List of new religious movements

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A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious, ethical, or spiritual group or community with practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]:29[2][3]

An NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]:17 Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]:vii–xv

List[edit]

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[6]:131 Harbhajan Singh Khalsa[7]:162 1969[7]:162 Sikh[7]:162
Adidam, previously Free Daist Communion, Dawn Horse Fellowship, etc.[7]:146[8]:25–28[9]:2–3 Adi Da[7]:146 1972[7]:146 Neo-Hindu-inspired[7]:146
Adonai-Shomo[8]:28 Frederick T. Howland[10]:707 1861[10]:707 Adventist Communal[10]:707
Adonism[11] Franz Sättler[11] 1925[11] Neo-pagan[11]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]:28–29 Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 Religious Science
Aetherius Society[7]:3[8]:29–31[12]:25–26 George King[7]:3 1954[7]:3 UFO-Christian[7]:3
The African Church[12]:26 Jacob Kehinde Coker[13] 1901[13] Anglican
African initiated churches[12]:26–27 Multiple Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]:31 Walter Eugene King[10]:934 1973[10]:934 Voodoo[10]:934
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]:32 Richard Zenor[10]:764 1943[10]:764 Spiritualism[10]:764
Agni Yoga (Roerichism)[6]:6[8]:32 Helena Roerich, Nicholas Roerich[10]:876 mid-1920s[10]:876 Neo-Theosophical[10]:876
Ahmadiyya[6]:6[8]:32–33[12]:27–28 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[10]:985 1889[10]:985 Indian Islam[10]:985
Aladura[6]:7[12]:28–29 Josiah Ositelu[10] 1930[10]:517 Pentecostal[10]:517
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]:7[8]:33–34[12]:29 Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]:13 1969[7]:13 Fundamentalist

Communal[7]:13

Altruria[8]:34–35 Edward Biron Payne[10]:707 1894[10]:707 Christian

Communal[10]:707

American Buddhist Movement[8]:35–36 1980[10]:1116 Western Buddhism[10]:1116
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]:36 Robert Ernest Dickhoff[10]:1102 1945[10]:1102 Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1102
American World Patriarchs[8]:37–38 Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[10]:309 1972[10]:309 Eastern Orthodox[10]:309
Amica Temple of Radiance[8]:38 Ivah Berg Whitten[10]:876 1932[10]:876 Neo-Theosophical[10]:876
Ananda Marga[6]:11[8]:41[12]:30–31[14]:370 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[10]:1001 1955[10]:1001 Neo-Hindu[10]:1001

Tantric

Ancient British Church in North America[8]:43 Jonathan V. Zotique[10]:1142 Homosexually Oriented[10]:1142
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]:11[8]:42–43[12]:31 H. Spencer Lewis[10]:841 1915[10]:841 neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:841
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[8]:43 Darwin Gross[10]:1054 1983[10]:1054 Sant Mat[10]:1054
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]:13[8]:43–44 Howard B. Rand[10]:651 1928[10]:651 British Israelism[10]:651
Ansaaru Allah Community[8]:44 As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[10]:986–987 late 1960s[10]:986–987" Black Islam[10]:986–987
Anthroposophy (Anthroposophical Society)[8]:44–47[12]:33–34 Rudolf Steiner[7]:20 1912[7]:20 Western esotericism[15]:41
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]:47 Gordon Mar Peter[10]:241 1980s[10]:241 Independent Catholic

Monophysite[10]:241

Antoinism[6] Louis-Joseph Antoine[6] 1910[6] Christian Healing[6]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]:548 1906[10]:548 European Free-Church[10]:548
Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]:548 1830[10]:548 European Free-Church[10]:548
Apostolic Church[6]:15 Daniel Powell Williams[7]:23 1916[7]:23 Pentecostal[7]:23
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]:48 Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[10]:464 1969[10]:464 Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:464
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]:16 William Thomas Phillips[10]:465 1920[10]:465 Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:465
Arcane School[12]:38 Alice and Foster Bailey[10]:857 1937[10]:857 Neo-Theosophical[10]:857
Arica School[6]:17[12]:38–39 Oscar Ichazo[10]:971 1968[10]:971 Sufism[10]:971
Arkeon[16] Vito Carlo Moccia[17] 1999[17] Reiki

Roman Catholicism[16]

Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[10]:1004 Ravi Shankar[10]:1004 1981[10]:1004 Neo-Hindu[10]:1004
Arya Samaj[6]:18[12]:40–41 Mul Shankara[10]:1004 1875[10]:1004 Neo-Hindu[10]:1004
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[12]:91 Wesley Swift[10]:654 late 1940s[10]:654 British Israelism[10]:654
Ásatrú[18] Stephen McNallen[18] 1970s[18] Neo-pagan[18]

