List of new religious movements

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A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious, ethical, or spiritual group or community with practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]: 29 [2][3]

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]: 17  Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]: vii–xv 

List[edit]

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[6]: 131  Harbhajan Singh Khalsa[7]: 162  1969[7]: 162  Sikh[7]: 162 
Adidam, previously Free Daist Communion, Dawn Horse Fellowship, etc.[7]: 146 [8]: 25–28 [9]: 2–3  Adi Da[7]: 146  1972[7]: 146  Neo-Hindu-inspired[7]: 146 
Adonai-Shomo[8]: 28  Frederick T. Howland[10]: 707  1861[10]: 707  Adventist Communal[10]: 707 
Adonism[11] Franz Sättler[11] 1925[11] Neo-pagan[11]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]: 28–29  Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 Religious Science
Aetherius Society[7]: 3 [8]: 29–31 [12]: 25–26  George King[7]: 3  1954[7]: 3  UFO-Christian[7]: 3 
The African Church[12]: 26  Jacob Kehinde Coker[13] 1901[13] Anglican
African initiated churches[12]: 26–27  Multiple Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]: 31  Walter Eugene King[10]: 934  1973[10]: 934  Voodoo[10]: 934 
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]: 32  Richard Zenor[10]: 764  1943[10]: 764  Spiritualism[10]: 764 
Agni Yoga (Roerichism)[6]: 6 [8]: 32  Helena Roerich, Nicholas Roerich[10]: 876  mid-1920s[10]: 876  Neo-Theosophical[10]: 876 
Ahmadiyya[6]: 6 [8]: 32–33 [12]: 27–28  Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[10]: 985  1889[10]: 985  Indian Islam[10]: 985 
Aladura[6]: 7 [12]: 28–29  Josiah Ositelu[10] 1930[10]: 517  Pentecostal[10]: 517 
Alamo Christian Foundation, a.k.a. Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]: 7 [8]: 33–34 [12]: 29  Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]: 13  1969[7]: 13  Fundamentalist

Communal[7]: 13 

Altruria[8]: 34–35  Edward Biron Payne[10]: 707  1894[10]: 707  Christian

Communal[10]: 707 

American Buddhist Movement[8]: 35–36  1980[10]: 1116  Western Buddhism[10]: 1116 
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]: 36  Robert Ernest Dickhoff[10]: 1102  1945[10]: 1102  Tibetan Buddhism[10]: 1102 
American World Patriarchs[8]: 37–38  Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[10]: 309  1972[10]: 309  Eastern Orthodox[10]: 309 
Amica Temple of Radiance[8]: 38  Ivah Berg Whitten[10]: 876  1932[10]: 876  Neo-Theosophical[10]: 876 
Ananda Marga[6]: 11 [8]: 41 [12]: 30–31 [14]: 370  Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[10]: 1001  1955[10]: 1001  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1001 

Tantric

Ancient British Church in North America[8]: 43  Jonathan V. Zotique[10]: 1142  Homosexually Oriented[10]: 1142 
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]: 11 [8]: 42–43 [12]: 31  H. Spencer Lewis[10]: 841  1915[10]: 841  neo-Rosicrucianism[10]: 841 
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, a.k.a. ATOM[8]: 43  Darwin Gross[10]: 1054  1983[10]: 1054  Sant Mat[10]: 1054 
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]: 13 [8]: 43–44  Howard B. Rand[10]: 651  1928[10]: 651  British Israelism[10]: 651 
Ansaaru Allah Community[8]: 44  As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[10]: 986–987  late 1960s[10]: 986–987"  Black Islam[10]: 986–987 
Anthroposophy (Anthroposophical Society)[8]: 44–47 [12]: 33–34  Rudolf Steiner[7]: 20  1912[7]: 20  Western esotericism[15]: 41 
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]: 47  Gordon Mar Peter[10]: 241  1980s[10]: 241  Independent Catholic

Monophysite[10]: 241 

Antoinism[6] Louis-Joseph Antoine[6] 1910[6] Christian Healing[6]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]: 47–48  Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]: 548  1906[10]: 548  European Free-Church[10]: 548 
Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]: 47–48  Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[10]: 548  1830[10]: 548  European Free-Church[10]: 548 
Apostolic Church[6]: 15  Daniel Powell Williams[7]: 23  1916[7]: 23  Pentecostal[7]: 23 
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]: 48  Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[10]: 464  1969[10]: 464  Apostolic Pentecostal[10]: 464 
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]: 16  William Thomas Phillips[10]: 465  1920[10]: 465  Apostolic Pentecostal[10]: 465 
Arcane School[12]: 38  Alice and Foster Bailey[10]: 857  1937[10]: 857  Neo-Theosophical[10]: 857 
Arica School[6]: 17 [12]: 38–39  Oscar Ichazo[10]: 971  1968[10]: 971  Sufism[10]: 971 
Arkeon[16] Vito Carlo Moccia[17] 1999[17] Reiki

Roman Catholicism[16]

Art of Living Foundation, a.k.a. Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[10]: 1004  Ravi Shankar[10]: 1004  1981[10]: 1004  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1004 
Arya Samaj[6]: 18 [12]: 40–41  Mul Shankara[10]: 1004  1875[10]: 1004  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1004 
Aryan Nations, a.k.a. Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[12]: 91  Wesley Swift[10]: 654  late 1940s[10]: 654  British Israelism[10]: 654 
Ásatrú Folk Assembly[18] Stephen McNallen[18] 1970s[18] Neo-pagan[18]

