List of newspapers in the United Kingdom by circulation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
UK daily newspaper circulation
UK daily newspaper circulation, 1950 to present

At the start of the 19th century, the highest-circulation newspaper in the United Kingdom was the Morning Post, which sold around 4,000 copies per day, twice the sales of its nearest rival. As production methods improved, print runs increased, and newspapers were sold at lower prices. By 1828, the Morning Herald was selling the most copies, but it was soon overtaken by The Times.[1]

Pubs would typically take in one or two papers for their customers to read, and through this method, by the 1850s the newspaper of the licensed trade,[clarification needed] the Morning Advertiser, had the second highest circulation. Sales of The Times were around 40,000,[2] and it had around 80% of the entire daily newspaper market,[3] but Sunday papers were more popular, some boasting sales of more than 100,000.[2] Later in the century, the Daily News came to prominence, selling 150,000 copies a day in the 1870s,[1] while by 1890, The Daily Telegraph had a circulation of 300,000. Sunday newspaper sales also grew rapidly, with Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper being the first to sell one million copies an issue.[2]

The press was changed by the introduction of halfpenny papers. The first national halfpenny paper was the Daily Mail[1] (followed by the Daily Express and the Daily Mirror), which became the first weekday paper to sell one million copies around 1911. Circulation continued to increase, reaching a peak in the mid-1950s;[2] sales of the News of the World reached a peak of more than eight million in 1950.[4] Since the 1950s, there has been a gradual decline in newspaper sales.[2] The availability of multimedia news platforms has accelerated this decline in the 21st century, and by the close of 2014, no UK newspaper had a daily circulation exceeding two million.[5][6] The overall circulation of newspapers declined by 6.6% in 2014–15.[7]

Daily newspapers[edit]

2010 to present[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for January of each year. Regardless of immediate source, all figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 2017[8] 2016[9] 2015[10] 2014[11] 2013[12] 2012[13] 2011[14] 2010[15][16]
The Sun 1,666,715 1,787,096 1,978,702 2,213,659 2,409,811 2,582,301 3,001,822 3,006,565
Daily Mail 1,511,357 1,589,471 1,688,727 1,780,565 1,863,151 1,945,496 2,136,568 2,120,347
Metro 1,476,956 1,348,033 ? 1,362,893[17] ? ? ? ?
Evening Standard 887,253 898,407 877,532[18] 805,309[19] 695,645[20] 699,368[21] 704,008[22] 601,960[23]
Daily Mirror 724,888 809,147 922,235 992,256 1,058,488 1,102,810 1,194,097 1,218,425
Daily Telegraph 472,258 472,033 494,675 544,546 555,817 578,774 651,184 691,128
The Times 451,261 404,155 396,621 384,304 399,339 397,549 457,250 508,250
Daily Star 443,452 470,369 425,246 489,067 535,957 617,082 734,311 779,376
Daily Express 392,526 408,700 457,914 500,473 529,648 577,543 639,875 674,640
i 266,768 271,859 280,351 298,266 293,946 264,432 133,472 N/A
Financial Times 188,924 198,237 219,444 234,193 275,375 316,493 383,067 390,315
The Guardian 156,756 164,163 185,429 207,958 204,440 215,988 279,308 302,285
Daily Record 155,772 176,892 203,725 227,639 251,535 291,825 306,872 323,831
City A.M. 90,319 97,259 ? ? ? ? ? ?
The Independent N/A 55,193 61,338 66,576 76,802 105,160 185,035 185,815
The New Day N/A 40,000[24] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
The New European 20,000[25] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