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Assemblies of God[12]:41–42 merger[19]:106 1914[19]:106 Pentecostal[19]:106
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]:18 merger[10]:466 1952[10]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]:21 Jessie L. Thrift[10]:1131 1971[10]:1131 Ku Klux Klan[10]:1131
Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]:21[12]:42–43 Edgar Cayce[7]:31 1931[7]:31 Occult[7]:31
Association of Vineyard Churches[6]:316 John Wimber[10]:446 1982[10]:446 Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:446
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]:23[12]:44–45[20][21] Shoko Asahara[10]:1073 1987[10]:1073 Japanese Buddhism[10]:1073
Ausar Auset Society[6]:24 R.A. Straughn[10]:842 mid-1970s[10]:842 neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:842
Azali or Azali Babi[22]:246 Subh-i-Azal 1863 Babism
Bábism[23]:180[24][8]:58 Báb (Ali Muhammad Shirazi)[24] 1844[24] Shia Islam-Millenarian[24]
Bahá'í Faith[6]:25–26[25]:243–248[12]:48–49[9]:58–56 Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri)[10]:992 1863[10]:992 Bábism[26]
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[12]:50–51 Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[10]:972 1971[10]:972 Sufism[10]:972
Bethel Ministerial Association[6]:32 Albert Franklin Varnell[10]:466 1934[10]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
Bible Presbyterian Church[6]:33 Carl McIntire[10]:370 1938[10]:370 Reformed Presbyterian[10]:370
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]:34[8]:77 schism[10]:466 1957[10]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[10]:466
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[27]:35 May Otis Blackburn[27]:1 1922[27]:1 Neo-pagan

New Thought[27]:1

Brahma Kumaris[6]:37[12]:56–57[28] Dada Lekhraj[10]:1006 1936[10]:1006 Neo-Hindu[10]:1006
Brahmo Samaj, also known as the religion Adi Dharm[29][30]:1028–1030 Ram Mohan Roy 1828 Neo-Hindu
Brahmoism (Brahmo Dharma)[29]:43–57 Debendranath Tagore 1848/1850 Neo-Hindu
Branch Davidians[6]:38[12]:59 Victor T. Houteff[10]:617 1930[10]:617 Seventh Day Adventist[10]:617
Branhamism[31]:37–40 William M. Branham[31]:37–40 1951[31]:37–40 Pentecostal[31]:37–40
Breatharians also known as Inedia[12]:60–61 Wiley Brooks[32]:30 1970s[32]:30 Hinduism-influenced[32]:30
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[10]:1131–1132 Jimmie T. Roberts[10]:1131–1132 c. 1970[10]:1131–1132 Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1131–1132
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]:39–40[12]:61–62
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[12]:63–64 Eberhard Arnold[33]:709 c. 1920[10]:709 Communal[10]:709
Brunstad Christian Church[6]:269–270 Johan Oscar Smith[34] 1905[34] evangelical

non-denominational christian

Builders of the Adytum[6]:41–42[12]:67–68 Paul Foster Case[10]:891 1922[10]:891 Ritual magic[10]:891
Candomblé[6]:43–44[12]:68–69 19th century[7]:61 Syncretistic

Neo-African Divination[7]:61

Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]:44[12]:69–70 Ngô Văn Chiêu

Lê Văn Trung[7]:61

1919[7]:61 Syncretistic

Vietnamese Millenarian[7]:61

Cargo cults[6]:45[12]:70 Syncretistic

Nativist[7]:62

CAUSA International[12]:72 Sun Myung Moon[10]:837–838 1970[10]:837–838 Unification Church[10]:837–838
Celestial Church of Christ[12]:73 Samuel Oshoffa[7]:64 1947[7]:64 Nativist

Pentecostal[7]:64

The Centers Network[12]:73–74
Chabad-Lubavitch[6]:206,368[12]:70 Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century Chasidic
Charismatic Movement[12]:78 1950s[31]:70 Pentecostal
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[12]:78–79 Hon-Ming Chen[35] 1955 UFO religion
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[12]:80–81 Choe Je-u
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[12]:79 Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]:65 c. 1925[7]:65 African Pentecostal[7]:65
Christ Apostolic Church[12]:82–83 Joseph Ayo Babalola[10]:479 1941[10]:479 Pentecostal[10]:479
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[6]:50[12]:81–82 John Thomas[31]:48 1844[10]:107 Baptist family[10]:107

Restorationism

The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[12]:83 Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]:70
1922[7]:70 Anthroposophy[7]:70
Christian Identity[6]:138[12]:84 1982[10]:652 British Israelism[10]:652
Christian Reformed Church in North America[12]:86 Gijsbert Haan[10]:365 1857[10]:365 Reformed Presbyterian[10]:365
Christian Science[10]:741[12]:86–87. Mary Baker Eddy[10]:741 1876[10]:741 Christian

Faith healing

New Thought[36]

Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[12]:87–88 Jack Sparks

Fred Dyson Pat Matrisciana[7]:76

1969[7]:76 Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[7]:76
Church of All Worlds[6]:58[12]:88–89 Tim Zell