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Assemblies of God[12]: 41–42  merger[19]: 106  1914[19]: 106  Pentecostal[19]: 106 
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]: 18  merger[10]: 466  1952[10]: 466  Apostolic Pentecostal[10]: 466 
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]: 21  Jessie L. Thrift[10]: 1131  1971[10]: 1131  Ku Klux Klan[10]: 1131 
Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]: 21 [12]: 42–43  Edgar Cayce[7]: 31  1931[7]: 31  Occult[7]: 31 
Association of Vineyard Churches[6]: 316  John Wimber[10]: 446  1982[10]: 446  Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]: 446 
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]: 23 [12]: 44–45 [20][21] Shoko Asahara[10]: 1073  1987[10]: 1073  Japanese Buddhism[10]: 1073 
Ausar Auset Society[6]: 24  R.A. Straughn[10]: 842  mid-1970s[10]: 842  neo-Rosicrucianism[10]: 842 
Azali or Azali Babi[22]: 246  Subh-i-Azal 1863 Babism
Bábism[23]: 180 [24][8]: 58  Báb (Ali Muhammad Shirazi)[24] 1844[24] Shia Islam-Millenarian[24]
Baháʼí Faith[6]: 25–26 [25]: 243–248 [12]: 48–49 [9]: 58–56  Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri)[10]: 992  1863[10]: 992  Bábism[26]
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[12]: 50–51  Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[10]: 972  1971[10]: 972  Sufism[10]: 972 
Bethel Ministerial Association[6]: 32  Albert Franklin Varnell[10]: 466  1934[10]: 466  Apostolic Pentecostal[10]: 466 
Bible Presbyterian Church[6]: 33  Carl McIntire[10]: 370  1938[10]: 370  Reformed Presbyterian[10]: 370 
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]: 34 [8]: 77  schism[10]: 466  1957[10]: 466  Apostolic Pentecostal[10]: 466 
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[27]: 35  May Otis Blackburn[27]: 1  1922[27]: 1  Neo-pagan

New Thought[27]: 1 

Brahma Kumaris[6]: 37 [12]: 56–57 [28] Dada Lekhraj[10]: 1006  1936[10]: 1006  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1006 
Brahmo Samaj, also known as the religion Adi Dharm[29][30]: 1028–1030  Ram Mohan Roy 1828 Neo-Hindu
Brahmoism (Brahmo Dharma)[29]: 43–57  Debendranath Tagore 1848/1850 Neo-Hindu
Branch Davidians[6]: 38 [12]: 59  Benjamin Roden[10]: 617  1930[10]: 617  Seventh Day Adventist[10]: 617 
Branhamism[31]: 37–40  William M. Branham[31]: 37–40  1951[31]: 37–40  Pentecostal[31]: 37–40 
Breatharians also known as Inedia[12]: 60–61  Wiley Brooks[32]: 30  1970s[32]: 30  Hinduism-influenced[32]: 30 
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[10]: 1131–1132  Jimmie T. Roberts[10]: 1131–1132  c. 1970[10]: 1131–1132  Unclassified Christian Churches[10]: 1131–1132 
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]: 39–40 [12]: 61–62 
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[12]: 63–64  Eberhard Arnold[33]: 709  c. 1920[10]: 709  Communal[10]: 709 
Brunstad Christian Church[6]: 269–270  Johan Oscar Smith[34] 1905[34] Evangelical

Non-denominational Christian

Builders of the Adytum[6]: 41–42 [12]: 67–68  Paul Foster Case[10]: 891  1922[10]: 891  Ritual magic[10]: 891 
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]: 44 [12]: 69–70  Ngô Văn Chiêu

Lê Văn Trung[7]: 61 

1919[7]: 61  Syncretistic

Vietnamese Millenarian[7]: 61 

Cargo cults[6]: 45 [12]: 70  Syncretistic

Millenarian-Indigenist[7]: 62 

Celestial Church of Christ[12]: 73  Samuel Oshoffa[7]: 64  1947[7]: 64  Indigenist

Pentecostal[7]: 64 

The Centers Network[12]: 73–74 
Chabad-Lubavitch[6]: 206, 368 [12]: 70  Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century Chasidic
Charismatic Movement[12]: 78  1950s[31]: 70  Pentecostal
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[12]: 78–79  Hon-Ming Chen[35] 1955 UFO religion
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[12]: 80–81  Choe Je-u
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[12]: 79  Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]: 65  c. 1925[7]: 65  African Pentecostal[7]: 65 
Christ Apostolic Church[12]: 82–83  Joseph Ayo Babalola[10]: 479  1941[10]: 479  Pentecostal[10]: 479 
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[6]: 50 [12]: 81–82  John Thomas[31]: 48  1844[10]: 107  Baptist family[10]: 107 

Restorationism

The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[12]: 83  Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]: 70 
1922[7]: 70  Anthroposophy[7]: 70 
Christian Identity[6]: 138 [12]: 84  1940s[36]: 48  British Israelism[10]: 652 
Christian Reformed Church in North America[12]: 86  Gijsbert Haan[10]: 365  1857[10]: 365  Reformed Presbyterian[10]: 365 
Christian Science[10]: 741 [12]: 86–87.  Mary Baker Eddy[10]: 741  1876[10]: 741  Christian

