List of nicknames of presidents of the United States
This is a list of nicknames of presidents of the United States that were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter.
- 1 Presidential nicknames
- 1.1 George Washington
- 1.2 John Adams
- 1.3 Thomas Jefferson
- 1.4 James Madison
- 1.5 James Monroe
- 1.6 John Quincy Adams
- 1.7 Andrew Jackson
- 1.8 Martin Van Buren
- 1.9 William Henry Harrison
- 1.10 John Tyler
- 1.11 James K. Polk
- 1.12 Zachary Taylor
- 1.13 Millard Fillmore
- 1.14 Franklin Pierce
- 1.15 James Buchanan
- 1.16 Abraham Lincoln
- 1.17 Andrew Johnson
- 1.18 Ulysses S. Grant
- 1.19 Rutherford B. Hayes
- 1.20 James Garfield
- 1.21 Chester A. Arthur
- 1.22 Grover Cleveland
- 1.23 Benjamin Harrison
- 1.24 William McKinley
- 1.25 Theodore Roosevelt
- 1.26 William Howard Taft
- 1.27 Woodrow Wilson
- 1.28 Warren G. Harding
- 1.29 Calvin Coolidge
- 1.30 Herbert Hoover
- 1.31 Franklin D. Roosevelt
- 1.32 Harry S. Truman
- 1.33 Dwight D. Eisenhower
- 1.34 John F. Kennedy
- 1.35 Lyndon B. Johnson
- 1.36 Richard Nixon
- 1.37 Gerald Ford
- 1.38 Jimmy Carter
- 1.39 Ronald Reagan
- 1.40 George H. W. Bush
- 1.41 Bill Clinton
- 1.42 George W. Bush
- 1.43 Barack Obama
- 1.44 Donald Trump
- 2 See also
- 3 References
Full name: George Washington
- The American Cincinnatus Like the famous Roman, he won a war, then became a private citizen instead of seeking power or riches as a reward. He became the first president general of the Society of the Cincinnati, formed by Revolutionary War officers who also "declined offers of power and position to return to his home and plough".
- The American Fabius for his Fabian military strategy during the Revolutionary War
- The Father of His Country
Full name: John Adams
- The Colossus of Independence for his leadership in Congress in 1776
- Old Sink or Swim for the speech in which he vowed "to sink or swim; to live or die; survive or perish with my country"
- His Rotundity
Full name: Thomas Jefferson
Full name: James Madison
- Little Jemmy or His Little Majesty, at only 5 feet 4 inches (163 cm), the shortest U.S. president
- Father of the Constitution
Full name: James Monroe
- The Era of Good Feelings President for "The Era of Good Feelings", the period following the War of 1812, during which America became less divided politically, to the extent that the only opponents of the ruling Democratic Republicans, the Federalist Party, went out of existence. It was not until resistance to Andrew Jackson's policies produced the Whig Party that oppositional politics resumed in the United States.
- The Last Cocked Hat because he was the last U.S. president to wear a tricorne hat according to the old-fashioned style of the 18th century
John Quincy Adams
Full name: John Quincy Adams
- Old Man Eloquent or The Abolitionist famed for routinely bringing up the slavery issue against Congressional rules, and for his role later on in the Amistad case. He is the only American president to be elected to the House of Representatives after his presidency. The nickname gained currency as a result of his campaign against slavery waged as a congressman, and as the attorney in the Amistad case.
Full name: Andrew Jackson
- The Hero of New Orleans for his military victory in the Battle of New Orleans
- Old Hickory, allegedly given to him by his soldiers for being as "tough as old hickory"
- King Mob
- King Andrew for his supposedly excessive use of the veto power
- Jackass Andrew Jackson's critics disparaged him as a "Jackass" however Jackson embraced the animal, making it the unofficial symbol of the Democratic Party.
Martin Van Buren
Full name: Martin Van Buren
- The American Talleyrand
- The Careful Dutchman Van Buren's first language was Dutch.
- The Enchanter
- The Great Manager
- The Master Spirit
- Martin Van Ruin
- Matty Van from "Tippecanoe Songs of 1840"
- The Mistletoe Politician, so called by Joseph Peyton of Tennessee, a Whig opponent, who charged that "Martin Van Buren was a mere political parasite, a branch of mistletoe, that owed its elevation, its growth--nay, its very existence, to the tall trunk of an aged hickory" (i.e. Andrew Jackson).
