94.2 0 ~87? 2015
h (e) >108 3.11 2,247 0.06 ~87? 2015
Gliese 880 22.399 8.64 0.59 b >8.5 0.187 39.4 0.13 2019 [15]
LTT 1445 A 22.409 10.53 0.26 b ~2.2 1.35 0.0381 5.36 0.16 89.47 2019 [63]
Gliese 393 22.938 8.65 0.41 b >1.9 0.055 7.03 0.03 2019 [15]
Gliese 667 C# 23.632 10.2 0.33 b >5.4 0.049 7.20 0.13 ~52? 2009 5 dubious candidates
[64][7][65][66][15]
c >3.9 ~1.5? 0.1251 28.2 0.03 ~52? 2011
Gliese 514 24.851 9.03 0.53 b >4.3 0.097 15.0 0.05 2019 [15]
Gliese 300 26.469 12.13 0.26 b >6.8 0.050 8.33 0.29 2019 [15]
Gliese 686 26.612 9.58 0.42 b >7.1 0.097 15.5 0.04 2019 [67][15]
61 Virginis# 27.741 4.74 0.95 b >5.1 0.0502 4.22 ~0.1 ~77? 2009 a debris disc
[68]
c >18 0.218 38.0 0.14 ~77? 2009
d >23 0.476 123 0.35 ~77? 2009
CD Ceti 28.080 14.001 0.161 b >4.0 0.0185 2.29 0 2020 [69]
Gliese 785# 28.699 6.13 0.78 b >17 0.32 75 0.13 2010 [70]
c >24 1.18 530 ~0.3 2011
Gliese 849# 28.711 10.4 0.49 b >270 2.26 1,910 0.05 2006 [71][15]
c >300 4.82 5,520 0.087 2006
Gliese 433# 29.572 9.79 0.48 b >6.0 0.062 7.37 0.04 2009 [72][15][49]
d >5.2 0.178 36.1 0.07 2020
c >32 4.82 5,090 0.12 2012
Gliese 3325 30.109 11.73 0.27 b >11.8 0.071 12.9 0.03 2019 [15]
HD 102365 A 30.374 4.89 0.85 b >16 0.46 122 0.34 2010 [73]
Gliese 357# 30.803 10.9 0.34 b 1.6 1.17 0.035 3.93 0.02 88.92 2019 [74][15]
c >3.6 0.061 9.13 0.04 ~89? 2019
d >7.7 0.204 55.7 0.03 ~89? 2019
Gliese 176# 30.879 10.1 0.45 b >8.0 0.066 8.77 0.08 2007 1 dubious planet[75][76][15]
c >7.4 0.146 28.6 0.02 2019
Gliese 479 30.912 10.66 0.43 b >5.1 0.074 11.3 0.03 2019 [15]
Gliese 3512# 30.949 13.11 0.123 b >147 0.338 204 0.44 2019 [77]
c >54 >1.2 >1390 2019
AU Microscopii 31.719 8.63 0.50 b <57 4.20 0.066 8.46 0.10 ~90 2020 1 candidate[78]
Gliese 436 31.820 10.67 0.41 b 21.4 4.33 0.0280 2.64 0.15 85.8 2004 1 candidate[15]
Gliese 49 32.145 8.9 0.57 b >16.4 0.106 17.3 0.03 2019 [15]

Excluded objects[edit]

Unlike for bodies within the Solar System, there is no clearly established method for officially recognizing an exoplanet. According to the International Astronomical Union, an exoplanet should be considered confirmed if it has not been disputed for five years after its discovery.[79] There have been examples where the existence of exoplanets has been proposed, but even after follow-up studies their existence is still considered doubtful by some astronomers. Such cases include: Alpha Centauri (4.36 ly, two in 2012[80] and 2013[81]), LHS 288 (15.6 ly, in 2007[82]), and Gliese 682 (16.6 ly, two in 2014[7][83][84]). There are also some instances where proposed exoplanets were later disproved by subsequent studies, such as candidates around Van Maanen 2 (13.9 ly),[85] Groombridge 1618 (15.9 ly),[86] AD Leonis (16.2 ly),[87] VB 10 (18.7 ly),[88] and Fomalhaut (25.1 ly).[2]

The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union adopted in 2003 a working definition on the upper limit for what constitutes a planet: not being massive enough to sustain thermonuclear fusion of deuterium. Some studies have calculated this to be somewhere around 13 times the mass of Jupiter, and therefore objects more massive than this are usually classified as brown dwarfs.[89] Some proposed candidate exoplanets were later shown to be massive enough to fall above the threshold, and are likely brown dwarfs, as was the case for: SCR 1845-6357 B (12.6 ly),[90] SDSS J1416+1348 B (29.7 ly),[91] and WISE 1217+1626 B (30 ly).[92]