Faith healing

New Thought[37]

Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[12]: 87–88  Jack Sparks

Fred Dyson Pat Matrisciana[7]: 76 

1969[7]: 76  Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[7]: 76 
Church of All Worlds[6]: 58 [12]: 88–89  Tim Zell

Lance Christie[10]: 909 

1962[10]: 909  Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]: 909 

Church of Aphrodite (defunct)[6]: 58  Gleb Botkin[10]: 911  1939[10]: 911  Witchcraft

Neo-Pagan[10]: 911 

Church of Bible Understanding[6]: 59 [12]: 89–90  Stewart Traill[7]: 79  1971[7]: 79  Adventist

Fundamentalist[7]: 79 

Church of Daniel's Band[6]: 61  1893[10]: 395  Non-Episcopal Methodism[10]: 395 
Church of Divine Science[25]: 326  Malinda Cramer 1888 New Thought

Faith healing

Church of God in Christ[6]: 62  Charles H. Mason[7]: 85  1908[7]: 85  Pentecostal[7]: 85 
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]: 62  Grady R. Kent[10]: 437  1957[10]: 437  White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]: 437 
Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]: 63, 65  J.H. Parks,
Steve N. Bryant,
Tom Moses,
and William O. Douglas
1906[10]: 437  White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]: 437 
Church of God of Prophecy[6]: 62–63  Ambrose Tomlinson[10]: 438  1903[10]: 438  White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[10]: 438 
Church of God with Signs Following[38]: 300–301  George Went Hensley[10]: 489  1920s[10]: 489  Holiness Pentecostal[10]: 489 
Church of Israel[6]: 65  Dan Gayman[10]: 653  1974[10]: 653  British Israelism[10]: 653 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Joseph Smith 1830 Latter-day Saint Movement-Millenarian
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)[39] Joseph Smith
James Strang[39]
1844[39] Latter-day Saint Movement
The Church of Light[8]: 210–211 [40]: 105–106  C.C. Zain[8]: 210–211 [40]: 105–106  1932[8]: 210–211 [40]: 105–106  neo-Hermetism[8]: 210–211 [40]: 105–106 
Church of Satan[25]: 401–410 [12]: 91–92  Anton LaVey[9]: 508–509  1966[9]: 508–509  Satanism[9]: 508–509 
Church of the SubGenius J.R. "Bob" Dobbs 1979 Parody
Church of the Creator[10]: 668  Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI 1969 Liberal family[10]: 668 
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[41][42] or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson 2005 Parody
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[12]: 92–93  John Robert Stevens[7]: 386  1954[7]: 386  Fundamentalist

Occult[7]: 386 

Church of the Lord (Aladura)[12]: 93  Josiah Ositelu[10]: 517  1930[10]: 517  Pentecostal Family[10]: 517 
Church of World Messianity[6]: 94, 371 [12]: 94  Mokichi Okada[10]: 1120  1934[10]: 1120  Shinto[10]: 1120 

Faith healing

Church Universal and Triumphant[6]: 281 [12]: 94–95  Mark Prophet

Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]: 97 

1958[7]: 97  Theosophical

Occult[7]: 97 

Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[12]: 71  Sun Myung Moon[43][44] 1955[44] Unification Church[44]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]: 74 [8]: 180  Arnold Josiah Ford[10]: 951  1924[10]: 951  Black Judaism[10]: 951 
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]: 75  Donald Lee Barnett[10]: 496  1967[10]: 496  Latter Rain

Pentecostal[10]: 496 

Concerned Christians[12]: 96  Monte Kim Miller[45]
Conservative Judaism[6]: 76 [12]: 97  Sabato Morais

Marcus Jastrow H. Pereira Mendes[10]: 943 

1887[10]: 943  Mainline Judaism[10]: 943 
Core Shamanism, The Foundation for Shamanic Studies[9]: 580 [46] Michael Harner 1980 Neoshamanism
Covenant of the Goddess[6]: 98 [12]: 48–49  merger[10]: 915  1975[10]: 915  Goddess

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]: 915 

Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]: 99 [12]: 99  Margot Adler[10]: 915  1987[10]: 915  Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]: 915 

The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]: 78 [12]: 99–100  James D. Ellison[10]: 654  mid-1970s[10]: 654  British Israelism[10]: 654 
Creativity[47] Ben Klassen[47] early-1970's Pantheism

Agnostic Atheism White Racialism.[47]

Crossroads Movement[12]: 100  1970s[38]: 100 
Cyberchurches[12]: 103  Non-denominational Christian
Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement B. R. Ambedkar 1956 Neo-Buddhism (Navayana)
Dances of Universal Peace[48] Samuel L. Lewis
Dianic Wicca[6]: 84  merger[10]: 916  1971[10]: 916  Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]: 916 

Discordianism Greg Hill, Kerry Wendell Thornley[49] 1963 Absurdism, Greek Mythology
Eckankar[6]: 91  Paul Twitchell[10]: 1056  1971[10]: 1056  Derived from Sant Mat but denies connection[10]: 1056 
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[6]: 85–86 [28]: 126 [50]: 156  Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[10]: 1055  1920s[10]: 1055  Sant Mat[10]: 1055 
Emin Raymond Armin 1971 New Age
End Time Survivors Jesus Christians[51] David McKay[52] Fundamentalist Millennialism
Esoteric Nazism[53]: 17  Occult

