List of nearest galaxies

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This is a list of known galaxies within 3.59 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of the Solar System, in ascending order of distance. This encompasses all of the about 50 Local Group galaxies, and some that are members of neighboring galaxy groups, the M81 Group and the Centaurus A/M83 Group, and some that are currently not in any defined galaxy group.

The list aims to reflect current knowledge: not all galaxies within the 3.59 Mpc radius have been discovered. Nearby dwarf galaxies are still being discovered, and galaxies located behind the central plane of the Milky Way are extremely difficult to discern. It is possible for any galaxy to mask another located beyond it. Intergalactic distance measurements are subject to large uncertainties. Figures listed are composites of many measurements, some of which may have had their individual error bars tightened to the point of no longer overlapping with each other.[1]

List[edit]

#   Galaxy Type Distance from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes Diameter (ly)
Millions of light-years Mpc M m
  1 Milky Way IR Spitzer.jpg Milky Way SBbc 0.027[2] 0.008[2] −20.8 [1] n/a Local Group Home galaxy of Earth 100,000-180,000 ly
  2 Canis Major Dwarf Irr (status as galaxy disputed) 0.025[3] 0.008 −14.5 23.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  3 S sgrdw1.jpg Sagittarius Dwarf Sphr SagDEG dSph/E7 0.081 0.024[4] −12.67[4] 4.5[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (partial accretion by Milky Way) 10,000 ly
  4 Ursa Major II Dwarf dSph 0.098 0.030 −4.2 14.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) ~1,800 ly
  5 LH 95.jpg Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Irr/SB(s)m 0.163 0.050[4] −17.93[4] 0.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 14,000 ly
  6 Boötes I d Sph 0.197[5] 0.060 −5.8[6] 13.1 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  7 Small magellanic cloud.jpg Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292) SB(s)m pec 0.206 0.063[4] −16.35[4] 2.7[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
  8 Ursa Minor Dwarf dE4 0.206 0.063[4] −7.13[4] 11.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way
  9 PGC 60095 Draco Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Draco Dwarf (DDO 208) dE0 pec 0.258 0.079[4] −8.74[4] 10.9[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way with a large amount of dark matter ~2,700 x 1,900 ly
 10 NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky.jpg NGC 2419 Glob Clus 0.275 0.084 −9.5/−11 ? 9.06 Brightest remote MW globular cluster 520 ly
 11 Sextans Dwarf Sph dSph 0.281 0.086[4] −7.98[4] 12[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 8,400 ly
 12 Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy ESO.jpg Sculptor Dwarf (E351-G30) dE3 0.287 0.088[4] −9.77[4] 10.1[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 13 Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph) dSph 0.330 0.10[7] −6.75[7] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way A few thousand ly
 14 Carina Dwarf Galaxy.jpg Carina Dwarf (E206-G220) dE3 0.330 0.10[4] −8.97[7] 11.3[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 1,600 ly
 15 Fornax Dwarf.jpg Fornax Dwarf (E356-G04) dSPh/E2 0.46 0.14[1] −11.5[4] 9.28[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 16 Leo II Dwarf (Leo B, DDO 93) dE0 pec 0.701[8] 0.215 −9.23[4] 12.45[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 4,100 ly (tidal)
 17 Ugc5470.jpg Leo I Dwarf (DDO 74, UGC 5470) dE3 0.820[8] 0.25 −10.97[4] 11.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 18 Leo T Dwarf G[5] 1.370 0.42[9] 16[5] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way? 2,300 ly