2000–2009[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for January of each year. Only newspapers with circulations of more than 100,000 copies per day in January 2009 are listed. Regardless of immediate source, all figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 2009[26][27] 2008[28] 2007[29] 2006[30] 2005[30] 2004[31] 2003[32] 2002[33] 2001 2000
The Sun 3,146,006 3,209,766 3,217,844 3,319,337 3,382,509 3,410,701 3,578,506 3,502,923 3,636,561[34] 3,557,336[34]
Daily Mail 2,200,398 2,313,908 2,354,028 2,389,011 2,409,121 2,485,210 2,518,544 2,489,264 2,479,768[35] 2,353,915[35]
Daily Mirror 1,366,891 1,512,599 1,621,000 1,727,672 1,748,327 1,919,125 2,071,059 2,164,576 2,149,422[36] 2,270,543[36]
Daily Telegraph 783,210 890,086 911,454 917,943 920,745 914,981 946,697 1,013,653 1,022,263[37] 1,039,749[37]
Daily Star 768,534 722,969 773,637 820,070 861,825 901,879 835,343 706,554 543,807[38] 502,647[38]
Daily Express 736,340 752,699 771,325 849,001 949,238 956,649 983,391 991,560 979,042[39] 1,050,846[39]
The Times 617,483 633,718 670,054 685,081 686,327 660,713 671,340 711,295 734,220[40] 726,349[40]
Financial Times 426,676 452,448 439,104 441,840 422,519 422,543 431,875 475,475 478,161[41] 435,478[41]
The Guardian 358,844 378,394 384,070 394,913 376,816 383,157 409,568 411,386 410,152[42] 401,560[42]
Daily Record 354,302[43] 393,788[43] 418,628 451,932 471,708 503,077 520,540 584,290 603,914[44] 626,646[44]
Evening Standard 237,403[45] 294,823 276,562 337,080 350,671 395,090[46] 424,177[46] 410,104[46] 432,661[46] 440,287[46]
The Independent 215,504 250,641 263,503 258,387 257,100 248,876 221,926 224,655 223,645[47] 222,106[47]

1950–1999[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for each year. Figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 1997[48] 1992[49] 1987[50] 1980[51] 1976[50] 1966[51] 1961[50] 1956[52]
The Sun 3,877,097 3,570,562 3,993,000 3,741,000 3,708,000 1,238,000 N/A N/A
Daily Mirror 2,442,078 2,900,000[53] 3,123,000 3,625,000 3,851,000 5,123,000 4,561,000 4,649,696
Daily Mail 2,344,183 1,675,453 1,759,000 1,948,000 1,755,000 2,318,000 2,610,000 2,071,708
Daily Express 1,241,336 1,524,786 1,697,000 2,194,000 2,594,000 3,978,000 4,328,000 4,042,334
Daily Telegraph 1,129,777 1,038,138 1,147,000 1,439,000 1,308,000 1,353,000 1,248,000 1,075,460
The Times 821,000 386,258 442,000 297,000 310,000 282,000 253,000 220,716
Daily Star 729,991 805,793 1,289,000 1,034,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Daily Record 703,090 755,026[54] 732,000
The Guardian 428,010 429,062 494,000 377,000 306,000 281,000 245,000 163,585
Financial Times 326,516 290,204 280,000 197,000 174,000 152,000 132,000 80,518
The Independent 288,182 389,523 293,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Today N/A 533,177 350,000[55] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Daily Herald N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,394,000 1,693,997
Daily Sketch N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 857,000 981,000 1,123,855
Daily Worker N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 60,000
News Chronicle N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,442,438

Before 1950[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for each year. Figures from after 1931 originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations;those from 1852 and 1838 originate from stamp duty returns. Those from 1910, 1921 and 1930 are the most uncertain and rely on information originating from T. B. Browne's Advertiser's ABC.