Western esotericism[15]

Est (Erhard Seminars Training)[1]: 44 [28]: 126–127 [54] Werner Erhard[55]: 193  1971[31]: 108 [56]: 167, 171–172  Human Potential Movement[5]: 35 [31]: 107–108 [57] Self religions[58]
Evangelical Association of the Israelite Mission of the New Universal Covenant[59] Ezequiel Ataucusi Gamonal 1968 Syncretistic Messianic Judaism-Indigenous
Evangelical Methodist Church[6]: 97  J.H. Hamblen[10]: 396  1946[10]: 396  Non-Episcopal Methodist[10]: 396 
Falun Gong[60] Li Hongzhi[10]: 1126  1992[10]: 1126  Qigong movement
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]: 133 [28]: 126 [61] David Berg[7]: 133  1968[7]: 133  Fundamentalist,[7]: 133  Jesus movement[61]

countercultural evangelical[9]: 185 

Fellowship of Isis[6]: 103  Olivia Robertson[10]: 888  1976[10]: 888  Neo-pagan

Goddess[10]: 888 

Feraferia[62] Frederick Adams[62] 1967[62] Neo-pagan

Goddess[62]

Findhorn Foundation[6]: 104  Eileen Caddy

Peter Caddy Alexis Edwards Roger Benson[7]: 138 

1963[7]: 138  Christian-Anthroposophistical-neo-Rosicrucian[7]: 138 
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]: 104  W.E. Fuller[10]: 482  1898[10]: 482  Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]: 482 
First Satanic Church[63]: 701  Karla LaVey 1997 Satanism
Followers of Christ[10]: 1137  Marion Reece (or Riess)[10]: 1137 [64] late 19th century[10]: 1137  Unclassified[10]: 1137  Pentecostal[64]
Fourth Way[25]: 259–266 [15]: 42  George Gurdjieff c. 1913 Esoteric Sufism

Western esotericism[15]: 42 

Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]: 108  Paschal Beverly Randolph[10]: 843  1858[10]: 843  neo-Rosicrucianism[10]: 843 
Fraternity of the Inner Light[9]: 217–219  Dion Fortune 1924 neo-Hermeticism

Esoteric Christianity[9]: 217–219 

Freedomites[6]: 272 
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[65] now known as Triratna Buddhist Community Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[65] Neo-Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[6]: 113–114  Christian
General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]: 117  schism[10]: 763  1890[10]: 763  Swedenborgianism[10]: 763 
The Genesis II Church of Health and Healing Jim Humble 2009 or 2010[66] UFO-New Age inspired

Pseudoscience[67][68][69]

Gentle Wind Project[70] John "Tubby" Miller and Mary "Moe" Miller 1980 Spiritualism
Ghost Dance[6]: 119  Neo-pagan

Native American religion

Global Peace Foundation[71] Hyun Jin Moon[72] 2007[71] Unification Church[71]
Godianism, a.k.a. Chiism[9]: 242–43  K. O. K. Onyioha 1949 Afrucan Indigenist Neo-pagan
Grail Movement[6]: 122–123  Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[10]: 786  1924[10]: 786  Syncretistic Christian

New Age

Channeling[10]: 786 

Hanuman Foundation[6]: 129  Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[31]: 51  1980[10]: 1013  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1013 
Heaven's Gate[73] Marshall Herff Applewhite

Bonnie Lu Nettles[73]

1973[73] Syncretistic Christian[74]

New Age UFO religion[73]

Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]: 133  Swami Rama[10]: 1014  1971[10]: 1014  Hindu[10]: 1014 
House of Israel[75] David Hill a.k.a. Rabbi Edward Washington[75] 1972[75] Black Hebrew Israelites[75]
Huna[8]: 406–407  Max Freedom Long 1936 New Thought

New Age

Hawaiian religion

I AM Activity[6]: 138  Guy Ballard, Edna Anne Wheeler Ballard[10]: 873  early 1930s Neo-Theosophical[10]: 873 
Iglesia ni Cristo[76] Felix Y. Manalo[77] 1914[77] Restorationism

Unitarianism

Isha Foundation[78] Jaggi Vasudev 1992 Hindu
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]: 142  R. Lee Kirkland[7]: 179  1922[7]: 179  Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[7]: 179 
Insight Meditation Society[6]: 143  Jack Kornfield

Sharon Salzberg

Joseph Goldstein[10]: 1067 

1976[10]: 1067  Theravada Buddhism[10]: 1067 
International Society for Krishna Consciousness also known as ISKCON A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada 13 July 1966 Hindu
International House of Prayer also known as (IHOP or IHOPKC) Mike Bickle 1999 Charismatic Movement

Post-tribulational Historic premillennialism

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]: 108  Aimee Semple McPherson[10]: 451  1923[10]: 451  White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]: 451 
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[31]: 139  Eugene Douglas Savoy[31]: 139  1972[31]: 139  New Age[31]: 139 
Ivanovism (the Ivanovites)[79]: 128–145  Porfiry Ivanov 1933 Syncretistic

Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Jediism[80]: 62  2000s[80]: 62  Star Wars-inspired

New Age[80]: 62 

Jehovah's Witnesses[6]: 150, 152–153  Charles Taze Russell[10]: 637  1870[10]: 637  Adventist