- Old Kinderhook (OK), a reference to his home town,
- Red Fox of Kinderhook, a reference to his red hair and home town
- The Little Magician given to him during his time in the state of New York, because of his smooth politics and short stature
William Henry Harrison
Full name: William Henry Harrison
- General Mum, as in the expression, "keep it mum". Because of his avoidance of speaking out on controversial issues during his election campaign
- Tippecanoe or also Old Tippecanoe, a reference to Harrison's victory at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe; used in the campaign song Tippecanoe and Tyler Too during the 1840 presidential election
- Washington of the West, a reference to Harrison's victories at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe and 1813 Battle of the Thames
Full name: John Tyler, Jr.
- His Accidency, a nickname given by his opponents; the first president to be elevated to the presidency by the death of his predecessor, William Henry Harrison
James K. Polk
Full name: James Knox Polk
- Napoleon of the Stump for his potent oratory during his campaign for the Tennessee state legislature
- Young Hickory because he was a particular protégé of "Old Hickory", Andrew Jackson
Full name: Zachary Taylor
- Old Rough and Ready
Full name: Millard Fillmore
Full name: Franklin Pierce
- Young Hickory of the Granite Hills "Young Hickory" compared his military deeds (in the Mexican–American War) with those of Andrew Jackson. "The Granite Hills" were his home state of New Hampshire
- Handsome Frank
Full name: James Buchanan, Jr.
- Old Public Functionary, used by Buchanan in his December 1859 State of the Union address and adopted by newspapers
- Old Buck, from a shortening of his last name, used later in life
- Bachelor President, per his unmarried status
- Ten-Cent Jimmy, derogatory, as a reaction to Buchanan's campaign statement that ten cents a day was decent pay for a worker
Full name: Abraham Lincoln
- The Ancient One, a nickname favored by White House insiders because of his "ancient wisdom"
- The Great Emancipator and The Liberator for the emancipation of the slaves
- Honest Abe
- The Rail-Splitter
- The Tycoon for the energetic and ambitious conduct of his Civil War administration
- Uncle Abe for his avuncularity in his later years
Full name: Andrew Johnson
- The Tennessee Tailor for his career as a tailor before going into politics
Ulysses S. Grant
- Unconditional Surrender Grant, for his uncompromising demand for unconditional surrender during the Battle of Fort Donelson in 1862, which made him a hero
Rutherford B. Hayes
Full name: Rutherford Birchard Hayes
- Rutherfraud or His Fraudulency, because after the disputed results of the 1876 Election, many Democrats did not consider him legitimately to be president
Full name: James Abram Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
Full name: Chester Alan Arthur
- Chet, shortened version of his name used by publications of that era
- Gentleman Boss, as the dapper leader of New York State's Republican party
- Prince Arthur and The Dude President for his fancy attire and indulgence in extravagant luxury
Full name: Stephen Grover Cleveland
- His Obstinacy; he vetoed more bills than the first 21 presidents combined
- Uncle Jumbo
- Grover the Good for his honesty and public integrity
Full name: Benjamin Harrison
- The Front Porch Campaigner; during the 1888 election, he gave nearly ninety speeches from his front porch to crowds gathered in the yard of his Indianapolis home; this nickname has been widely but erroneously attributed to William McKinley
- The Human Iceberg,[permanent dead link] although he could warmly engage a crowd with his speeches, he was cold and detached when speaking with people on an individual basis
- Little Ben,[better source needed] given to him by Democrats of his era because of his stature; this could also be a reference to his being the grandson of former president William Henry Harrison, who had served fifty years before
Full name: William McKinley, Jr.
- The Napoleon of Protection, referring to high tariffs such as the one he wrote in 1890
Full name: Theodore Roosevelt
- The Hero of San Juan Hill[better source needed] for leading his Rough Riders up San Juan Hill during the Battle of Santiago de Cuba in 1898
- The Lion
- Teddy in The New York Times at least as early as 1900, even though he hated the nickname
- TR for signing communications this way; the first president to be known by his initials
- The Trust Buster, so called as a pioneer of busting business trusts
William Howard Taft
Full name: William Howard Taft
Full name: Thomas Woodrow Wilson
- The Phrasemaker: as an acclaimed historian, Wilson had no need of speech-writers to supply his oratorical eloquence
- The Schoolmaster: a bespectacled academic who lectured his visitors
Warren G. Harding
Full name: Warren Gamaliel Harding
- Wobbly Warren
Full name: John Calvin Coolidge, Jr.