Title 1947[50] 1939[56] 1930[56] 1921[56] 1910[57] 1863[58] 1852[59] 1838[60]
Daily Express 3,855,000 2,546,000 1,693,000 579,000 400,000 N/A N/A N/A
Daily Mirror 3,702,000 1,571,000 1,071,000 1,003,000 630,000 N/A N/A N/A
Daily Herald 2,134,000 1,850,000 1,082,000 211,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Daily Mail 2,076,000 1,533,000 1,845,000 1,533,000 900,000 N/A N/A N/A
News Chronicle 1,623,000 1,571,000 1,400,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Daily Telegraph 1,015,000 737,000 90,000 180,000 230,000 120,000 N/A N/A
Daily Sketch 772,000 750,000 1,013,000 835,000 750,000 N/A N/A N/A
The Times 268,000 204,000 187,000 113,000 45,000 40,000 42,384 11,660
Manchester Guardian 126,000 51,000[57] 47,000[57] 40,000 3,173
Daily Worker 118,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Financial Times 71,000 N/A N/A N/A
Morning Advertiser 30,000[61] 20,000 7,124 5,000
Daily Chronicle N/A N/A N/A 661,000 800,000 N/A N/A N/A
Daily News N/A N/A N/A 300,000 5,000 3,938 N/A
Morning Post N/A N/A 119,000[57] 50,000 2,673 2,800
Morning Star N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20,000 N/A N/A
Morning Herald N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,000 4,112 6,150
North British Daily Advertiser N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,458
Morning Chronicle N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,283 6,630

Sunday newspapers[edit]

2010 to present[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for January of each year. Only newspapers with circulations of more than 100,000 copies in January 2010 are listed. Regardless of immediate source, all figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 2017[8] 2016[9] 2015[10] 2014[62] 2013[12] 2012[63] 2011[14] 2010[15][16]
The Sun on Sunday 1,375,539 1,487,301 1,582,359 1,800,830 2,010,826 N/A N/A N/A
The Mail on Sunday 1,257,984 1,388,059 1,461,571 1,586,979 1,715,707 1,882,469 1,958,083 2,048,008
The Sunday Times 792,324 770,370 801,623 817,642 885,612 939,395 1,039,371 1,144,929
Sunday Mirror' 629,277' 749,061 877,910 948,754 1,039,150 1,594,293 1,092,816 1,124,620
The Sunday Telegraph 359,400 355,044 381,347 429,285 435,036 461,280 527,742 602,306
Sunday Express 335,772 369,666 397,601 430,601 471,625 567,800 550,269 585,023
Daily Star Sunday 256,801 299,146 265,382 310,063 345,885 599,078 316,712 358,814
The People 240,846 279,837 335,093 374,820 429,167 701,246 500,866 532,975
Sunday Mail 168,164 195,167 222,879 256,052 283,861 376,898 366,325 395,126
The Observer 185,752 183,210 198,368 225,474 225,194 253,022 314,164 354,565
Sunday Post 143,169 163,037 187,260 TBA 242,555 291,623 317,896 337,398
Independent on Sunday N/A 91,644 97,646 101,284 114,308 124,428 152,561 153,975
News of the World N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,789,560 2,984,469

2000–2009[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for January of each year. Only newspapers with circulations of more than 100,000 copies in January 2009 are listed. Regardless of immediate source, all figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 2009[27][64] 2008[29] 2007[29] 2006[30] 2005[30] 2004[65] 2003[66] 2002[67] 2001 2000
News of the World 3,031,025 3,264,676 3,426,719 3,789,176 3,823,317 3,845,373 3,971,998 4,086,621 4,026,288[68] 4,139,793[68]
The Mail on Sunday 2,134,809 2,330,366 2,303,472 2,404,511 2,446,465 2,364,156 2,388,416 2,342,860 2,373,007[69] 2,323,720[69]
Sunday Mirror 1,244,007 1,366,922 1,460,928 1,574,054 1,652,375 1,674,454 1,724,940 1,845,860 1,831,572[70] 2,008,961[70]
The Sunday Times 1,198,984 1,231,374 1,288,421 1,375,153 1,375,982 1,370,051 1,410,539 1,405,430 1,416,080[71] 1,373,900[71]
Sunday Express 646,971 704,436 790,068 877,101 976,055 930,001 976,346 834,999 879,622[72] 974,310[72]
The Sunday Telegraph 633,639 659,841 682,739 692,107 695,522 751,038 784,069 796,840[73] 822,931[73]
The People 594,552 669,362 761,595 895,275 1,001,389 1,055,810 1,189,812 1,389,778 1,489,260[74] 1,613,113[74]
Daily Star Sunday 359,533 382,288 378,224 439,067 459,933 556,743 510,995 N/A N/A N/A
Sunday Mail 442,103[43] 487,975 514,287 547,405 585,657 605,743 628,742 692,366 708,484[75] 751,084[75]
The Observer 427,867 444,951 444,186 542,075 446,818 459,804 465,984 449,806 440,090[76] 416,460[76]
Sunday Post 366,275[43] 412,037 437,224 451,530[77] 481,767[77] 514,181[77] 547,256[77] 581,218[77] 612,562[77] 655,634[77]
Independent on Sunday 178,798 236,500 247,829 241,414 206,527 206,087 220,028 231,869 250,462[78] 248,630[78]
Sunday Business N/A N/A N/A N/A 204,910[79] 306,683 N/A N/A N/A N/A