 19 Phoenix Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830) IAm 1.44 0.44 −10.22[4] 13.07[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 20 NGC6822.jpg Barnard's Galaxy (NGC 6822) IB(s)m IV-V 1.630[8] 0.50 −15.22[4] 9.32[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 21 MGC1[10] Glob Clus 2 0.615 −9.2 Local Group Isolated cluster at ~200 kpc from M31 N/A
 22 Ngc185.jpg NGC 185 dE3 pec 2.010 [11] 0.62 −14.76[4] 9.99[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 23 Andromeda II dE0 2.130 [11] 0.65 −9.33[4] 15.10[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 24 IC10 BVHa.jpg IC 10 (UGC 192) dIrr IV/BCD[5] 2.2 0.67 −15.57[4] 12.2[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 25 NGC147.jpg NGC 147 (DDO 3) dE5 pec 2.200[11] 0.68 −14.9[4] 10.36[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 26 Leo A Hubble WikiSky.jpg Leo A (Leo III, DDO 69) IBm V 2.250[8] 0.80[12] −11.68[12] 12.92 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 27 IC1613-3.jpg IC 1613 (UGC 668) IAB(s)m V 2.350[8] 0.72 −14.51[4] 9.92[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 28 Andromeda I Hubble WikiSky.jpg Andromeda I dE3 pec 2.430[11] 0.75 −10.87[4] 13.9[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 29 Andromeda III dE2 2.440[11] 0.75 −9.30[4] 15.20[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 30 Cetus Dwarf dSph/E4 2.460[11] 0.75 −10.18[4] 14.4[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[4] N/A
 31 Hs-1999-40-a-full jpg.jpg M32 (NGC 221) E2 2.480;[8] 0.76 −15.96[4] 8.73[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda 6,500 ly
 32 Cassiopeia Dwarf (PGC 2807155) Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph, Andromeda VII) dSph 2.490[11] 0.76 −11.67[4] 13.65[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[4] N/A
 33 Andromeda IX dE 2.500[11] 0.77 −7.5[4] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[4] N/A
 34 LGS 3 ubv.jpg LGS 3 dIrr/dSph 2.510[11] 0.77 −7.96[4] 16.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Triangulum[citation needed] N/A
 35 Andromeda V dSph 2.52[11] 0.77 −8.41[4] 16.67[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[4] N/A
 36 Pegasus dSph.gif Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI) dSph 2.55[11] 0.78 −10.80[4] 14.05[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[4] N/A
 37 Andromeda VIII dSph[13] 2.7 0.828 −15.6 9.1 Local Group Tidally distorted dwarf close to Andromeda discovered 2003[13] N/A
 — Andromeda Galaxy (with h-alpha).jpg Andromeda Galaxy (M31) SA(s)b 2.56[11] 0.79 −21.58[4] 4.17[1] Local Group Largest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies 220,000 ly
 38 M33.jpg Triangulum Galaxy (M33) SAc 2.64 [11] 0.81 −18.87[4] 6.19[1] Local Group Most distant (difficult) naked eye object 60,000 ly
 39 Messier 110.jpg M110 (NGC 205) E6p 2.69 [11] 0.83 −16.15[4] 8.72[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 40 Andromeda XXI[14] 2.8 0.86 −9.9 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda 13,000 ly
 41 Andromeda XXII[14] <dSph 3.22 0.987 6.5 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda
 42 Tucana Dwarf Hubble WikiSky.jpg Tucana Dwarf dE5 2.87 0.88[4] −9.16 15.7[1] Local Group[4] Isolated group member — a 'primordial' galaxy[15] N/A
 43 Andromeda X dSph[5] 2.90 0.889 −8.1[16] 16.1[5] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda discovered 2006 N/A
 44 Pegasus Dwarf Irregular (DDO 216) dIrr/DSph[5] 3.00 [11] 0.92 −11.47[4] 13.21[5] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 45 Andromeda XIX[17] 3.04 0.933 −9.3 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda, spread over 1.7 kpc 22,200 ly
 46 Wlm galaxy.jpg Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM, DDO 221) Ib(s)m[5] 3.16 0.97[12] −14.06[12] 11.03[5] Local Group Isolated member at the edge of the local group N/A
