List of the oldest newspapers
This list of the oldest newspapers sorts the newspapers of the world by the date of their first publication. The earliest newspapers date to 17th century Europe when printed periodicals began rapidly to replace the practice of hand-writing newssheets. The emergence of the new media branch has to be seen in close connection with the simultaneous spread of the printing press from which the publishing press derives it name.
- Publicity: Its contents are reasonably accessible to the public.
- Periodicity: It is published at regular intervals.
- Currency: Its information is up to date.
- Universality: It covers a range of topics.
|1605||Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien||German||Strasbourg||Holy Roman Empire||World's first newspaper|
|1609||Avisa Relation oder Zeitung||German||Wolfenbüttel||Holy Roman Empire|
|1610||Name not given in source||German||Basel||Swiss Confederacy|
|1615||Name not given in source||German||Frankfurt||Holy Roman Empire|
|1617||Name not given in source||German||Berlin||Holy Roman Empire|
|1618||Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c.||Dutch||Amsterdam||Dutch Republic ||Considered the world's first broadsheet because it was published in folio instead of quarto-size size. Defunct 1664|
|1620||Nieuwe Tijdinghen||Dutch||Antwerp||Spanish Netherlands||May have been published as early as 1605. Defunct 1629|
|1620||Berrow's Worcester Journal||English||Worcester||England||World's Oldest Newspaper which is still running|
|1631||La Gazette||French||Paris||France||First French-language newspaper and first weekly magazine published in France. Existed between May 30, 1631 and September 30, 1915.|
|1641||Gazeta||Catalan||Barcelona||Spain||First Catalan-language newspaper and first periodical published in Iberian Peninsula. Only two issues were published.|
|1645||Ordinari Post Tijdender||Swedish||Stockholm||Sweden||Oldest still published newspaper in the world. Online-only since 2007.|
|1656||Weeckelycke Courante van Europa||Dutch||Haarlem||Dutch Republic||The name was changed to Oprechte Haerlemsche Courant in 1664. The newspaper merged with the Haarlems Dagblad in 1942, which is still published.|
|1661||La Gazeta||Spanish||Madrid||Kingdom of Spain||Until 2008 December, oldest print edition still published in the world, under the name "Boletín Oficial del Estado". From 2009, only online edition.|
|1661||Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny||Polish||Kraków||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth||Moved to Warsaw in May 1661, last issues published 22 July 1661.|
|1664||Gazzetta di Mantova||Italian||Mantua||Duchy of Mantua, Holy Roman Empire||Oldest private[vague] newspaper still published in the world, and oldest continuously published in print.|
|1665||Oxford Gazette||English||Oxford||England||From issue 24 in 1666, the paper was printed in London and renamed London Gazette; this is still published.|
|1666||Den Danske Mercurius||Danish||Copenhagen||Denmark|
|1675||Ordinari Freytags Post-Zeitung||German||Reval||Swedish Estonia||First newspaper in the modern Baltic states. Renamed to Ordinari Donnerstags Post-Zeitung in 1677. Last issue in 1678.|
|1702||Daily Courant||English||London||England||World first daily newspaper. Last issue in 1735, when it merged with the Daily Gazetteer.|
|1702||Vedomosti||Russian||Moscow||Russia||Moved to St. Petersburg in 1711, in 1728 renamed Sankt-Petersburgskie Vedomosti, in 1914 renamed Petrogradskie Vedomosti. Last issue in 1917.|
|1703||Wiener Zeitung||German||Vienna||Austria||Still published|
|1704||The Review||English||London||England||Founded by Daniel Defoe in 1704 as A Review of the Affairs of France. The Review ran three times a week without interruption until 1713.|
|1705||Hildesheimer Relations-Courier||German||Hildesheim||Germany||Oldest surviving newspaper in Germany, nowadays published as Hildesheimer Allgemeine Zeitung|
|1705||Mercurius Hungaricus||Hungarian||Hungary||Hungary||Oldest Hungarian newspaper, written in Latin, it had 7 issues and last printed in 1710|
|1709||The Tatler||English||London||Kingdom of Great Britain||Founded by Richard Steele. Last issue in 1711.|