Lance Christie[10]:909

1962[10]:909 Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:909

Church of Aphrodite[6]:58 Gleb Botkin[10]:911 1939[10]:911 Witchcraft

Neo-Pagan[10]:911

Church of Bible Understanding[6]:59[12]:89–90 Stewart Traill[7]:79 1971[7]:79 Adventist

Fundamentalist[7]:79

Church of Daniel's Band[6]:61 1893[10]:395 Non-Episcopal Methodism[10]:395
Church of Divine Science[25]:326 Malinda Cramer 1888 New Thought

Faith healing

Church of God in Christ[6]:62 Charles H. Mason[7]:85 1908[7]:85 Pentecostal[7]:85
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]:62 Grady R. Kent[10]:437 1957[10]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:437
Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]:63, 65 J.H. Parks,
Steve N. Bryant,
Tom Moses,
and William O. Douglas
1906[10]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:437
Church of God of Prophecy[6]:62–63 Ambrose Tomlinson[10]:438 1903[10]:438 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]:438
Church of God with Signs Following[37]:300–301 George Went Hensley[10]:489 1920s[10]:489 Holiness Pentecostal[10]:489
Church of Israel[6]:65 Dan Gayman[10]:653 1974[10]:653 British Israelism[10]:653
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Joseph Smith 1830 Latter-day Saint Movement-Millenarian
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)[38] Joseph Smith
James Strang[38]
1844[38] Latter Day Saint movement
The Church of Light[8]:210–211[39]:105–106 C.C. Zain[8]:210–211[39]:105–106 1932[8]:210–211[39]:105–106 neo-Hermetism[8]:210–211[39]:105–106
Church of Satan[25]:401–410[12]:91–92 Anton LaVey[9]:508–509 1966[9]:508–509 Satanism[9]:508–509
Church of the SubGenius J.R. "Bob" Dobbs 1979 UFO religion

Apocalypticism

Church of the Creator[10]:668 Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI 1969 Liberal family[10]:668
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[40][41] or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson 2005
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[12]:92–93 John Robert Stevens[7]:386 1954[7]:386 Fundamentalist

Occult[7]:386

Church of the Lord (Aladura)[12]:93 Josiah Ositelu[10]:517 1930[10]:517 Pentecostal Family[10]:517
Church of World Messianity[6]:94, 371[12]:94 Mokichi Okada[10]:1120 1934[10]:1120 Shinto[10]:1120

Health healing

Church Universal and Triumphant[6]:281[12]:94–95 Mark Prophet

Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]:97

1958[7]:97 Theosophical

Occult[7]:97

Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[12]:71 Sun Myung Moon[42][43] 1955[43] Unification Church[43]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]:74[8]:180 Arnold Josiah Ford[10]:951 1924[10]:951 Black Judaism[10]:951
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]:75 Donald Lee Barnett[10]:496 1967[10]:496 Latter Rain

Pentecostal[10]:496

Concerned Christians[12]:96 Monte Kim Miller[44]
Conservative Judaism[6]:76[12]:97 Sabato Morais

Marcus Jastrow H. Pereira Mendes[10]:943

1887[10]:943 Mainline Judaism[10]:943
Core Shamanism, The Foundation for Shamanic Studies[9]:580[45] Michael Harner 1980th Neoshamanism
Covenant of the Goddess[6]:98[12]:48–49 merger[10]:915 1975[10]:915 Goddess

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:915

Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]:99[12]:99 Margot Adler[10]:915 1987[10]:915 Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:915

The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]:78[12]:99–100 James D. Ellison[10]:654 mid-1970s[10]:654 British Israelism[10]:654
Creativity[46] Ben Klassen[46] early-1970's Pantheism

Agnostic Atheism White Racialism.[46]

Crossroads Movement[12]:100 1970s[37]:100
Cyberchurches[12]:103 non-denominational christian
Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement B. R. Ambedkar 1956 Neo-Buddhism (Navayana)
Dances of Universal Peace[47] Samuel L. Lewis
Dianic Wicca[6]:84 merger[10]:916 1971[10]:916 Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:916

Discordianism Greg Hill, Kerry Wendell Thornley[48] 1963 Absurdism
Eckankar[6]:91 Paul Twitchell[10]:1056 1971[10]:1056 Derived from Sant Mat but denies connection[10]:1056
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[6]:85–86[28]:126[49]:156 Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[10]:1055 1920s[10]:1055 Sant Mat[10]:1055
Emin Raymond Armin 1971 New Age
End Time Survivors Jesus Christians[50] David McKay[51] Fundamentalist Millennialism
Esoteric Nazism[52]:17 Occult