- Cautious Cal
- Cool Cal His reelection campaign used the slogan, "Keep It Cool With Coolidge"
- Silent Cal
Full name: Herbert Clark Hoover
- The Great Engineer and The Great Humanitarian He was a civil engineer of some distinction and when the Mississippi burst its banks in 1927, engulfing thousands of acres of agricultural land, he volunteered his services and did extensive flood control work. The latter nickname would later be used facetiously in reference to his perceived indifference to the hardships faced by his constituents during the Great Depression. However, the nickname dates back to 1921, when the ARA under Hoover saved millions of Russians suffering from famine. "It was such considerations that Walter Lippmann took into account when he wrote of Hoover's Russian undertaking in the New York World in May 1922: 'probably no other living man could have done nearly so much.'"
- The Chief, a nickname picked up at 23 as a geologist surveying in the Australian Outback, that stuck for the rest of his life
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Full name: Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Full name: Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Full name: Dwight David Eisenhower (born David Dwight Eisenhower)
John F. Kennedy
Full name: John Fitzgerald Kennedy
- Jack, Kennedy was usually referred to as either "John F. Kennedy" or "Jack Kennedy"
- JFK, most prominent nickname and abbreviation of his full name
Lyndon B. Johnson
Full name: Lyndon Baines Johnson
- Bullshit Johnson (Bull Johnson in public) for his reputation for boasting at Southwest Texas State Teachers College
- Landslide Lyndon, sarcastic reference to the hotly disputed 87-vote win that took him to the Senate in 1949, which became more appropriate following his landslide victory in the 1964 presidential election
- Light-Bulb Lyndon, because he hated wasting electricity, and would often storm around the White House shutting off unnecessary lights
- LBJ; he liked to be known by this abbreviation, which was used in the campaign slogan, "All the way with LBJ"; later it would be used in the Anti-Vietnam War political slogan "Hey, Hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?"
Full name: Richard Milhous Nixon
- Tricky Dick, from a Democratic Party ad leading up to the 1950 U.S. Senate election in California saying "Look at 'Tricky Dick' Nixon's Republican Record"
Full name: Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr.)
Full name: James Earl Carter, Jr.
- Jimmy, the first president to use his nickname in an official capacity
- The Peanut Farmer, he owned a peanut farm and fostered this image in his early campaigns, as a contrast to elite Washington insiders
Full name: Ronald Wilson Reagan
- Dutch, shortly after his birth, his father said he looked like a "fat little Dutchman"; reinforced when he wore a Dutch boy haircut (see pageboy) as a youngster
- The Great Communicator for his ability to communicate
- The Gipper, after his role as George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American. Gipp exhorted his teammates to "Win one for the Gipper".
- The Teflon President, coined by Rep. Patricia Schroeder because nothing negative "stuck to" him (like a Teflon skillet); he remained blame-free in the eyes of the American people
George H. W. Bush
Full name: George Herbert Walker Bush
- 41, Papa Bush, Bush 41, Bush Senior, Senior, and similar names that were used after his son George Walker Bush became the 43rd president, to differentiate between the two
- Poppy, a nickname used from childhood on
Full name: William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III)
- Bubba, common nickname for males in the Southern U.S.
- Slick Willie, often used in the pejorative to refer to his alleged sexual misconduct with Monica Lewinsky and other prominent female accusers
- The Comeback Kid, coined by press after strong second place showing in 1992 New Hampshire primary, following polling slump
- The First Black President, used by Toni Morrison in reference to the African-American tropes surrounding Clinton's candidacy
- The Big Dog, used by several media outlets in regard to his post-presidential popularity
George W. Bush
Full name: George Walker Bush
- 43, Bush Jr., Junior, Bush 43, and similar names, used to differentiate him from his father
- Dubya, based on a Texas pronunciation of "W"
Full name: Barack Hussein Obama II
- No Drama Obama, for his cautious and meticulous presidential campaign in 2007–08 and for his patient, relaxed demeanor
Full name: Donald John Trump
- The Donald since his first wife Ivana Trump referred to him as such in a 1989 Spy magazine cover story.
- 45, the 45, and similar names, referencing his being the 45th president, his penchant for wearing monogrammed "45" apparel.