|1709||The Worcester Post-Man||English||Worcester||Kingdom of Great Britain||Published since 1753 as Berrow's Worcester Journal. No evidence for claimed publication since 1690.|
|1710||The Examiner||English||London||Kingdom of Great Britain||Best known for the contributions by Jonathan Swift. Last issue in 1714.|
|1711||The Spectator||English||London||Kingdom of Great Britain||Founded by Joseph Addison in 1711. Last issue in 1712.|
|1715||A Gazeta de Lisboa||Portuguese||Lisbon||Kingdom of Portugal||First newspaper in Portugal. Founded by José Freire de Monterroio Mascarenhas in 1715. Last issue in 1820.|
|1719||The Daily Post||English||London||Kingdom of Great Britain||Founded by Daniel Defoe in 1719. The post consisted of articles that spoke of current events, important dates, inventions, advances in modern sciences, and other things of that nature.|
|1719||Pražské poštovské noviny||Czech||Prague||Kingdom of Bohemia||Weekly newspaper, defunct.|
|1731||Gentleman's Magazine||English||London||England||Published until 1922. First to use the term magazine. Samuel Johnson's first regular employment as a writer was with The Gentleman's Magazine.|
|1734||Lloyd's List||English||London||England||Now online-only. Now covering shipping news, marine insurance and global trade. Oldest English-language daily newspaper still in existence|
|1735||Gazzetta di Parma||Italian||Parma||Duchy of Parma||Still published. First publishing date uncertain; oldest printed issue perhaps dated from 19 April 1735.|
|1737||The Belfast News Letter||English||Belfast||Kingdom of Ireland||Still published.|
|1738||Feuille d’Avis de Neuchâtel||French||Neuchâtel||Swiss Confederacy||Still published - oldest French-language daily newspaper still in existence|
|1747||The Press and Journal||English||Aberdeen||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1749||Berlingske||Danish||Copenhagen||Denmark–Norway||Still published. Originally titled Kjøbenhavnske Danske Post-Tidender|
|1752||Leeuwarder Courant||Dutch||Leeuwarden||The Netherlands||Still published. Originally titled Leeuwarder Saturdagse Courant. The newspaper also publish articles in Frisian.|
|1758||Norrköpings Tidningar||Swedish||Norrköping||Sweden||Still published. Originally published weekly as Norrköpings Weko-Tidningar|
|1761||Nassau-Saarbrückisches Wochenblatt||German||Saarbrücken||Nassau-Saarbrücken||Still published as Saarbrücker Zeitung.|
|1765||Monitor||Polish||Warsaw||Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth||Founded by Ignacy Krasicki and Franciszek Bohomolec and supported by King Stanisław August Poniatowski|
|1767||Adresseavisen||Norwegian||Trondheim||Denmark–Norway||Still published. Originally titled Kongelig allene privilegerede Trondheims Adresse-Contoirs Efterretninger|
|1767||Finns Leinster Journal||English||Kilkenny||Kingdom of Ireland|
|1770||Zabawy przyjemne i pożyteczne||Polish||Warsaw||Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth||Founded by Adam Naruszewicz and John Baptist Albertrandi|
|1772||Fyens Stiftstidende||Danish||Odense||Denmark-Norway||Still published. Originally titled Kongelig Privilegerede Odense Adresse-Contoirs Efterretninger|
|1780||Neue Zürcher Zeitung||German||Zürich||Switzerland||Still published. Originally titled Zürcher Zeitung. Renamed in 1821.|
|1783||The Herald||English||Glasgow||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1785||The Times||English||London||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1791||The Observer||English||London||United Kingdom||The world's first Sunday newspaper. Still published.|
|1794||Århus Stiftstidende||Danish||Denmark-Norway||Århus||Still published. Originally titled Aarhus Stifts-Tidende.|
|1806||Tarto maa rahva Näddali-Leht||Estonian||Dorpat||Governorate of Livonia, Russia||Banned in the same year. First Estonian language newspaper.|
|1817||The Scotsman||English||Edinburgh||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1821||The Guardian||English||Manchester||United Kingdom||Originally known as 'The Manchester Guardian'. Still published.|
|1824||Letopis Matice srpske||Serbian||Novi Sad Budim||Serbia||Still published|
|1824||Åbo Underrättelser||Swedish||Åbo||Finland||Still published.|
|1826||Le Figaro||French||Paris||France||Still published|