Western esotericism[15]

est (Erhard Seminars Training)[1]:44[28]:126–127[53] Werner Erhard[54]:193 1971[31]:108[55]:167,171–172 Human Potential Movement[5]:35[31]:107–108[56] Self religions[57]
Evangelical Methodist Church[6]:97 J.H. Hamblen[10]:396 1946[10]:396 Non-Episcopal Methodist[10]:396
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[58] Sun Myung Moon[58] 1994[58] Unification Church[58]
Falun Gong[59] Li Hongzhi[10]:1126 1992[10]:1126 Qigong movement
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]:133[28]:126[60] David Berg[7]:133 1968[7]:133 Fundamentalist,[7]:133 Jesus movement[60]

countercultural evangelical[9]:185

Fellowship of Isis[6]:103 Olivia Robertson[10]:888 1976[10]:888 Neo-pagan

Goddess[10]:888

Feraferia[61] Frederick Adams[61] 1967[61] Neo-pagan

Goddess[61]

Findhorn Foundation[6]:104 Eileen Caddy

Peter Caddy Alexis Edwards Roger Benson[7]:138

1963[7]:138 Christian-Anthroposophistical-neo-Rosicrucian[7]:138
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]:104 W.E. Fuller[10]:482 1898[10]:482 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:482
First Satanic Church[62]:701 Karla LaVey 1997 Satanism
Followers of Christ[10]:1137 Marion Reece (or Riess)[10]:1137[63] late 19th century[10]:1137 Unclassified[10]:1137 Pentecostal[63]
Fourth Way[25]:259–266[15]:42 George Gurdjieff c. 1913 Esoteric Sufism

Western esotericism[15]:42

Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]:108 Paschal Beverly Randolph[10]:843 1858[10]:843 neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:843
Fraternity of the Inner Light[9]:217–219 Dion Fortune 1924 neo-Hermeticism

Esoteric Christianity[9]:217–219

Freedomites[6]:272
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[64] now known as Triratna Buddhist Community Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[64] Neo-Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[6]:113–114 Christian
General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]:117 schism[10]:763 1890[10]:763 Swedenborgianism[10]:763
The Genesis II Church of Health and Healing Jim Humble 2009 or 2010[65] UFO-New Age inspired

Pseudoscience[66][67][68]

Ghost Dance[6]:119 Neo-pagan

Native American religion

Global Peace Foundation[69] Hyun Jin Moon[70] 2007[69] Unification Church[69]
Grail Movement[6]:122–123 Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[10]:786 1924[10]:786 Syncretistic Christian

New Age

Channeling[10]:786

Hanuman Foundation[6]:129 Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[31]:51 1980[10]:1013 Neo-Hindu[10]:1013
Heaven's Gate[71] Marshall Herff Applewhite

Bonnie Lu Nettles[71]

1973[71] New Age

UFO religion[71]

Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]:133 Swami Rama[10]:1014 1971[10]:1014 Hindu[10]:1014
Huna[8]:406–407 Max Freedom Long 1936 New Thought

Hawaiian religion

I AM Activity[6]:138 Guy Ballard, Edna Anne Wheeler Ballard[10]:873 early 1930s Neo-Theosophical[10]:873
Iglesia Ni Cristo[72] Felix Y. Manalo[73] 1914[73] Restorationism

Unitarianism

Isha Foundation[74] Jaggi Vasudev 1992 Hindu
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]:142 R. Lee Kirkland[7]:179 1922[7]:179 Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[7]:179
Insight Meditation Society[6]:143 Jack Kornfield

Sharon Salzberg

Joseph Goldstein[10]:1067

1976[10]:1067 Theravada Buddhism[10]:1067
International House of Prayer also known as (IHOP or IHOPKC) Mike Bickle 1999 Charismatic Movement

Post-tribulational Historic premillennialism

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]:108 Aimee Semple McPherson[10]:451 1923[10]:451 White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:451
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[31]:139 Eugene Douglas Savoy[31]:139 1972[31]:139 New Age[31]:139
Ivanovism (the Ivanovites)[75]:128–145 Porfiry Ivanov 1933 Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Jediism[76]:62 2000s[76]:62 Star Wars-inspired

New Age[76]:62

Jehovah's Witnesses[6]:150, 152–153 Charles Taze Russell[10]:637 1870[10]:637 Adventist

Bible Students[10]:637

Jesus Army, also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship"[6]:153 Noel Stanton[14]:149–163 1977[14]:149–163 Fundamentalist

Communal[14]:149–163

Jesus Movement[6]:153[77] late 1960s[7]:196 Fundamentalist[7]:196
Jews for Jesus[6]:155 Moishe Rosen[7]:197 1970[7]:197 Fundamentalist[7]:197
John Frum[6]:155 1936[7]:197 Syncretistic