- Secret Service codename § Presidents of the United States and their families
- List of nicknames of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
- List of nicknames of Prime Ministers of Australia
- List of nicknames used by George W. Bush
- List of nicknames used by Donald Trump
- 'Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus: The Perfect Leader?' Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine at parconresearch.com. Accessed 211-10-04. "It's easy to see why history sometimes refers to George Washington as "the American Cincinnatus". Washington too did great things then went back to his farm".
- "Anderson House History". Societyofthecincinnati.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Ford, Paul L. (1896) The True George Washington quotes Timothy Pickering as writing, "His great caution in respect to the enemy, acquired him the name of the American Fabius". Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- He has gained fame around the world as a quintessential example of a benevolent national founder. Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe. Gordon Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992), pp. 105–6; Edmund Morgan, The Genius of George Washington (1980), pp. 12–13; Sarah J. Purcell, Sealed With Blood: War, Sacrifice, and Memory in Revolutionary America (2002) p. 97; Don Higginbotham, George Washington (2004); Ellis, 2004. The earliest known image in which Washington is identified as such is on the cover of the circa 1778 Pennsylvania German almanac (Lancaster: Gedruckt bey Francis Bailey).
- Rediscovering George Washington. PBS.
- Bergh edition of the Jefferson papers, v 13 p. xxiv
- Latham, Edward (1904). A Dictionary of Names Nicknames and Surnames of Persons Places and Things. London: George Routledge & Sons LTD. p. 63. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
A surname given to John Adams ... in allusion to his earnest and persevering efforts towards colonial independence in the Continental Congress. Sometimes also called the Colossus of the Revolution.
- Freeman, A (1828). The Principles and Acts of Mr. Adams' Administration. Concord, New Hampshire: New Hampshire Journal Office. p. 5. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
Yes, John Adams, whom Jefferson pronounced the 'Colossus of Independence,' and who died with the motto 'Independence forever!' on his lips, 'probably desired independence.' So say William Badger and Francis N. Fisk. Shall we believe them? We will — not withstanding the doubt which their expression implies.
- "Biography of John Adams". United States Senate. Retrieved October 31, 2012. In describing a bust of Adams made by Daniel Chester French, "... the folds of material at the bottom of the vest suggest the girth that led Adams to be dubbed 'His Rotundity.'"
- Green, Thomas Marshall (1889). Historic Families of Kentucky. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co. p. 73.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource Jefferson
- Dumas Malone (1981). The Sage of Monticello. Jefferson and His Time. 6. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-54463-9.
- "The enemies of the fourth President of the U.S. called him 'little Jemmy,' or 'his little majesty,' or 'withered little apple-John.'" Time, November 3, 1961, 'Mr. Madison's War'
- Kane, Joseph (1994). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. pp. 344–45. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5.
- "The LOC.GOV Wise Guide : Who's the Father of the Constitution?". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "James Madison: Father of the Constitution". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Monroe, including his nickname of the "Era-of-Good-Feelings President"
- "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)". Ipl.org. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- After the White House: former presidents as private citizens Max J. Skidmore, Macmillan, 2004 195 pages, page 39
- Boller, Jr., Paul F. (1984). Presidential Campaigns. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-19-503420-1.
- Latham, Edward (1904). A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things, p. 220. G. Routledge & Sons, Ltd.,
- Gordon, John Steele (January 20, 2009). "An Inauguration for the People". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Stamp, Jimmy. "Political Animals: Republican Elephants and Democratic Donkeys". Smithsonian. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- Boller, Jr., Paul F. Presidential Diversions. p. 63.
- Widmer, Ted; Widmer, Edward L. (2005). Martin Van Buren: The American Presidents Series. Macmillan. p. 4.
- Norton, The Great Revolution of 1840, 1888 page 74
- Warshauer, Andrew Jackson and the Politics of Martial Law, p. 108.
- "What is the origin of the word 'OK'?". Oxford University Press. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "C-Span: Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". May 3, 1999. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "Today in History: December 5". Library of Congress. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- 'HistoryNet.com: From the World's Largest History Magazine Publisher', American History: 1840 U.S. Presidential Campaign by David Johnson says, "While the Democrats adopted a platform denouncing federal assumption of state debts, opposing internal improvements, and calling for separation of public money from banking institutions, Weed decided to keep Harrison quiet and emphasize his war-hero record and humble character. The Democrats took aim at Harrison's silence, calling him 'General Mum'."