|1829||Curierul Românesc||Romanian||Bucharest||Romania||Founded by Ion Heliade Rădulescu in April 1829. Last issue in 1859.|
|1829||Albina Românească||Romanian||Iași||Romania||Founded by Gheorghe Asachi in 1829. Last issue in 1850.|
|1830||Aftonbladet||Swedish||Stockholm||Sweden||Founded by Lars Johan Hierta in 1830. Still published.|
|1831||Takvim-i Vekayi||Turkish||Istanbul||Ottoman Empire||Also, Takvim-i Vekayi produced Armenian, Greek and Arabic language editions. Closed in 1891.|
|1835||O Açoriano Oriental||Portuguese||Ponta Delgada, Azores||Portugal||Still published|
|1843||News of the World||English||London||United Kingdom||Published by News International which announced the closure of the newspaper on 7 July 2011, after the phone hacking scandal.|
|1844||Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant||Dutch||Rotterdam||The Netherlands||Still published. The Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (NRC) merged in 1970 with Algemeen Handelsblad (founded in 1828) into the NRC Handelsblad.|
|1848||Die Presse||German||Vienna||Austria||Still published|
|1853||Faro de Vigo||Spanish||Vigo||Spain||Still published. Oldest newspaper still published in Spain|
|1854||Surrey Comet||English||London||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1854||Comércio do Porto||Portuguese||Porto||Portugal||Established as the O Commercio, changed its name few months later. Last issue in July, 2005, after 151 years.|
|1855||The Daily Telegraph||English||London||United Kingdom||Still published|
|1855||A Aurora do Lima||Portuguese||Viana do Castelo||Portugal||Still published|
|1857||Pärnu Postimees||Estonian||Pernau||Governorate of Livonia, Russia||Still published as Postimees|
|1859||Le Progrès||French||Lyon||France||Still published.|
|1859||La Nazione||Italian||Florence||Grand Duchy of Tuscany||Still published|
|1861||L'Osservatore Romano||Italian||Vatican City||Papal States||L'Osservatore Romano is the "semi-official" newspaper of the Holy See.|
|1863||Church Times||English||London||England||Still published. The Church Times is an independent Anglican weekly newspaper.|
|1864||Dagens Nyheter||Swedish||Stockholm||Sweden||Founded by Rudolf Wall in 1864. Still published.|
|1864||Diario de Noticias||Portuguese||Lisbon||Portugal||Still published.|
|1870||La Dépêche du Midi||French||Toulouse||France||Still published.|
|1873||Richmond and Twickenham Times||English||London||England||Still published. The Richmond and Twickenham Times is a weekly London newspaper.|
|1877||Dernières Nouvelles d'Alsace||French||Strasbourg||France||Still published.|
|1881||The Evening News||English||London||England||Considered the first popular newspaper in London. Published until 1980, and briefly again in 1987.|
|1882||El Pireneo Aragonés||Spanish||Jaca||Spain||Still published. First number April 23, 1882. Oldest Aragonese newspaper still published in the Autonomous Community of Aragon.|
|1864||Svenska Dagbladet||Swedish||Stockholm||Sweden||Still published.|
|1888||Financial Times||English||London||United Kingdom||Still published.|
|1888||Jornal de Noticias||Portuguese||Porto||Portugal||Still published.|
|1889||L'Est Républicain||French||Nancy||France||Still published.|
|1891||Gazet van Antwerpen||Dutch||Antwerp||Flanders, Belgium||Still published|
|1891||La Nuova Sardegna||Italian||Sassari||Kingdom of Italy||Still published|
|1893||Lidové Noviny||Czech||Brno||Moravia (Lands of the Bohemian Crown), Austria-Hungary||Still published today in Prague the Czech Republic, familiarly known as Lidovky.|
|1893||De Telegraaf||Dutch||Amsterdam||The Netherlands||Still published. It is the largest newspaper in The Netherlands.|
|1894||’’Estia"||Greek||Athens||Greece||Originally founded in 1874 as a magazine. Is still in circulation and is the only newspaper in Greece which did not change from the polytonic Greek (Katharevousa) in 1982.|
|1895||Heraldo de Aragón||Spanish||Zaragoza||Spain||Founded on September 20, 1895. Still published, familiarly known as Heraldo.|
|1896||Daily Mail||English||London||England||Second popular newspaper by Lord Northcliffe. Considered to have brought on a major change in the English newspaper market and started the trend for popular mass journalism. Still published.|
The French established the first newspaper in Africa in Mauritius in 1773.