20th century[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for each year. Figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 1997[48] 1987[50] 1980[51] 1976[50] 1966[51] 1961[50] 1956[52] 1947[50] 1935[80]
News of the World 4,620,415 5,360,000 4,335,000 5,138,000 6,152,000 6,643,000 7,493,463 7,890,000 3,350,000
Sunday Mirror 2,424,000 2,953,000 3,831,000 4,101,000 5,219,000 5,306,000 5,624,010 4,006,000 2,250,000
The Mail on Sunday 2,322,423 1,919,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
The People 2,001,978 2,743,000 3,847,000 4,094,000 5,560,000 5,450,000 4,948,215 4,670,000 3,000,000
The Sunday Times 1,449,113 1,314,000 1,424,000 1,382,000 1,363,000 967,000 618,540 568,000 215,000
Sunday Express 1,261,690 2,033,000 3,045,000 3,451,000 4,181,000 4,457,000 3,331,127 2,577,000 1,096,000
The Sunday Telegraph 983,253 693,000 1,017,000 759,000 650,000 688,000 N/A N/A N/A
Sunday Mail 818,081[81] 734,617[82] 567,728[61] 250,000
Sunday Post 791,100[81] 1,000,000[83] 312,000
The Observer 498,086 722,000 973,000 670,000 881,000 715,000 601,042 384,000 215,000
Independent on Sunday 311,321 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Scotland on Sunday 113,516[81] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Reynolds News N/A N/A N/A N/A 216,000 310,000 516,445 720,000 400,000
Sunday Dispatch N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,420,159 2,061,000 936,000
Sunday Graphic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,420,159 1,185,000 900,000
Empire News N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,550,308 2,033,177[61] 1,535,000
Sunday Chronicle N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,178,000 830,000
Sunday Referee N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 215,000

19th century[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for each year. Figures originate from stamp duty returns.

Title 1863[58] 1853[59] 1838[60]
Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper 500,000 N/A N/A
Weekly Times 200,000 65,420 N/A
News of the World 150,000 69,296 N/A
Reynold's Weekly 100,000 30,035 N/A
Illustrated London News 82,331 N/A
Weekly Dispatch 35,420 51,570
Bell's Life in London 27,200 20,000
Sunday Times 8,500 13,365
Weekly Chronicle N/A N/A 32,327
Bell's Weekly Messenger N/A N/A 17,274

Regional newspapers[edit]

Figures shown are average circulations for each year. Figures originate from the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