Millenarian[7]:197

Kabbalah Centre[9]:292–293 Philip Berg[9]:292–293 1970s[9]:292–293 New Age[9]:292–293
Kemetic Orthodoxy[78] Tamara Siuda[78] 1988[78] Kemetic[78]
Kerista[6]:158 John Presmont[10]:730 1956[10]:730 Communal—After 1960[10]:730
Kofuku-no-Kagaku (The Institute for Research in Human Happiness)[79] Ryuho Okawa 1986 Japanese
Kopimism Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
Konkokyo[6]:161 Bunjiro Kawate[10]:1122 1859[10]:1122 Shinto[10]:1122
Krishnamurti Foundations[80] Jiddu Krishnamurti 1928 Neo-Theosophical

Universalism

Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]:161 Amrit Desai[10]:1019 1966[10]:1019 Hindu[10]:1019
Lama Foundation[6]:164 Steve Durkee[10]:731 1967[10]:731 Communal[10]:731
Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism)[6]:190, 192 Joseph Smith[31]:187 1830[31]:187 Christian restorationism
Latter Rain Movement[6]:165 George Hawtin

Percy Hunt[7]:209

1946[7]:209 Millenarian Pentecostal[7]:209
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]:165 Paul S. L. Johnson[10]:639 c. 1920[10]:639 Adventist

Bible Students[10]:639

Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]:165–166 Jan van Rijckenborgh; Zwier Willem Leene; Catharose de Petri[9]:338–339 1924[10]:844 neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:844
The Living Word Fellowship[81] John Robert Stevens[10]:506 1951[10]:506 Latter Rain Pentecostal[10]:506
Local Church movement[6]:169, 171 Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[10]:609–610 1920s[10]:609–610 Independent Fundamentalist

Other Bible Students[10]:609–610

Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[12]:90–91 Paul Erdman[7]:216 1969[7]:216 Communalism[7]:216
Lucis Trust[6]:172–173 Alice A. Bailey[7]:217 1923[7]:217 Neo-Theosophical[7]:217
Madkhalism[82][83] Rabee Al-Madkhali[84][85] early 1990s[86][87][88] Islam[89][90]
Mahikari[6]:176 Kotama Okada[10]:1123 1959[10]:1123 Shinto[10]:1123
Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]:178 Bob Weiner[7]:223 1972[7]:223 Pentecosrtal[7]:223
Mazdaznan[6]:181 Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[10]:991 1902[10]:991 Zoroastrianism[10]:991
Meher Baba followers[49] Merwan Sheriar Irani[10]:991 1921[10]:991 Hindu-inspired[10]:991
Messianic Judaism[6]:184 Christianity
Million Man March[91] Louis Farrakhan[91] 1995[91] Nation of Islam[91]
Mita Congregation[6]:186 Juanita García Peraza[10]:462 1940[10]:462 Deliverance Pentecostal[10]:462
Modekngei (Ngara Modekngei)[92] Tamadad from Chol c. 1915 Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous
Monastic Order of Avallon[93] Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[93] 1972[93] Neo-pagan[93]
Moody Church[6]:186 Dwight L. Moody[10]:602 1864[10]:602 Fundamentalist

Evangelical[10]:602

Moorish Science Temple of America[6]:186, 188 Timothy Drew[10]:988 1925[10]:988 Black Islam[10]:988
Moral Re-Armament[6]:188, 190 Frank N. D. Buchman[7]:233 1921[7]:233
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]:194 John-Roger Hinkins[10]:1054 1971[10]:1054 Sant Mat[10]:1054
Namdhari[6]:196 Balak Singh[7]:243 mid-19th century[7]:243 Sikh[7]:243
Nation of Islam[94] Elijah Muhammad[7]:245 mid-1930s[7]:245 Black Islam[7]:245

UFO religion

Nation of Yahweh[95]:217[6]:200 Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[10]:952–953 1970s[10]:952–953 Black Judaism[10]:952–953
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]:197 Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[10]:772 1893[10]:772 Spiritualism[10]:772
Native American Church, also known as Peyotism[6]:202 1906[10]:809 Native American religion

Entheogen Groups[10]:809

Native Ukrainian National Faith, also known as RUNVira or Sylenkoism[75]:130 Lev Sylenko mid-1960s Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

New Acropolis (Nouvelle Acropole)[9]:441–442[96]:217 Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi 1957 Neo-Theosophical

Western esotericism

New Apostolic Church[6]:205 Heinrich Geyer[10]:1139 1863[10]:1139 Catholic Apostolic Church

Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1139

New Kadampa Tradition[97]:310–311 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[10]:1112 mid-1970s[10]:1112 Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1112
The New Message from God[98] Marshall Vian Summers 1992[99] UFO religion
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]:207 1969[10]:923 Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]:923

New Thought[6]:208[25]:325–330 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]:258 mid-19th century[7]:258 Metaphysical[7]:258