|1773||Annonces, Affiches et Avis Divers pour les Colonies des Isles de France et de Bourbon||French||Isle de France||Mauritius||First newspaper in Mauritius. Published weekly from 1773-01-13 to at least 1790 by the Nicolas Lambert in Mauritius.|
|1800||Cape Town Gazette and African Advertiser||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||First newspaper in South Africa. Published weekly from 1800-08-16 to at least 1829 by the British Government in South Africa.|
|1824||South African Commercial Advertiser||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||First privately run newspaper in South Africa. Numbers 1 to 18 were published weekly from 1824-01-07 to 1824-05-10. numbers 19 to 135 were printed from 1825-08-31 to 1827-03-10 and numbers 136 and onward were printed from 1828 to-10-03 to 1853. Originally edited by the printer George Greig who soon relinquished editing control to Thomas Pringle and John Fairbairn. Pringle left the paper after number 19.|
|1824||South African Journal||English||Cape Town||British South Africa||A bimonthly journal edited by Thomas Pringle and John Fairbairn. Published from 1824-03-05 to 1824-05-07.|
|1824||Nederduitsche Zuid-Afrikaanse Tydschrift||Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||A bimonthly journal edited by Reverend Abraham Faure. It was the Dutch partner to the South African Journal. Published from 1824-04-04.|
|1824||The South African Chronicle and Mercantile Advertiser||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||Printed weekly from 1824-08-18 to 1826-12-26. Printed by William Bridekirk and edited by A. J. Jardine.|
|1826||The New Organ||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||Only one edition printed on 1826-01-06. Printed by George Greig and edited by John Fairbairn.|
|1827||De Versamelaar||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||Printed weekly from 1827-01-07 until between 1829-01-27 to 1835. Edited by J. Duasso de Lima and printed by William Bridekirk.|
|1827||The Colonist||English, Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||Printed weekly from 1827-11-22 to 1828-09-30 by William Bridekirk and then George Greig and edited by William Beddy.|
|1828||Al-Waqa'i'a al-Masriya||Arabic||Cairo||Egypt||Still published|
|1830||De Zuid-Afrikaan||Dutch||Cape Town||British South Africa||Initially a weekly paper, then at more frequent intervals. First issue 9 April 1830. Last issue 8 April 1930|
|1859||Iwe Irohin||Yoruba, English||Abeokuta||Nigeria||Founded on December 3, 1859. It was published bi-weekly, in Yoruba and English language and ran for about eight years, specifically from 1859 to 1867.|
|1891||Mashonaland Herald and Zambesian Times||English||Salisbury||Southern Rhodesia||Now published as The Herald|
The first recorded attempt to found a newspaper in South Asia was by William Bolts, a Dutchman in the employ of the British East India Company in September 1768 in Calcutta. The Company deported Bolts back to Europe before he could begin his newspaper.