Bible Students[10]: 637 

Jesus Army, also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship"[6]: 153  Noel Stanton[14]: 149–163  1977[14]: 149–163  Fundamentalist

Communal[14]: 149–163 

Jesus Movement[6]: 153 [81] late 1960s[7]: 196  Fundamentalist[7]: 196 
Jews for Jesus[6]: 155  Moishe Rosen[7]: 197  1970[7]: 197  Fundamentalist[7]: 197 
John Frum[6]: 155  1936[7]: 197  Syncretistic

Millenarian[7]: 197 

Joy of Satan Ministries[82]: 448  Andrea Maxine Dietrich 2002 Satanism

Theism

Kabbalah Centre[9]: 322–323  Philip Berg[9]: 322–323  1970s[9]: 322–323  New Age[9]: 322–323 
Kalki cult (a.k.a 'Oneness Movement' and 'Oneness University')[83][84] Kalki Bhagawan (Vijay Kumar Naidu) 1989 Indian Religions - inspired

New Age

2012 phenomenon - inspired

Neo-Hindu

Karma Triyana Dharmachakra[6]: 157–158.  the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa[10]: 1108  1976[10]: 1108  Tibetan Buddhism[10]: 1108 
Kemetic Orthodoxy[85] Tamara Siuda[85] 1988[85] Polytheistic reconstructionism

Kemetic[85]

Kerista[6]: 158  John Presmont[10]: 730  1956[10]: 730  Communal—After 1960[10]: 730 
Kofuku-no-Kagaku (The Institute for Research in Human Happiness)[86] Ryuho Okawa 1986 Japanese
Kopimism Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
Konkokyo[6]: 161  Bunjiro Kawate[10]: 1122  1859[10]: 1122  Shinto[10]: 1122 
Krishnamurti Foundations[87] Jiddu Krishnamurti 1928 Neo-Theosophical

Universalism

Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]: 161  Amrit Desai[10]: 1019  1966[10]: 1019  Hindu[10]: 1019 
Lama Foundation[6]: 164  Steve Durkee[10]: 731  1967[10]: 731  Communal[10]: 731 
Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism)[6]: 190, 192  Joseph Smith[31]: 187  1830[31]: 187  Christian restorationism
Latter Rain Movement[6]: 165  George Hawtin

Percy Hunt[7]: 209 

1946[7]: 209  Millenarian Pentecostal[7]: 209 
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]: 165  Paul S. L. Johnson[10]: 639  c. 1920[10]: 639  Adventist

Bible Students[10]: 639 

Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]: 165–166  Jan van Rijckenborgh; Zwier Willem Leene; Catharose de Petri[9]: 338–339  1924[10]: 844  neo-Rosicrucianism[10]: 844 
The Living Word Fellowship[88] John Robert Stevens[10]: 506  1951[10]: 506  Latter Rain Pentecostal[10]: 506 
Local Church movement[6]: 169, 171  Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[10]: 609–610  1920s[10]: 609–610  Independent Fundamentalist

Other Bible Students[10]: 609–610 

Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[12]: 90–91  Paul Erdman[7]: 216  1969[7]: 216  Communalism[7]: 216 
Love Has Won[89] Amy Carlson[89] c. 2005[90] New Age[89]
Lucis Trust[6]: 172–173  Alice A. Bailey[7]: 217  1923[7]: 217  Neo-Theosophical[7]: 217 
Madkhalism[91][92] Rabee Al-Madkhali[93][94] early 1990s[95][96][97] Islam[98][99]
Mahikari[6]: 176  Kotama Okada[10]: 1123  1959[10]: 1123  Shinto[10]: 1123 
Makasol (Wind Nation), a.k.a. Paliau movement[9]: 482–85  Paliau Maloat c. 1970s Papuan Indigenist

Millenarian

countercultural

Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]: 178  Bob Weiner[7]: 223  1972[7]: 223  Pentecosrtal[7]: 223 
Martinus´ Spiritual Science[100] Martinus Thomsen[101] 1932 Western esotericism[102]
Mazdaznan[6]: 181  Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[10]: 991  1902[10]: 991  Zoroastrianism[10]: 991 
Meher Baba followers[50] Merwan Sheriar Irani[10]: 991  1921[10]: 991  Hindu-inspired[10]: 991 
Messianic Judaism[6]: 184  Christianity and Judaism[9]: 399 
Million Man March[103] Louis Farrakhan[103] 1995[103] Nation of Islam[103]
Mita Congregation[6]: 186  Juanita García Peraza[10]: 462  1940[10]: 462  Deliverance Pentecostal[10]: 462 
Modekngei (Ngara Modekngei)[104] Tamadad from Chol c. 1915 Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous
Monastic Order of Avallon[105] Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[105] 1972[105] Neo-pagan[105]
Moody Church[6]: 186  Dwight L. Moody[10]: 602  1864[10]: 602  Fundamentalist

Evangelical[10]: 602 

Moorish Science Temple of America[6]: 186, 188  Timothy Drew[10]: 988  1925[10]: 988  Black Islam[10]: 988 
Moral Re-Armament[6]: 188, 190  Frank N. D. Buchman[7]: 233  1921[7]: 233 
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]: 194  John-Roger Hinkins[10]: 1054  1971[10]: 1054  Sant Mat[10]: 1054 
Namdhari[6]: 196  Balak Singh[7]: 243  mid-19th century[7]: 243  Sikh[7]: 243 
Nation of Islam[106] Elijah Muhammad[7]: 245  mid-1930s[7]: 245  Black Islam[7]: 245 