 47 SagDIG.jpg Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (SagDIG) IB(s)m V[5] 3.39 1.04[4] −11.49 15.5 Local Group[1] Isolated group member N/A
 48 Aquariusdwarf.gif Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy (DDO 210) Im V 3.49 [11] 1.07 / 0.94[12] −11.09[12] 14.0[5] Local Group Isolated group member N/A
 49 UGC 4879.jpg UGC 4879 (VV124)[18] 3.59 1.1 −11.5[12] Local Group N/A
 50 Antlia Dwarf PGC 29194 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Antlia Dwarf dE3.5[5] 4.08 1.25[12] −9.63[12] 16.19[1] Local Group May have interacted with NGC 3109[19] 3,000 ly
 51 Sextans dwarf.jpg Sextans A (UGCA 205, DDO 75) IBm[5] 4.31[20] 1.32 −13.95[4] 11.86[5] Local Group[1] Isolated group member N/A
 52 NGC 3109 2MASS.jpg NGC 3109 SB(s)m 4.24 1.30[19] −15.68[1] 10.39[1] Local Group N/A
 53 Andromeda XVIII.jpg Andromeda XVIII[17] 4.42 1.355 −9.7 Local Group N/A
 54 Sextans B Hubble WikiSky.jpg Sextans B (UGC 5373) IM IV-V[5] 4.44 1.44[12] −14.08[12] 11.85[5] Local Group[1] N/A
 55 KKh 060 Ir 4.89 1.5[1] 18B[5] N/A
 56 KUG 1210+301B (KK98 127) S.. 4.89 1.5[1] 15.7[5] between LG and M94 Pair? N/A
 57 HIZSS 003 5.5 1.69[12] −12.60[12] 18B[5] Far below the SG plane Hidden by the Milky Way N/A
 58 KKR 25 Ir 6.07 1.86[1] −9.94[12] 17.0[5] N/A
 59 ESO 410-G005 E3[5] 6.33 1.94[12] −11.60[12] 14.85[5] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 60 ESO 294-010 dS0/Im[5] 6.26[21] 1.96[12] −10.95[12] 15.6[5] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 61 IC 5152 IA(s)m[5] 6.42 1.97[12] −15.56[12] 11.06[5] NGC 55 & 300 ? Remotely on the side of NGC 55 N/A
 62 GR 8.jpg GR 8 (DDO 155) ImV[5] 6.95 2.13[12] −12.14[12] 14.65[5] Inner edge of M94 Group "footprint galaxy" N/A
 63 KKR 03 (KK98 230) dwarf Irr 6.98 2.14[12] −9.8 17.90[5] Inner edge of M94 Group N/A
 64 Composite Image of NGC 300.jpg NGC 300 SA(s)d[5] 7.01 2.15[21] −17.92[1] 8.95[5] Inner edge of Sculptor group forms pair with NGC 55 ?150,000? ly
 65 GALEX-NGC55.jpg NGC 55 SB(s)m: sp[5] 7.08 2.17[12] −18.47[12] 8.84[1] Inner edge of Sculptor group Forms pair with NGC 300 ?730,000? ly
 66 UGCA 438 (ESO 407-018) IB(s)m pec:[5] 7.24 2.22[12] −12.92[12] 13.86[1] NGC 55 & 300
 67 UGC 09128 (DDO 187) ImIV-V 7.3 2.24[12] −12.47[12] 14.38[5] Inner edge of M94 Group
 68 IC 3104 IB(s)m 7.40 2.27[1] −14.85[12] 13.63[5] On the way to Circinus galaxy
 69 IC 4662 (ESO 102- G 014) IBm 7.96 2.44[12] −15.56[12] 11.74[5] On the way to Circinus galaxy
 70 KKh 98 Irr 7.99 2.45[1] −10.78[1] 16.7[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 71 UGC 8508 (I Zw 060) IAm 8.35 [22] 2.69[12] −13.09[12] 14.40[5] M94 Group
 72 KKh 086 Ir 8.51 2.60[12] −10.30[12] 16.8[5] Isolated (M94/Cent A)
 73 DDO 99 (UGC 06817) Im 8.61 2.64[1]–3.9[5] −13.52[12] 13.4[5] M94 Group
 74 UGC 07577 (DDO 125) Im 8.94 2.74[12] −14.32[12] 12.84[5] M94 Group
 75 UGC 9240 galaxy HST.jpg UGC 9240 (DDO 190) IAm 9.10 2.80[12] −14.19[12] 13.25[5] M94 Group
 76 Dwingeloo 1 (WISE).png Dwingeloo 1 SB(s)cd 9.13 2.8[1] −18.78 19.8[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 77 Maf2atlas.jpg Maffei 2 SAB(rs)bc 9.13 2.8[1] −20.15[4] 14.77[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 78 UGCA 276 (DDO 113) Im 9.32 2.86[1] 15.40[5] M94 Group
 79 Fireworks of Star Formation Light Up a Galaxy - GPN-2000-000877.jpg NGC 4214 (UGC 07278) IAB(s)m 9.58 2.94[1] 10.24[5] M94 Group Starburst galaxy
 80 UGCA 86 SAB(s)m[23] 9.65 2.96[24] 13.5[5] IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
 81 NGC 4163 9.65 2.96[24] 14.5[5] M94 Group