|1780||Hicky's Bengal Gazette or, The Original Calcutta General Advertiser||English||Calcutta||British India||First newspaper in South Asia. Published weekly from 1780-01-29 to 1782-03-23 when James Augustus Hicky's types were seized.|
|1780||India Gazette or Calcutta Public Advertiser||English||Calcutta||British India||Second newspaper in South Asia. Published weekly from 1780-11-18. Survived until 1834. Published by Peter Reed (until 1781), Bernard Messink (until 1793), G. Gordon (1793 to before 1799) In 1799, its proprietors were William Morris, William Fairlie and J. D. Williams.|
|1784||Calcutta Gazette||English||Calcutta||British India||Third newspaper in South Asia. Government sanctioned. Published weekly from 1784-03-04 to 1818-09-29. Its proprietors were Francis Gladwin, an East India Company Officer until January 1787 and Arthur Muir, Herbert Harrington and Edmond Morris afterwards.|
|1785||Bengal Journal||English||Calcutta||British India||Published weekly from 1785-02 to 1791. Its proprietors were William Duane and Thomas Jones.|
|1785||The Oriental Magazine or Calcutta Amusement||English||Calcutta||British India||Published monthly from 1785-04-06. Its proprietors were Gordon and John Hay. It ceased publication sometime prior to 1799-05, when Governor-General Wellesley enacted press regulations.|
|1785||The Asiatick Miscellany||English||Calcutta||British India||Published quarterly from 1785-07-14 to 1789-01. Its proprietor was Francis Gladwin.|
|1785||Madras Courier||English||Madras||British India||Published weekly at first from 1785-10-12 to around 1818, with government sanction. Its proprietor was Richard Johnson.|
|1786||Calcutta Chronicle and General Advertiser||English||Calcutta||British India||Published weekly from 1786-01 to either 1790 or 1797. Its proprietor was William Baillie.|
|1788||The Asiatic Mirror and Commercial Advertiser||English||Calcutta||British India||Published weekly at first from 1788-02 to 1820-05. Its proprietors were C.K. Bruce and Dr. Shoolbred.|
|1789||Bombay Herald||English||Bombay||British India||Published weekly from 1789 to 1792. Its proprietors are unknown.|
|1794||Azdarar||Armenian||Madras||British India||Published from 1794 to 1796. It was the first Armenian newspaper, its proprietor was Harutyun Shmavonyan.|
|1803||Sydney Gazette||English||Sydney||Australia||Was the first newspaper in Australia Published weekly from 1803 to 1842|
|1831||The Sydney Morning Herald||English||Sydney||Australia||Is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia.|
|1852||Taranaki Herald||English||New Plymouth||New Zealand||New Zealand's oldest newspaper. Ceased publication in 1989.|
|1861||The Press||English||Christchurch||New Zealand||New Zealand's oldest surviving newspaper.|
|1861||Otago Daily Times||English||Dunedin||New Zealand||New Zealand's oldest surviving daily newspaper.|
|1891||Lloyd's List Australia||English||Sydney||Australia||The oldest continuously published national newspaper in Australia.|
|1806||The Prince of Wales Island Gazette||English||Penang||British Malaya||First newspaper in Southeast Asia; last issue rolled off the press on 7 July 1827; weekly edition survived until January 1830.|
|1845||The China Mail||English||Victoria City||Hong Kong||The first newspaper published in the crown colony and the longest-lived of any Hong Kong newspaper. Published until 1974.|
|1845||The Straits Times||English||Singapore||Straits Settlements||Split into The Straits Times (based in Singapore) and The New Straits Times (based in Kuala Lumpur) after Singapore's separation from Malaysia in 1965.|
|1850||North China Herald
(North China Daily News)
|English||Shanghai||China||A weekly newspaper at first, it began daily publication in 1864 under the new name North China Daily News. Ceased publication in 1951.|
|1853||Chinese serial||Chinese||Victoria City||Hong Kong||First Chinese-language newspaper in the crown colony. Ceased publication in 1856.|
|1861||Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser||English||Nagasaki||Japan||Country's first newspaper|
|1862||Kwanpan Batavia Shinbun||Japanese||Tokyo||Japan||First Japanese-language newspaper. A month-by-month government translation of the Dutch Javasche Courant.|
|1868||Chugai Shinbun||Japanese||Tokyo||Japan||First Japanese-language newspaper with original reporting. Ceased with publisher's death in 1869.|
|1870||Yokohama Mainichi Shinbun||Japanese||Yokohama||Japan||First daily Japanese-language newspaper. Closed in 1940.|
|1872||Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun||Japanese||Tokyo||Japan||Merged with Mainichi Shimbun which is still published|
|1881||Chosen shinpo||Japanese||Pusan||Korea||Korea's first newspaper, but published in Japanese.|
|Chinese, Korean||Seoul||Korea||First Korean-language newspaper.|
- "Newspapers: 400 Years Young!". World Association of Newspapers. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010.