- "John Tyler | The White House". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Polk, including, "Nickname: 'Young Hickory'"
- Thornton, An American Glossary, Lippincott 1912 v.2 page 627
- This was used in the title of Roy Nichols' biography, Franklin Pierce: Young Hickory of the Granite Hills (American Political Biography Press, August 1993) ISBN 0-945707-06-1. ISBN 978-0-945707-06-6)
- Ayres, Thomas (January 1, 2004). That's Not in My American History Book: A Compilation of Little Known Events and Forgotten Heroes. Taylor Trade Publications. Retrieved December 27, 2016 – via Google Books.
- Rethinking the Old Public Functionary, By Russell McClintock, December 30, 2010.
- Townsend, Malcolm (1910). Handbook of United States Political History for Readers and Students. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Company. p. 340.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. "James Buchanan". Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Association of Lincoln Presenters, Lincoln Quotes, "LINCOLN had many nicknames such as Honest Abe, the Railsplitter, the Liberator, the Emancipator, the Ancient One, the Martyr".
- Wakeman, Wilber Fisk (March 8, 1912). "The Internet Archive". The Defender. American Economist. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Fench, Charles Wallace. "Abraham Lincoln: The Liberator". New York Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Dr. Paul Boyer, Dr. Sterling Stuckey (2005). American Nation: In the Modern Era. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
- http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/lincoln/section12.rhtml SparkNotes: Today's Most Popular Study Guides, Abraham Lincoln Study Guide, 1862-1864 – Part 2 "During a time of war, the executive always plays a stronger role than usual, and Lincoln was no exception to this rule. His uncompromising style as commander- in-chief, coupled with his ambitious domestic program to preserve and further the Union, earned him the nickname of "the tycoon"."
- 'America's Story from America's Library', U.S. Presidents, Abraham Lincoln presented by the Library of Congress, refers to a song about Lincoln called, "Hey! Uncle Abe, are you joking yet?"
- Tennessee Tales the Textbooks Don't Tell : Jennie Ivey, Calvin Dickinson, Lisa Rand, The Overmountain Press, 2002 ISBN 978-1-57072-235-6 pages page 50
- Ulysses S. Grant, byLovell Coombs, Kessinger Publishing, 2004 268 pages page 22. Books.google.com. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Chapter 10: The Civil War, 1862". American Military History. Army Historical Series. United States Army Center of Military History. 1989. p. 213.
- Barnard, Harry (1954). Rutherford Hayes and his America. Newtown, Connecticut: American Political Biography Press. pp. 402–403. ISBN 978-0-945707-05-9.
- Boller, Jr., Paul F. (1984). Presidential Campaigns. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-19-503420-1.
- Bausum, Ann (2017). Our Country's Presidents. National Geographic Society. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4263-2685-1.
- Reeves, Thomas C. (1975). Gentleman Boss. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 418. ISBN 0-394-46095-2.
- "Chester A. Arthur Quick Facts". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009.
Chester Arthur was fond of fine clothes and entertainment, earning him the nicknames 'Dude President,' 'Elegant Arthur,' and 'Prince Arthur'.
- 'Tall, Slim and Erect: Grover Cleveland' by Alex Forman <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)>
- "American President: An Online Reference Resource". Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Walters, Ryan S. The Last Jeffersonian: Grover Cleveland and the Path to Restoring the Republic. WestBow Press. ISBN 9781449740498.
- Roberts, Robert North; Hammond, Scott J.; Sulfaro, Valerie A. Presidential Campaigns, Slogans, Issues, and Platforms: The Complete Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313380921.
- Benjamin Harrison: centennial president Anne Chieko Moore, Hester Anne Hale; Nova Publishers, 2006 178 pages page 69
- http://fs6.depauw.edu:50080/~jkochanczyk/president/harrison.html[permanent dead link] "He was known as the "Human Iceberg" because he was stiff and formal when dealing with people".
- "The White House". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved December 27, 2016.[better source needed]
- Northeast Ohio Journal of History (spring 2005)online Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Amazon.com review of "Teddy Roosevelt at San Juan: The Making of a President" by Peggy and Harold Samuels (Texas a & M University Military History Series, September 1997 ISBN 978-0-89096-771-3) by Peggy and Harold Samuels, says that "The authors reexamine the "Hero of San Juan Hill" to find that the heroic legend was manufactured"[better source needed]
- Non-Fiction Book Page have a review by Harry Merritt of The Lion's Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War by Edward J. Renehan, Jr. (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512719-6), which says "Within six months, Roosevelt, "the Lion" was dead".