 82 Dwingeloo 2 Im? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.55[1] 20.5[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 83 KKH 11 (ZOAG G135.74-04.53) dE/N 9.78 3.0[1] −13.35[4] 16.2[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 84 KKH 12 Ir 9.78 3.0[1] −13.03 17.8[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 85 MB 3 dSph 9.78 3.0[1] −13.65[4] 19.8[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 86 MB 1 (KK98 21) SAB(s)d? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.81[4] 20.5[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 87 Maf1atlas.jpg Maffei 1 S0- pec 9.78 3.0[1] −18.97[4] 11.4[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 88 UGCA 92 Im?[5] 9.82 3.01[24] 13[5] IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
 89 UGC 8651 (DDO 181) Im 9.82 3.01[1] 14.7[5] M94 Group
 90 ESO 274-01[25] 10.1 3.09 11.7 Centaurus A Group
 91 UGCA 292 (DDO 125) ImIV-V 10.11 3.1[1] 16.0[5] M94 Group
 92 NGC 3741 ImIII/BCD 10.21 [22] 3.13 14.3[5] M94 Group
 93 KK98 35 Irr 10.31 3.16[1] −14.30 17.2[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
 94 HIPASS J1247-77 Im 10.31 3.16[26] 17.B[5] Aligned with IC 3104
 95 NGC 2366HST.jpg NGC 2366 IB(s)m 10.40 [22] 3.19 11.43[5] M81 group
 96 UGCA 133 (DDO 44) Im 10.40 [22] 3.19 15.54[5] M81 group
 97 ESO 321-014[25] 10.40 [25] 3.19 15.16 Centaurus A Group
 98 UGC 8833 (HST).jpg UGC 8833 Im 10.41 3.19[1] 16.5[5] M94 Group
 99 UGC 4483 BlueCG 10.47 [22] 3.21 15.2[5] M81 group
100 NGC404.jpg NGC 404 SA(s)0-:[5] 10.56 3.24[12] −16.61[12] 11.21[5] 'Mirach's Ghost'
101 Ugca105.jpg UGCA 105 Im? 10.63 [22] 3.26 −16.81 13.9[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
102 IC342 RGB2.jpg IC 342 SAB(rs)cd[5] 10.70 3.28[1] −20.69[1] 9.37[1] IC 342/Maffei Group "the hidden galaxy"
103 Cas 1 (KK98 19) dwarf Irr 10.76 3.3[1] −16.70 16.38[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
104 NGC 2403HST.jpg NGC 2403 SAB(s)cd HII 10.76 3.30[4] −19.29 8.93[5] M81 group
105 Camelopardalis B Irr 10.80 [22] 3.31 −11.85 16.1[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
106 UGCA 015 (DDO 6) IB(s)m 10.90 3.34[4] −12.50[4] 15.19[5] Sculptor group
107 NGC 1569.jpg NGC 1569 (UGC 03056) IBm;Sbrst[5] 10.96 3.36[27] −18.17[1] 11.86[5] IC 342/Maffei Group[23]
108 KKH 37 (Mai 16) S/Irr 11.06 3.39[26] 16.4[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
109 Irregular galaxy Holmberg II (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).tif Holmberg II (DDO 50, UGC 4305) Im 11.06 [22] 3.39 11.1[5] M81 group
110 NGC 5102 2MASS.jpg NGC 5102 SA0- HII 11.09 3.40[1] −18.08.56 10.35[5] Centaurus A Group
111 NGC 5237 11.09 3.40;[25] Centaurus A Group
112 ESO325-11 11.09 3.40;[25] Centaurus A Group
113 ESO 540-030.jpg ESO 540-030 (KDG 2) IABm 11.10 3.40[4] −11.39 16.45[5] Sculptor group
114 FM2000 1 dSph? 11.15 [22] 3.42 17.5[5] M81 group
115 ESO 540-032 IAB(s)m pec: 11.15 3.42[4] −11.32[4] 16.55[5] Sculptor group
116 NGC 1560.jpg NGC 1560 SA(s)d HII 11.25 3.45[1] −16.87[4] 12.16[5] IC 342/Maffei Group
117 ESO 383-087 (ISG 39) SB(s)dm 11.3 3.45[25] −15.16[1] 11.03[5] Centaurus A Group
118 NGC 5206 11.3 3.47;[25] Centaurus A Group
119 KK 179 (ESO 269-37) 11.4 3.48[25] Centaurus A Group
120 KK98 77 dwarf Sph 11.35 [22] 3.48 16.2[5] M81 group
121 DDO 71 Im 11.42 [22] 3.50 18[5] M81 group
122 M82 Chandra HST Spitzer.jpg M82 I0;Sbrst HII 11.51 3.53[4] −19.63[4] 9.30 [5] M81 group
123 ESO 269-66 (KK98 190) dE,N 11.55 3.54[1] −13.56 14.11[5] Centaurus A Group
124 M81 Dwarf A (KDG 52) I? 11.58 [22] 3.55 −11.49[4] 16.5[5] M81 group
125 NGC2976 3.6 5.8 8.0 microns spitzer.png NGC 2976 SAc pec HII 11.61 [22] 3.56 −17.1[4] 10.82[5] M81 group
126 UGC 4459.jpg UGC 4459 (DDO 53) Im 11.61 [22] 3.56 −13.37[4] 14.48 [5] M81 group
127 Phot-18b-99-hires.jpg NGC 4945 SB(s)cd:sp[5] 11.70 [28] 3.59 −20.51[1] 9.3[5] Centaurus A Group
#   Galaxy Type Dist from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes
Mly Mpc M m

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2004) A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies Refinements in distance measurements could change the order presented in this list.