Excluded from the current list are known examples of potential free-floating sub-brown dwarfs, or "rogue planets", which are bodies that are too small to undergo fusion yet they do not revolve around a star. Known such examples include: WISE 0855–0714 (7.3 ly),[93] UGPS 0722-05, (13 ly)[94] WISE 1541−2250 (18.6 ly),[95] and SIMP J01365663+0933473 (20 ly).[96]

Statistics[edit]

Planetary systems[edit]

Systems by planet count
Exoplanets No. of
systems
Systems
4 5 Tau Ceti, Luyten's Star, Gliese 876, 82 G. Eridani, HD 219134
3 9 Lacaille 9352, Gliese 1061, YZ Ceti, Wolf 1061, L 1159-16, Gliese 581, 61 Virginis, Gliese 433, Gliese 357
2 17
1 29
Total 60
Distribution of nearby planet-hosting systems
Distance
(light-years)
No. of known
star systems
No. of known
stars
No. of stars
hosting known
exoplanets
Percentage of
stars hosting
exoplanets
< 5 1 3 1 33%
5–10 8 11 3 27%
10–15 31 43 16 37%
15–20 57 77 13 17%
20–25 55 78 11 14%
25–32.6 ? ~200 16 ~8%
Total >413[97] 60 <14.5%
Systems visible with
the naked eye?
[c][98]
Visible host star? Systems
Yes (V < 6.5) 9
No (V > 6.5) 51

Exoplanets[edit]

Exoplanets by minimum estimated mass
Type Mass range[99] No.
Terran 0.5–5 M 45
Superterran 5–10 M 24
Neptunian 10–50 M 28
Jovian 50–600 M 9
Superjovian >600 M 3
Total 109
Exoplanets by orbital radius
Orbital radius No. Notes
< 0.4 AU 80 Mercury orbits at 0.39 AU
0.4–1.0 AU 16 Earth orbits at 1.0 AU
1.0–5 AU 11
> 5 AU 2 Jupiter orbits at 5.2 AU
Exoplanets by orbital period
Orbital period No. Notes
< 90 days 73 Mercury takes 88 days
90–365 days 17
1–10 years 14 Jupiter takes 11.9 years
> 10 years 5
Exoplanets by orbital eccentricity
Orbital eccentricity No. Notes
< 0.02 15 Earth's is 0.0167
0.02–0.20 78
Mercury's is 0.205
> 0.20 14
Exoplanets by discovery year
Year No.
1998 1
2000 2
2002 1
2004 1
2005 2
2006 2
2007 3
2008 1
2009 6
2010 3
2011 5
2012 1
2014 5
2015 7
2016 1
2017 16
2018 4
2019 43
2020 6

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The star referred to as GJ 9066 in Feng et al. 2020 is the same as GJ 83.1 in Tuomi et al. 2019; see SIMBAD. Planets b and c are so called by Feng et al. 2020; in Tuomi et al. 2019 they are designated d and b, respectively. The planet designated c in Tuomi et al. 2019 was not detected by Feng et al. 2020, so it's considered a candidate here.
  1. ^ Listed values are primarily taken from NASA Exoplanet Archive,[4] but other databases include a few additional exoplanet entries tagged as "Confirmed" that have yet to be compiled into the NASA archive. Such databases include:
    "Exoplanet Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Full table.
    "Exoplanets Data Explorer". Exoplanet Orbit Database. California Planet Survey. Click the "+" button to visualize additional parameters.
    "Open Exoplanet Catalogue". Click the "Show options" to visualize additional parameters. Archived from the original on 2017-09-02. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  2. ^ For reference, the 104th closest known star system in November 2016 was 82 Eridani (19.7 ly).[100]
  3. ^ According to the Bortle scale, an astronomical object is visible to the naked eye under "typical" dark-sky conditions in a rural area if it has an apparent magnitude smaller than +6.5. To the unaided eye, the limiting magnitude is +7.6 to +8.0 under "excellent" dark-sky conditions (with effort).[98]
  4. ^ The star Epsilon Eridani was named Ran (after Rán, the Norse goddess of the sea), and the planet Epsilon Eridani b was named AEgir (after Ægir, Rán's husband),[101] while the planet Fomalhaut b was named Dagon (after Dagon, an ancient Syrian “fish god”[102]).[8]
  5. ^ Exoplanet naming convention assigns uncapitalized letters starting from b to each planet based on chronological order of their initial report, and in increasing order of distance from the parent star for planets reported at the same time. Omitted letters signify planets that have yet to be confirmed, or planets that have been retracted altogether.
  6. ^ Most reported exoplanet masses have very large error margins (typically, between 10% and 30%). The mass of an exoplanet has generally been inferred from measurements on changes in the radial velocity of the host star, but this kind of measurement only allows for an estimate on the exoplanet's orbital parameters, but not on their orbital inclination (i). As such, most exoplanets only have an estimated minimum mass (Mreal*sin(i)), where their true masses are statistically expected to come close to this minimum, with only about 13% chance for the mass of an exoplanet to be more than double its minimum mass.[103]

References[edit]

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