UFO religion

Nation of Yahweh[107]: 217 [6]: 200  Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[10]: 952–953  1970s[10]: 952–953  Black Judaism[10]: 952–953 
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]: 197  Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[10]: 772  1893[10]: 772  Spiritualism[10]: 772 
Native American Church, also known as Peyotism[6]: 202  1906[10]: 809  Native American religion Indigenist Entheogen Groups[10]: 809 
Native Ukrainian National Faith, also known as RUNVira or Sylenkoism[79]: 130  Lev Sylenko mid-1960s Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

New Acropolis (Nouvelle Acropole)[9]: 441–442 [108]: 217  Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi 1957 Neo-Theosophical

Western esotericism

New Apostolic Church[6]: 205  Heinrich Geyer[10]: 1139  1863[10]: 1139  Catholic Apostolic Church

Unclassified Christian Churches[10]: 1139 

New Kadampa Tradition[109]: 310–311  Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[10]: 1112  mid-1970s[10]: 1112  Tibetan Buddhism[10]: 1112 
The New Message from God[110] Marshall Vian Summers 1992[111] UFO religion
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]: 207  1969[10]: 923  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

Witchcraft

Neo-pagan[10]: 923 

New Thought[6]: 208 [25]: 325–330  Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]: 258  mid-19th century[7]: 258  Metaphysical[7]: 258 

Faith healing

Noahidism[112][113] 1990s Interpretations within Orthodox Judaism[112][113][114]
Oahspe Faithists[115] John Ballou Newbrough 1882 UFO religion
Odinism[116] Orestes Brownson[116] 1848[116] Neo-pagan[116]
Oomoto[6]: 216  Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]: 266  1899[7]: 266  Shinto-Millenarian[7]: 266 
Open Bible Standard Churches[6]: 217  merger[10]: 454  1935[10]: 454  White Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]: 454 
Opus Dei[28]: 126 [9]: 427–428 [117][118]: 3, 122–123 [119][120][121]: 251  Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[9]: 427–428  1928[9]: 427–428  Roman Catholic[9]: 427–428 
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.)[7]: 270  Carl Kellner;[7]: 270 [9]: 430 Theodor Reuss[9]: 430  1895;[7]: 270  1906[9]: 430  Western esotericism

Neo-Hermetism

Thelema[9]: 430 

Pentecostal Church of God[6]: 225  1919[19]: 109  Pentecostal[19]: 109 
Pentecostalism[6]: 224–225  Holiness movement
People Unlimited, also known as Eternal Flame Foundation, People Forever, and CBJ[8]: 95–96 [122] Charles Paul Brown, Bernadeane Brown, James Russell Strole[8]: 95–96  1982[122] Immortalism, Christianity [8]: 95–96 
Peoples Temple[6]: 226 [123] Jim Jones[10]: 832  1955[10]: 832  Psychic-New Age[10]: 832 
Philosophical Research Society[6]: 228  Manly Palmer Hall[10]: 849  1934[10]: 849  Occult[10]: 849 
Pilgrims of Arès[124] Michel Potay[124] 1974[124]
Plymouth Brethren[6]: 228–229 [12]: 61  John Nelson Darby[7]: 281  1830[7]: 281  evangelical

Millenarian[7]: 281 

Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[31]: 51–52  Wayman Mitchell[31]: 51–52  1970[31]: 51–52  Pentecostal[31]: 51–52 
The Process Church of the Final Judgment[125] Mary Ann MacLean and Robert de Grimston 1963 Satanism
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]: 234  Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[10]: 1059  1861[10]: 1059  Sant Mat[10]: 1059 
Raëlism[6]: 234  Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[10]: 806  1973[10]: 806  UFO religion[10]: 806 
Rainbow Family[6]: 234, 236  Barry Adams[10]: 732  late-1960s[10]: 732  Communal[10]: 732 
Rajneesh movement, a.k.a. Osho movement[6]: 236, 238  Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[10]: 1051  1966[10]: 1051  Indian religions-inspired[10]: 1051 
Ramakrishna Mission, also known as Ramakrishna movement or Vedanta Society[126]: 57–58 [6]: 314  Swami Vivekananda 1897 Neo-Hindu

Neo-Vedanta[7]: 382 

Ramtha[127] J. Z. Knight[128] 1977[129] New Age[127]
Rastafari[6]: 241, 243 [130] Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[10]: 954  1935[10]: 954  Jewish and Christian-influenced Afro-centric[10]: 954 
Reformed Druids of North America[6]: 244  1960s[7]: 299  Neo-pagan[7]: 299 
Reiki, also Usui Shiko Ryoho System of Healing[9]: 528–529  Mikao Usui 1922 Energy medicine

Japanese Buddhism

Religious Science[6]: 245–246  Ernest Holmes[7]: 301  1948[7]: 301  New Thought[7]: 301 
Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism[82]: 442  Vladimir Megre 1997 Syncretistic

Neo-pagan

Slavic Native Faith

Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]: 248  Nikkyo Niwano

Myoko Naganuma[131]