- Weber 2006, p. 387:
At the same time, then, as the printing press in the physical, technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of publishing was born.
- Weber 2006, p. 387; "Margarete Rehm: Information und Kommunikation in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Das 17. Jh." (in German).
- Weber 2006, p. 396f.
- Nominally associated with the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, but de facto independent since 1499
- Nominally associated with the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, but de facto separated since 1556
- FRBNF32780021, catalogue Bn-Opale Plus, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
- Wan-Press.org, A Newspaper Timeline, World Association of Newspapers
- "World's Oldest Newspaper Goes Purely Digital". Associated Press 2007.
- "Weeckelycke Courante van Europa". Museum Enschedé. Koninklijke Joh. Enschedé. 8 January 1656.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado, La Gazeta, Colección Histórica". Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- London Gazette (1): 1. 7 November 1665. Missing or empty
- London Gazette (24): 1. 5 February 1666. Missing or empty
- "Berrow's Worcester Journal - History of the newspaper". Worcester News. Newsquest. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- Wiles, R. M. (1965). Freshest Advices: Early Provincial Newspapers in England. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
- "Začaly vycházet první české periodické noviny". Česká televize (Czech TV) (in Czech). Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- "Gazzetta di Parma". Parma Italy. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "Oldest newspapers still in circulation". World Association of Newspapers. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- O Acerca do Jornal
- "L'Osservatore Romano". Catholic World News. Trinity Publications. Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- Engel, Matthew (1996). Tickle the Public : One hundred years of the popular press. London: Gollancz. ISBN 978-0575061439.
- Conboy, Martin (2004). Journalism : A critical history. London: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-4100-2.
- Busteed, H. E. Echoes from Old Madras: Being Chiefly Reminiscences of the Days of Warren Hastings, Francis and Impey. 2nd ed. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink And Co., 1888, 182.
- Wade, Geoff. "New Ways of Knowing: The Prince of Wales Island Gazette - Penang's First Newspaper". Presented at The Penang Story International Conference 2002. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
It is to Penang that the "honour" of being the site of the first newspaper published in Southeast Asia – the Prince of Wales Island Gazette – belongs.
- 1928 View down Wellington Street, Gwulo
- The Straits Times. "About Us". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
- New Straits Times. "Corporate History 1845-1896". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
- Xiaoqun Xu. Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of Professional Associations in Shangahai, 1912–1937. Cambridge University Press, 2001. p. 45.
- 《遐邇貫珍‧香港早期報刊簡介系列》, Hong Kong Central Library
- Altman 1984, p. 685: "The parallel to the Chosen shinpo in Japan had been Japan's first newspaper in any language, the English-language Nagasaki Shipping List and Advertiser, published by an Englishman, Albert W. Hansard, from June 1861." Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Altman_1984.2C_685" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- McGovern 1967, pp. 21
- Altman, Albert A. (1984), "Korea's First Newspaper: The Japanese Chosen shinpo", The Journal of Asian Studies 43 (4): 685–696, doi:10.2307/2057150
- McGovern, Melvin (1967), "Early Western Presses in Korea", Korea Journal: 21–23
- Weber, Johannes (2006), "Strassburg, 1605: The Origins of the Newspaper in Europe", German History 24 (3): 387–412, doi:10.1191/0266355406gh380oa