  2. ^ a b distance of the Solar System from the Galactic Center. The distance of Earth from the galaxy which contains it is of course "zero".
  3. ^ From official press release announcing discovery (University of Strasbourg) accessdate = June 2008
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl I. D. Karachentsev (2005). "The Local Group and Other Neighboring Galaxy Groups". Astronomical Journal. 129 (1): 178–188. arXiv:astro-ph/0410065Freely accessible. Bibcode:2005AJ....129..178K. doi:10.1086/426368. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Retrieved 2008.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  6. ^ Belokurov, 2006 A Faint New Milky Way Satellite in Bootes
  7. ^ a b c Willman, Dalcanton, Martinez-Delgado, et al. (2005) "A New Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy in Ursa Major", submitted to Astrophysical Journal Letters, on arXiv.org: astro-ph/0503552
  8. ^ a b c d e f van den Bergh, S. (2000)Updated Information on the Local Group
  9. ^ Irwin; Belokurov; Evans; Ryan-Weber; de Jong; Koposov; Zucker; Hodgkin; et al. (2007). "Discovery of an Unusual Dwarf Galaxy in the Outskirts of the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal. 656: L13–L16. arXiv:astro-ph/0701154Freely accessible. Bibcode:2007ApJ...656L..13I. doi:10.1086/512183. 
  10. ^ Mackey; Ferguson; Irwin; Martin; et al. (2009). "Deep Gemini/GMOS imaging of an extremely isolated globular cluster in the Local Group". arXiv:0909.1456Freely accessible [astro-ph.GA]. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p McConnachie, A. W. et al. 2005 Distances and Metallicities for 17 Local Group Galaxies
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Karachentsev; Kashibadze; Makarov; Tully (2009). "The Hubble flow around the Local Group". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 393 (4): 1265. arXiv:0811.4610Freely accessible. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.393.1265K. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14300.x. 
  13. ^ a b Morrison et al. 2003 Andromeda VIII, a New Tidally Distorted satellite of M31 — for details see [1]
  14. ^ a b Martin; McConnachie; Mike Irwin; Widrow; et al. (2009). "PAndAS' cubs: Discovery of two new dwarf galaxies in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies". arXiv:0909.0399Freely accessible [astro-ph.CO]. 
  15. ^ See
  16. ^ Zucker et al. 2007 Andromeda X, a New Dwarf Spheroidal satellite of M31:Photometry — for details see [2]
  17. ^ a b A Trio of New Local Group Galaxies with Extreme Properties, Alan W. McConnachie et al. 2008, ApJ 688 1009-1020, http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.3988
  18. ^ Kopylov; Tikhonov; Sergey Fabrika; Igor Drozdovsky; et al. (2008). "VV124 (UGC4879): A new transitional dwarf galaxy in the periphery of the Local Group". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 387: L45–L49. arXiv:0803.1107Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.387L..45K. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00482.x. 
  19. ^ a b Soszynski "et al."(2006) The Araucaria Project: Distance to the Local Group Galaxy NGC 3109 from Near-Infrared Photometry of Cepheids see [3]
  20. ^ Dolphin, Andrew E. et al. 2003 Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Sextans A. II. Cepheids and Distance
  21. ^ a b Karachentsev, I. D. et al. (2003) Distances to Nearby Galaxies in Sculptor
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Karachentsev, I. D. et al.(2002)The M 81 group of galaxies: New distances, kinematics and structure
  23. ^ a b c d see article at
  24. ^ a b c http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-3881/131/3/1361/205003.tb1.html
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-3881/133/2/504
  26. ^ a b http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-3881/131/3/1361/
  27. ^ A New Hubble Space Telescope Distance to NGC 1569: Starburst Properties and IC 342 Group Membership* Aaron J. Grocholski et al. 2008 ApJ 686 L79-L82 doi:10.1086/592949 , http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.0153
  28. ^ I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2002) New distances to galaxies in the Centaurus A group

References[edit]