1938[131] Nichiren Buddhist[131]
The Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]: 249  Carl Louis von Grasshof[10]: 845  1909[10]: 845  neo-Rosicrucianism[10]: 845 
Sacred Name Movement[6]: 251  Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Adventist

Church of God (Seventh-Day)

Sadharan Brahmo Samaj[29]: 43–57  Anandamohan Bose, Sivanath Sastri, Umesh Chandra Dutta 1878 Brahmoism
Sahaja Yoga[132] Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[10]: 1029  1970[10]: 1029  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1029 
Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]: 251  Subramuniy[10]: 1029  1957[10]: 1029  Hindu[10]: 1029 
The Salvation Army[6]: 252, 254  William Booth[10]: 419  1865[10]: 419  Holiness movement[10]: 419 
Saminism Movement, Samin movement[133]: 207–240  Samin Surosentiko 1889 Abrahamic religions

Indigenist

Sant Nirankari Mission[6]: 210  Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikh
Santa Muerte Cult[134] 2000s Syncretic Folk Catholic
Scientology[25]: 385–392 [28]: 126 [135][136][137] L. Ron Hubbard[10]: 816  1955[10]: 816  UFO-Psychic

New Age[10]: 816 

Sekta Niebo[138] Bogdana Kacmajora 1990 Christian
Seicho-no-Ie[9]: 568–569 [86] Masaharu Taniguchi, Fenwicke Holmes 1930 Religious Science-Shinto
Self-Realization Fellowship[6]: 261  Paramahansa Yogananda[10]: 1031  1935[10]: 1031  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1031 
Semitic Neopaganism[139] Raphael Patai[139] 1960s[139] Neo-pagan

Feminism[139]

Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]: 262  Ellen G. White[10]: 621  1860[10]: 621  Adventist[10]: 621 
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]: 262–263  schism[10]: 622–623  1925[10]: 622–623  Seventh Day Adventists[10]: 622–623 
Shakers[6]: 263, 265  Ann Lee[10]: 724  1750s[10]: 724  Communal—Before 1960[10]: 724 
Shengdao, also Tongshanshe[140] Peng Tairong (Ruzun) early 20th century Chinese salvationist
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidians, officially, the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]: 189  Victor T. Houteff[10]: 619  1935[10]: 619  Seventh Day Adventists[10]: 619 
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]: 266  John J. Higgins, Jr.[10]: 734  1969[10]: 734  Communal—After 1960[10]: 734 
Shinji Shumeikai, also Shumei[86] Mihoko Koyama 1970 Church of World Messianity

Faith healing

Shinnyo-en[6]: 266–267  Shinjo Ito

Tomoji Ito[10]: 1081 

1936[10]: 1081  Japanese Buddhism[10]: 1081 
Shinreikyo[6]: 266  Kanichi Otsuka[10]: 1123  post–World War II[10]: 1123  Shinto[10]: 1123 

Syncretistic

Shri Ram Chandra Mission[141] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[141] 1945[141] Hindu[141]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]: 268–269  Kuppuswami Iyer[10]: 1035  1935[10]: 1035  Neo-Hindu[10]: 1035 
Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery[79]: 112–127  Władysław Kołodziej, Jan Stachniuk 1920–30s Neo-pagan

Polytheistic reconstructionism

Soka Gakkai International[6]: 271 [142] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[10]: 1082  1930[10]: 1082  Nichiren Buddhism[10]: 1082 
Spiritualism, Spiritism[25]: 331–338 [143]: 248  Kate and Margaret Fox 1848 Psychic-Mediumship

Metaphysical

Subud (Susila Budhi Dharma)[6]: 279 [25]: 267–274 [9]: 607–608  Muhammed Subuh[10]: 981  1933[10]: 981  Kejawèn

neo-Sufism[10]: 981 

Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]: 279  Samuel L. Lewis[7]: 342  1968[7]: 342  neo-Sufism[7]: 342 
Sukyo Mahikari[6]: 281  Sekiguchi Sakae[7]: 344  1978[7]: 344  Mahikari Syncretistic[7]: 344 
Summum[6]: 281  Claude Rex Nowell[10]: 1141  1975[10]: 1141  Unclassified Christian Churches[10]: 1141 
Syntheism[144] Alexander Bard[144] 2012[144] Pantheist

Humanist

Netocratic

The Satanic Temple[145][146][147] Lucien Greaves

Malcolm Jarry[148]

2012[149] Satanism

Nontheistic[146]

Tenrikyo[6]: 287–288  Miki Nakayama[10]: 1124  1838[10]: 1124  Shinto[10]: 1124 
Tensegrity[9]: 581 [46] Carlos Castaneda 1995 Neoshamanism[9]: 581 

New Age

Terasem[150] Martine Rothblatt 2004 Transhumanism
Thelema, also known as the A∴A∴ order[15]: 41–42  Aleister Crowley early 1900s Occult

neo-Hermetism

Western esotericism[15]: 41–42 

Theosophy or Theosophical Society, a.k.a. 1882 as Theosophical Society Adyar[25]: 315–324 [9]: 624–625 [151] Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge[151] 1875 Occult

Eastern and Western esotericism[9]: 624–625 [15]: 40–41 

Theosophical Society Pasadena[25]: 315–324 [151]: blz. 427  William Quan Judge 1895 Theosophical
Tolstoyan primitivism[152]: 672  Leo Tolstoy[152]: 672  1901[152]: 672  Christian anarchism