Title 2016[84] 2011[85] 2006[86] 1994[87] 1980[51] 1956[52] 1948[88] 1945[87] 1939[88]
Express & Star (Wolverhampton) 54,890 113,174 158,130 217,000 149,000
Press and Journal (Aberdeen) 51,880 71,044 83,947 106,960[89] 113,038[90]
Manchester Evening News 46,738 90,973 118,913 214,000 331,000 250,000
Liverpool Echo 43,836 85,463 121,517 173,000 236,000 284,000
Belfast Telegraph 40,042 59,319 90,827 136,714[91]
The Courier (Dundee) 39,324 61,981 77,428 108,223[89] 135,566[90]
The Irish News 35,073 43,647 49,046
Eastern Daily Press (Norfolk) 34,438 42,632 68,504
The Herald (Glasgow) 28,872 113,342[89] 116,161[90]
Hull Daily Mail 27,054 43,523 63,486 94,000 95,000
The Sentinel (Staffordshire) 26,657 50,792 69,558 99,000 72,000
Newcastle Chronicle 26,578 52,486 86,287 121,000 190,000
Shropshire Star 26,332 55,606 55,529 97,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Leicester Mercury 25,859 51,150 77,344 122,000 100,000
Evening Express (Aberdeen) 25,744 47,849 56,582 70,000 81,950[90] 114,700 67,000 104,322
Yorkshire Post 25,178 39,698 53,881 79,094[91] 151,524 79,912
The Northern Echo (Darlington) 23,971 41,181 55,404 77,425[91]
Glasgow Evening Times 23,696 52,400 87,399 148,000 211,229[90] 295,515 293,000
North Wales Daily Post 21,802 31,802 39,651 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
South Wales Evening Post (Swansea) 21,031 40,149 56,104 70,000 47,000
Teesside Gazette 20,973 40,546 56,384 70,000 69,000
The News (Portsmouth) 19,797 41,442 65,000 80,000 81,000
Birmingham Mail 19,200 47,217 78,178 200,000 296,259 200,000
Derby Telegraph 18,903 32,356 47,406 67,000 46,000
Echo (Southend) 18,373 30,108 37,887 55,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Edinburgh Evening News 18,362 39,947 59,644 92,000 113,346[90] 129,000
Nottingham Post 17,524 35,361 65,623 113,000 90,000
Bristol Post 17,381 38,344 56,220 93,000 110,000 109,000
The Star (Sheffield) 16,708 37,255 64,466 105,000 156,000
Southern Daily Echo (Southampton) 16,369 31,964 42,436 64,000 60,000
The Herald (Plymouth) 16,350 29,709 40,384 58,000 62,000
Yorkshire Evening Post 16,018 36,512 62,747 114,000 250,877 204,000 185,519
Coventry Telegraph 14,970 34,359 53,210 85,000 50,000
South Wales Echo (Cardiff) 14,917 32,754 53,780 82,000 132,000
The Press (York) 14,608 25,989 36,781 50,000 44,000
Telegraph & Argus (Bradford) 13,951 26,766 40,440 63,000 103,000
Bournemouth Daily Echo 13,579 26,818 34,324 50,000 45,000
Sunderland Echo 12,825 32,771 45,247 62,000 57,000
The Argus (Brighton) 11,079 29,949 34,287 68,000 42,000
Lancashire Evening Post 10,751 23,183 36,028 68,000 88,000
Bolton News 9,607 21,940 32,575 46,000 65,000
Evening Standard (London) 662,608 780,820 384,419
Liverpool Post N/A 8,217 17,858 382,169 236,986
Evening News (London) N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,121,195 1,652,646 837,638
The Star (London) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 926,884 1,081,812 488,419
Manchester Evening Chronicle N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 224,000
Glasgow Evening Citizen N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 144,000
Birmingham Evening Despatch N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 138,000
Yorkshire Evening News N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 122,000
Glasgow Evening News N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 99,000
Liverpool Evening Express N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 89,000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: Volume XIV - The Victorian Age, Part Two
  2. ^ a b c d e John B. Thomson, Ideology and Modern Culture
  3. ^ Robert L. Bishop, "The Decline of National Newspapers in the UK", International Communication Gazette 1983: 31, p.206
  4. ^ "Sundays get a roasting]". Press Gazette. 11 May 2001. 
  5. ^ "UK newspaper readership falls twice as fast as circulation", 28 August 2014
  6. ^ "The Sun slips below 2m daily sale for the first time in 43 years", The Guardian, 7 November 2014
  7. ^ http://www.mediareform.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Who_owns_the_UK_media-report_plus_appendix.pdf