Faith healing

Oahspe Faithists[100] John Ballou Newbrough 1882 UFO religion
Odinism[101] Orestes Brownson[101] 1848[101] Neo-pagan[101]
Oomoto[6]:216 Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]:266 1899[7]:266 Shinto-Millenarian[7]:266
Open Bible Standard Churches[6]:217 merger[10]:454 1935[10]:454 White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:454
Opus Dei[28]:126[9]:427–428[102][103]:3, 122–123[104][105][106]:251 Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[9]:427–428 1928[9]:427–428 Roman Catholic[9]:427–428
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.)[7]:270 Carl Kellner;[7]:270[9]:430Theodor Reuss[9]:430 1895;[7]:270 1906[9]:430 Western esotericism

neo-Hermetism

Thelema[9]:430

Pentecostal Church of God[6]:225 1919[19]:109 Pantecostal[19]:109
Pentecostalism[6]:224–225 Holiness movement
Peoples Temple[6]:226[107] Jim Jones[10]:832 1955[10]:832 Psychic-New Age[10]:832
Philosophical Research Society[6]:228 Manly Palmer Hall[10]:849 1934[10]:849 Occult[10]:849
Pilgrims of Arès[108] Michel Potay[108] 1974[108]
Plymouth Brethren[6]:228–229[12]:61 John Nelson Darby[7]:281 1830[7]:281 evangelical

Millenarian[7]:281

Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[31]:51–52 Wayman Mitchell[31]:51–52 1970[31]:51–52 Pentecostal[31]:51–52
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]:234 Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[10]:1059 1861[10]:1059 Sant Mat[10]:1059
Raëlism[6]:234 Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[10]:806 1973[10]:806 UFO religion[10]:806
Rainbow Family[6]:234, 236 Barry Adams[10]:732 late-1960s[10]:732 Communal[10]:732
Rajneesh movement, also Osho movement[6]:236, 238 Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[10]:1051 1966[10]:1051 Indian religions[10]:1051
Ramakrishna Mission, also known as Ramakrishna movement or Vedanta Society[109]:57–58[6]:314 Swami Vivekananda 1897 Neo-Hindu

Neo-Vedanta[7]:382

Ramtha[110] J. Z. Knight[111] 1977[112] New Age[110]
Rastafari[6]:241,243[113] Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[10]:954 1935[10]:954 Black Judaism[10]:954
Reformed Druids of North America[6]:244 1960s[7]:299 Neo-pagan[7]:299
Reiki, also Usui Shiko Ryoho System of Healing[9]:528–529 Mikao Usui 1922 Energy medicine

Japanese Buddhism

Religious Science[6]:245–246 Ernest Holmes[7]:301 1948[7]:301 New Thought[7]:301
Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism[114]:442 Vladimir Megre 1997 Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]:248 Nikkyo Niwano

Myoko Naganuma[115]

1938[115] Nichiren Buddhist[115]
The Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]:249 Carl Louis von Grasshof[10]:845 1909[10]:845 neo-Rosicrucianism[10]:845
Sacred Name Movement[6]:251 Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Adventist

Church of God (Seventh-Day)

Sadharan Brahmo Samaj[29]:43–57 Anandamohan Bose, en:Sivanath Sastri, Umesh Chandra Dutta 1878 Brahmoism
Sahaja Yoga[116] Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[10]:1029 1970[10]:1029 Neo-Hindu[10]:1029
Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]:251 Subramuniy[10]:1029 1957[10]:1029 Hindu[10]:1029
The Salvation Army[6]:252, 254 William Booth[10]:419 1865[10]:419 Holiness movement[10]:419
Saminism Movement, Samin movement[117]:207–240 Samin Surosentiko 1889 Abrahamic religions

Nativist

Sant Nirankari Mission[6]:210 Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikh
Santa Muerte Cult[118] 2000s Syncretic Folk Catholic
Scientology[25]:385–392[28]:126[119][120][121] L. Ron Hubbard[10]:816 1955[10]:816 UFO-Psychic

New Age[10]:816

Seicho-no-Ie[9]:568–569[79] Masaharu Taniguchi, Fenwicke Holmes 1930 Religious Science-Shinto
Self-Realization Fellowship[6]:261 Paramahansa Yogananda[10]:1031 1935[10]:1031 Neo-Hindu[10]:1031
Semitic Neopaganism[122] Raphael Patai[122] 1960s[122] Neo-pagan

Feminism[122]

Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]:262 Ellen G. White[10]:621 1860[10]:621 Adventist[10]:621
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]:262–263 schism[10]:622–623 1925[10]:622–623 Seventh Day Adventists[10]:622–623
Shakers[6]:263, 265 Ann Lee[10]:724 1750s[10]:724 Communal—Before 1960[10]:724
Shengdao, also Tongshanshe[123] Peng Tairong (Ruzun) early 20th century Chinese salvationist
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidians, officially, the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]:189 Victor T. Houteff[10]:619 1935[10]:619 Seventh Day Adventists[10]:619
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]:266 John J. Higgins, Jr.[10]:734 1969[10]:734 Communal—After 1960[10]:734
Shinji Shumeikai, also Shumei[79] Mihoko Koyama 1970 Church of World Messianity