Pacifism[152]: 672 

Toronto Blessing[153] Randy Clark[14]: 122–123  1994[14]: 122–123  Pentecostal[14]: 122–123 
Transcendental Meditation (TM)[6]: 292–293, 295–296  Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[10]: 1045  1958[10]: 1045  Neo-Hindu-inspired[10]: 1045 
Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO)[65] Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[65] Neo-Buddhism
True Buddha School[154] Lu Sheng-yen[154] Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism

Taoism[154]

True Gnostic Church[155] Azrael Ondi-Ahman (Archie D. Wood)[155] 1979[156]
Twelve Tribes[6]: 212, 334–335  Gene and Marsha Spriggs[10]: 737  1972[10]: 737  Messianic Jewish Communal—After 1960[10]: 737 
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]: 298  William Irvine[12]: 330  1897[157] Independent fundamentalist family[10]: 611 
Umbanda[6]: 299  Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[158] 1920[158] Spiritism[158]
Unarius Academy of Science[6]: 300, 302–303  Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman 1954 UFO Religion
Unification Church, also known as the Moonies[6]: 300, 302–303  Sun Myung Moon[7]: 365  1954[7]: 365  Syncretistic Christian[7]: 365 
Unitarian Universalism[38]: 335  consolidation[31]: 308–310  1961[31]: 308–310  Unitarian Universalism[31]: 308–310 
United Holy Church of America[6]: 304  Isaac Cheshier[10]: 487  1900[10]: 487  Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[10]: 487 
United House of Prayer for All People[6]: 304–305  Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]: 371  1925[7]: 371  African American Pentecostal[7]: 371 
United Israel World Union[6]: 305  David Horowitz[10]: 959  1944[10]: 959  Other Jewish Groups[10]: 959 
United Lodge of Theosophists[6]: 305  Robert Crosbie[10]: 855  1909[10]: 855  Theosophical[10]: 855 
United Pentecostal Church International[6]: 287–306  merger[10]: 476  1945[10]: 476  Apostolic Pentecostals[10]: 476 
Unity Church[6]: 306–307  Charles Fillmore and Myrtle Fillmore[7]: 373  1889/1903[7]: 373  New Thought-Christian[7]: 373 
Universal Great Brotherhood[6]: 310  Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[10]: 883  late 1940s[10]: 883  Other Theosophical Groups[10]: 883 
Universal Life Church[6]: 311  Kirby Hensley[10]: 680  1962[10]: 680  Liberal Family[10]: 680 
Universal White Brotherhood[159] Peter Deunov[10]: 880  1900[10]: 880  Other Theosophical Groups[10]: 880 

Esoteric Christianity

Urantia Foundation[31]: 319–322  William S. Sadler[31]: 319–322  1934[31]: 319–322  UFO religion[31]: 319–322 

Psychic New Age[10]: 839  Christian occultist[7]: 380 

Vajradhatu[6]: 313  Chögyam Trungpa[10]: 1115  1973[10]: 1115  Tibetan Buddhism[10]: 1115 
Vale do Amanhecer[160] Tia Neiva[160] 1959[160] Spiritualism[160]
Volunteers of America[6]: 316  Ballington Booth

Maud Booth[10]: 420 

1896[10]: 420  Holiness movement[10]: 420 
The Way International[6]: 318  Victor Paul Wierwille[10]: 608  1942[10]: 608  Independent fundamentalist family[10]: 608 
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[161] Serge Benhayon[161] 1999[161] Neo-Theosophical[162] and/or "Socially harmful cult".[163]
White Eagle Lodge[6]: 319  Lady Elizabeth Carey[10]: 884  1943[10]: 884  Other Theosophical Groups[10]: 884 
Wicca[25]: 339–346 [15]: 55  Gerald Gardner[31]: 338  c. 1949[31]: 338  Neo-pagan

Witchcraft[25]: 339–346 

Occult[31]: 338 

Wotansvolk[164] David Lane 1990s neo-völkisch paganism
The Word Foundation[6]: 320  Harold W. Percival[10]: 856  c. 1904[10]: 856  Theosophical[10]: 856 
World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church[165][166] Hyung Jin Moon

Yeon Ah Lee Moon

2015 Unification Church-based

ultra-Orthodox/Fundamentalism

Yiguandao[9][140]: 702–703  Wang Jueyi; Chang Thien Ran late 19th century Chinese salvationist-Millenarian

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Beckford, James A., ed. (1 January 1987). New religious movements and rapid social change. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-8039-8003-7.
  2. ^ Nelson 1987, p. 107.
  3. ^ Swenson 2009, p. 206.
  4. ^ Coney, Judith (June 1998). "A Response to: Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne, Vol. 5, No. 2". ISKCON Communications Journal. 6 (1).
  5. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan R.; Cresswell, Jamie, eds. (5 May 1999). New religious movements : challenge and response. London [u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20049-3.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger (ed.). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-1505-7.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 June 1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2586-5.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Lewis, James R. (July 1998). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions ([Nachdr.] ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-222-7.
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  11. ^ a b c d Hakl, Hans Thomas (2010). "Franz Sättler (Dr. Musallam) and the Twentieth-Century Cult of Adonism". The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 12 (1). doi:10.1558/pome.v12i1.4. ISSN 1528-0268.
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