  8. ^ a b "National newspaper print ABCs for Jan 2017: Observer up year on year, The Sun is fastest riser month on month", Press Gazette, 16 February 2017
  9. ^ a b "National press print ABCs for January: Mirror losing ground against cut-price Star ahead of new launch", Press Gazette, 18 February 2016
  10. ^ a b "ABCs: National daily newspaper circulation January 2015", Press Gazette, 06 February 2015
  11. ^ "ABCs: National daily newspaper circulation January 2014", The Guardian, 14 February 2014
  12. ^ a b "UK national newspaper sales: Relatively strong performances from Sun and Mirror", Press Gazette, 8 February 2013
  13. ^ "First official figures give The Sun Sunday 3.2m circ Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine.", Press Gazette, 9 March 2012
  14. ^ a b Oliver Luft, "ABC: i debuts with daily circulation of 133,472 in January", Press Gazette, 11 February 2011
  15. ^ a b "ABCs: Sun back over 3m but Star is only climber", Press Gazette, 12 February 2010
  16. ^ a b Oliver Luft, "ABC: Telegraph drops below 700,000", Press Gazette, 12 February 2010
  17. ^ http://www.abc.org.uk/Certificates/19154156.pdf
  18. ^ "Regional Publications Certificate of Circulation: London Evening Standard: January 2015", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  19. ^ "Regional Publications Certificate of Circulation: London Evening Standard: January 2014", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  20. ^ "Regional Publications Certificate of Circulation: London Evening Standard: January 2013", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  21. ^ "Regional Publications Certificate of Circulation: London Evening Standard: January 2012", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  22. ^ "London Evening Standard Certificate of Circulation", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  23. ^ Daily Paid & Free, Newspaper Society
  24. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/05/04/trinity-mirror-to-close-the-new-day-just-10-weeks-after-launchin/
  25. ^ Lichterman, Joseph (2 February 2017) "This anti-Brexit newspaper first launched as a pop-up, but it's doing well enough to continue indefinitely". Nieman Lab.
  26. ^ Paul McNally, "January ABCs: Daily Star is lone riser after price cut", Press Gazette, 6 February 2009
  27. ^ a b Oliver Luft, "ABC bulks probe: National sales figures revised", Press Gazette, 14 August 2009
  28. ^ "January ABCs: Sun sales back above three million", Press Gazette, 8 February 2008
  29. ^ a b c "Multi Platform Monthly Report: January 2008", Audit Bureau of Circulations
  30. ^ a b c d Dominic Ponsford, "January ABCs: Observer up 21 per cent following relaunch to 542,000 sales", Press Gazette, 17 February 2006
  31. ^ "National daily newspaper circulations: January 2004", Media Guardian
  32. ^ "National daily newspaper circulations: January 2003", Media Guardian, 12 February 2003
  33. ^ "National daily newspaper circulations: January 2002", Media Guardian, 11 February 2002
  34. ^ a b The Sun, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  35. ^ a b Daily Mail, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  36. ^ a b Daily Mirror, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  37. ^ a b The Daily Telegraph, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  38. ^ a b Daily Star, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  39. ^ a b Daily Express, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  40. ^ a b The Times, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  41. ^ a b Financial Times, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  42. ^ a b The Guardian, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  43. ^ a b c d Owen Amos, "January ABCs: Scotland's best performance is 9.3% fall", Press Gazette, 6 February 2009
  44. ^ a b Daily Record, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  45. ^ Dominic Ponsford, "January ABCs: Standard losing sales at rate of 14.5%", Press Gazette, 6 February 2009