Faith healing

Shinnyo-en[6]:266–267 Shinjo Ito

Tomoji Ito[10]:1081

1936[10]:1081 Japanese Buddhism[10]:1081
Shinreikyo[6]:266 Kanichi Otsuka[10]:1123 post–World War II[10]:1123 Shinto[10]:1123

Syncretistic

Shri Ram Chandra Mission[124] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[124] 1945[124] Hindu[124]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]:268–269 Kuppuswami Iyer[10]:1035 1935[10]:1035 Neo-Hindu[10]:1035
Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery[75]:112–127 Władysław Kołodziej, Jan Stachniuk 1920–30s Neo-pagan

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Soka Gakkai International[6]:271[125] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[10]:1082 1930[10]:1082 Nichiren Buddhism[10]:1082
Spiritualism, Spiritism[25]:331–338[126]:248 Kate and Margaret Fox 1848 Psychic-Mediumship

Metaphysical

Subud (Susila Budhi Dharma)[6]:279[25]:267–274[9]:607–608 Muhammed Subuh[10]:981 1933[10]:981 Kejawèn

Sufism[10]:981

Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]:279 Samuel L. Lewis[7]:342 1968[7]:342 neo-Sufism[7]:342
Sukyo Mahikari[6]:281 Sekiguchi Sakae[7]:344 1978[7]:344 Mahikari Syncretistic[7]:344
Summum[6]:281 Claude Rex Nowell[10]:1141 1975[10]:1141 Unclassified Christian Churches[10]:1141
Syntheism[127] Alexander Bard[127] 2012[127] Pantheist

Humanist

Netocratic

The Satanic Temple[128][129][130] Lucien Greaves

Malcolm Jarry[131]

2012[132] Satanism

Nontheistic[129]

Tenrikyo[6]:287–288 Miki Nakayama[10]:1124 1838[10]:1124 Shinto[10]:1124
Tensegrity[9]:581[45] Carlos Castaneda 1995 Neoshamanism[9]:581

New Age

Terasem[133] Martine Rothblatt 2004 Transhumanism
Thelema, also known as the A∴A∴ order[15]:41–42 Aleister Crowley early 1900s Occult

neo-Hermetism

Western esotericism[15]:41–42

Theosophical Society, also known since 1882 as Theosophical Society Adyar[25]:315–324[9]:624–625[134] Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge[134] 1875 Occult

Eastern and Western esotericism[9]:624–625[15]:40–41

Theosophical Society Pasadena[25]:315–324[134]:blz. 427 William Quan Judge 1895 Theosophical
Tolstoyan primitivism[135]:672 Leo Tolstoy[135]:672 1901[135]:672 Christian anarchism

Pacifism[135]:672

Toronto Blessing[136] Randy Clark[14]:122–123 1994[14]:122–123 Pentecostal[14]:122–123
Transcendental Meditation (TM)[6]:292–293, 295–296 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[10]:1045 1958[10]:1045 Neo-Hindu[10]:1045
Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO)[64] Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[64] Neo-Buddhism
True Buddha School[137] Lu Sheng-yen[137] Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism

Taoism[137]

True Gnostic Church[138] Azrael Ondi-Ahman (Archie D. Wood)[139] 1979[140]
Twelve Tribes[6]:212, 334–335 Gene and Marsha Spriggs[10]:737 1972[10]:737 Messianic Jewish Communal—After 1960[10]:737
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]:298 William Irvine[12]:330 1897[141] Independent fundamentalist family[10]:611
Umbanda[6]:299 Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[142] 1920[142] Spiritism[142]
Unarius Academy of Science[6]:300, 302–303 Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman 1954 UFO Religion
Unification Church, also known as the Moonies[6]:300, 302–303 Sun Myung Moon[7]:365 1954[7]:365 Syncretistic Christian[7]:365
Unitarian Universalism[37]:335 consolidation[31]:308–310 1961[31]:308–310 Unitarian Universalism[31]:308–310
United Holy Church of America[6]:304 Isaac Cheshier[10]:487 1900[10]:487 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]:487
United House of Prayer for All People[6]:304–305 Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]:371 1925[7]:371 African American Pentecostal[7]:371
United Israel World Union[6]:305 David Horowitz[10]:959 1944[10]:959 Other Jewish Groups[10]:959
United Lodge of Theosophists[6]:305 Robert Crosbie[10]:855 1909[10]:855 Theosophical[10]:855
United Pentecostal Church International[6]:287–306 merger[10]:476 1945[10]:476 Apostolic Pentecostals[10]:476
Unity Church[6]:306–307 Charles Fillmore and Myrtle Fillmore[7]:373 1889/1903[7]:373 New Thought-Christian[7]:373
Universal Great Brotherhood[6]:310 Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[10]:883 late 1940s[10]:883 Other Theosophical Groups[10]:883
Universal Life Church[6]:311 Kirby Hensley[10]:680 1962[10]:680 Liberal Family[10]:680
Universal White Brotherhood[143] Peter Deunov[10]:880 1900[10]:880 Other Theosophical Groups[10]:880