  46. ^ a b c d e Evening Standard, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  47. ^ a b The Independent, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  48. ^ a b John Frain, Introduction to Marketing, p.372
  49. ^ Ivor Crewe, Brian Gosschalk, Political Communications, p.172
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h Justin Fisher, D. T. Denver and John Benyon, Central Debates in British Politics, p.197
  51. ^ a b c d e United Newspapers PLC and Fleet Holdings PLC, Monopolies and Mergers Commission (1985), pp.5–16
  52. ^ a b c Tony Shaw, Eden, Suez and the Mass Media, p.197
  53. ^ Crewe and Gosschalk give a figure of 3,660,756 for the Mirror and Record combined. This is an approximate figure found by subtracting the Record circulation given by Seawright and rounding to the nearest 100,000.
  54. ^ David Seawright, An Important Matter of Principle, p.183
  55. ^ Andreas H. Jucker, Social Stylistics, p.47
  56. ^ a b c James Curran et al., Impacts and Influences, p.29
  57. ^ a b c d British Political Facts 1900-1968, p.284
  58. ^ a b Samuel Rhoads and Enoch Lewis, Friends' Review, p.603
  59. ^ a b William Turner Coggeshall, The Newspaper Record, pp.87–89. Figures for newspapers published outside London are calculated from annual sales assuming 312 issues per year.
  60. ^ a b The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Difussion of Useful Knowledge, pp.195
  61. ^ a b c Viscount Camrose, British Newspapers and their Controllers
  62. ^ "ABCs: National Sunday newspaper circulation January 2014", The Guardian, 14 February 2014
  63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  64. ^ Owen Amos, "January ABCs: Sindy slumps 25% with drops all round", Press Gazette, 6 February 2009
  65. ^ "National Sunday newspaper circulations: January 2004", Media Guardian
  66. ^ "National Sunday newspaper circulation January 2003", Media Guardian, 12 February 2003
  67. ^ "National newspaper circulation: Sundays: January 2002", Media Guardian, 11 February 2002
  68. ^ a b News of the World, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  69. ^ a b The Mail on Sunday, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  70. ^ a b Sunday Mirror, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  71. ^ a b The Sunday Times, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  72. ^ a b Sunday Express, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  73. ^ a b The Sunday Telegraph, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  74. ^ a b The People, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  75. ^ a b Sunday Mail, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  76. ^ a b The Observer, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  77. ^ a b c d e f g Sunday Post, Audit Bureau of Circulations. Note that circulation figures for the Sunday Post before October 2006 were given biannually; the figure given is that for the first half of the year in each case.
  78. ^ a b Independent on Sunday, Audit Bureau of Circulations
  79. ^ "National Sunday newspaper circulation January 2005, Media Guardian
  80. ^ The Political Quarterly 1935, pp.112–113
  81. ^ a b c D. T. Denver, Hugh Bochel, Scotland decides, p.79
  82. ^ James G. Kellas, The Scottish Political System. Figures from 1981.
  83. ^ James G. Kellas, The Scottish Political System. Figures from 1981.
  84. ^ Dominic Ponsford, "UK regional dailies lose print sales by average of 12.5 per cent: Wigan Post and The National are biggest fallers", Press Gazette, 23 February 2017
  85. ^ Andrew Pugh, "Regional ABCs: circulation falls on 83 of 86 dailies", Press Gazette, 31 August 2011
  86. ^ Willings Press Guide Vol 1: UK (2007)
  87. ^ a b Colin Seymour-Ure, The British Press and Broadcasting since 1945, pp.274-276
  88. ^ a b ABC Net Sales 1939-1948
  89. ^ a b c "The capture of the tartan hordes", The Independent, 24 July 1995
  90. ^ a b c d e f James G. Kellas, The Scottish Political System. Figures from 1981.
  91. ^ a b c Bob Franklin, Pulling Newspapers Apart: Analysing Print Journalism, p.9. Figures for 1995.