Esoteric Christianity

Urantia Foundation[31]:319–322 William S. Sadler[31]:319–322 1934[31]:319–322 UFO religion[31]:319–322

Psychic New Age[10]:839 Christian occultist[7]:380

Vajradhatu[6]:313 Chögyam Trungpa[10]:1115 1973[10]:1115 Tibetan Buddhism[10]:1115
Vale do Amanhecer[144] Tia Neiva[144] 1959[144] Spiritualism[144]
Volunteers of America[6]:316 Ballington Booth

Maud Booth[10]:420

1896[10]:420 Holiness movement[10]:420
The Way International[6]:318 Victor Paul Wierwille[10]:608 1942[10]:608 Independent fundamentalist family[10]:608
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[145] Serge Benhayon[145] 1999[145] Neo-Theosophical[146] and/or "Socially harmful cult".[147]
White Eagle Lodge[6]:319 Lady Elizabeth Carey[10]:884 1943[10]:884 Other Theosophical Groups[10]:884
Wicca[25]:339–346[15]:55 Gerald Gardner[31]:338 c. 1949[31]:338 Neo-pagan

Witchcraft[25]:339–346

Occult[31]:338

Women's Federation for World Peace[148]:203–205 Hak Ja Han[148]:203–205 1992[148]:203–205 Unification Church[148]:203–205
Wotansvolk[149] David Lane 1990s neo-völkisch paganism
The Word Foundation[6]:320 Harold W. Percival[10]:856 c. 1904[10]:856 Theosophical[10]:856
World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church[150][151] Hyung Jin Moon

Yeon Ah Lee Moon

2015 Unification Church-based

ultra-Orthodox/Fundamentalism

Yiguandao[9][123]:702–703 Wang Jueyi; Chang Thien Ran late 19th century Chinese salvationist-Millenarian

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Nelson 1987, p. 107.
  3. ^ Swenson 2009, p. 206.
  4. ^ Coney, Judith (June 1998). "A Response to: Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne, Vol. 5, No. 2". ISKCON Communications Journal. 6 (1).
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  36. ^ See:
    • Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements. Rowman Altamira, 2003, p. 26: "The Christian Science-Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as "New Thought" in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments."
    • Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
  37. ^ a b c Chryssides, George D. (17 April 2006). The A to Z of new religious movements (Rev. pbk. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5588-5.
  38. ^ a b c "About Us". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite). Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  39. ^ a b c d Greer, John Michael (8 October 2003). The new encyclopedia of the occult. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-1-56718-336-8.
  40. ^ Atheist, Friendly. "Thanks to a Technicality, Pastafarianism is Now an Official Religion in Poland!". patheos.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  41. ^ "Pastafarian recognized in Texas ID". nydailynews.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  42. ^ "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [1]
  43. ^ a b c Storey, John Woodrow; Glenn H. Utter (2002). Religion and Politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-57607-218-9.
  44. ^ "The Concerned Christians cult". eligioustolerance.org. Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  45. ^ a b Robert, J. Wallis (2003). Shamans/neo-Shamans: Ecstasy, Alternative Archaeologies and Contemporary Pagans. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30203-X.
  46. ^ a b c Robinson 2005.
  47. ^ Van Bruinessen 2007, p. 258.
  48. ^ "Discordianism – WRSP". Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  49. ^ a b Beckford, James A. (15 September 2003). Social theory and religion. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77336-2.
  50. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "Conference Program/ New Religious Movements/ The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". Australian Association for the Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  51. ^ Smith, Geraldine. "The Millenialists Project: A Comparative Study Between the End of Time Survivors and Survivalism in Western Modernity". AASR. Australian Association of Study of Religion. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  52. ^ Clarke, Nicholas (1993). The Occult Roots of Nazism. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3060-7.
  53. ^ See:
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  54. ^ Aupers, Stef (2005). "'We Are All Gods': New Age in the Netherlands 1960–2000". In Sengers, Erik (ed.). The Dutch and Their Gods: Secularization and Transformation of Religion in the Netherlands. Studies in Dutch Religious History. 3. Hilversum: Verloren. ISBN 978-90-6550-867-6.
  55. ^ Clarke, Peter; Sutherland, Stewart, eds. (31 December 1991). The study of religion, traditional and new religions (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-06432-3.
  56. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM) ..."
  57. ^ See:
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
  58. ^ a b c d Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, page 47–52
  59. ^ Lewis 2004, p. 195.
  60. ^ a b Melton 2009, p. 676.
  61. ^ a b c d Ellwood 1971.
  62. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010). Religions of the world: a comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices. 6-volume Set (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
  63. ^ a b Peters 2008, pp. 186–187.
  64. ^ a b c d Irons 2008, p. 206.
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