- "Tammany Denounces Gov. Roosevelt; Col. Gardiner's Removal Called "Infamous" and "Cowardly." Ex-District Attorney Weeps; The General Committee Organizes for the Next Campaign by Electing Permanent Officers" (PDF). The New York Times. December 28, 1900.
- "The American Experience/TR's Legacy/Environment". PBS. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- "Theodore Roosevelt: Icon of the American Century". Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- Renstrom, Peter G. The Taft Court. p. 186.
- "William Howard Taft". Hoover.archives.gov. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- William Safire, Safire's Political Dictionary (2008) p. 409
- compare to Italian Prime Minister (and former President of the European Commission) Romano Prodi's nickname Il Professore (the professor/schoolteacher).
- Rubel, David (1994). Scholastic Encyclopedia of the Presidents and Their Times. New York: Scholastic Inc. p. 133.
- Baily, Thomas A.; & Kennedy, David M. (1994). The American Pageant (10th ed.). D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN 0-669-33892-3.
- 'Rebirth of Cool Cal', December 1998, Reason, review of two books on Coolidge's presidency by John Miller
- Review of Calvin Coolidge (David Greenberg). H. W. Brands, The Washington Post, January 21, 2007
- 'Silent Cal' Revisited. Library of Congress, October 30, 1995
- The U.S. Department of the Interior's site for the Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region says that Hoover, "known early in his career as "The Great Engineer", was now popularized as "The Great Humanitarian" for his "relief efforts in America's stricken heartland".
- Patenaude, Bertrand (2002). "The Big Show in Bololand". Stanford Program on International and Cross-cultural Education. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011.
- "The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum". Hoover.archives.gov. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Roosevelt, including "Nickname: 'FDR'"
- ""That One" & "That Man"". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- "From the Museum". Forward with Roosevelt. June 2, 2011.
- Donovan, Robert J (1996). Conflict & Crisis: The Presidency of Harry S Truman 1945-1948 (Reprint ed.). University of Missouri Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8262-1066-1. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
- "Harry S Truman". The Independent. London. January 20, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- Nevius, C.W. (January 22, 2004). "Just ask Chelsea, Jenna and Barbara: Escaping the glare of the spotlight isn't easy for kids whose dads work in the Oval Office". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- "Presidential Libraries: History Uncovered". C-Span. August 3, 2007. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2009.
- Elizabeth R. Snoke (1990). "Dwight D. Eisenhower: a centennial biography". Command and General Staff College, United States Army. Archived from the original on October 26, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Academic Programs, American President: An Online Resource – In-depth information reviewed by prominent scholars on each president and administration, has full biographical information on Kennedy, including "Nicknames: 'JFK', 'Jack'"
- Caro, Robert A. (1990). The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. Vintage Books. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-679-72945-7.
- Johnson: Ruthless Senate Leader' by John Grizzi, November 4, 2002 Findarticles.com 2002
- "Presidency project at ucsb". Presidency.ucsb.edu. April 11, 1964. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- LBJ Library
- Beschloss, Michael. "Lady Bird Johnson : Documentary Transcript – Part Two". PBS. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
Three years later, came Luci Baines. Now there were 4 LBJs. The Johnson dog was named Little Beagle Johnson But there was no doubt who the most important LBJ was in that household.
- "Tricky Dick and the Pink Lady". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Character Above All: Gerald Ford Essay". Retrieved January 23, 2009.
- In "The Stranger: Seattle's Only Newspaper" (December 27, 2006), Paul Constant[full citation needed]
- "MR. Nice Guy". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. December 3, 2003. p. 12.
- Sidey, Hugh (December 12, 1977). "The Question Now: Who Carter?". Time. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Andy Rooney (September 26, 2010). "Andy Rooney on Presidential Nicknames". 60 Minutes.
- "The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library". Reagan.utexas.edu. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Ronald Reagan, 1911–2004. 'Small Town to Tinseltown'". CNN. 2004. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Photo of young "Dutch" Reagan at Wikimedia Commons.
- http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/05/reagan.obit/index.html CNN obituary
- Schroeder, Patricia (June 6, 2004). "Nothing stuck to 'Teflon President'". USA Today. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- The Sydney Morning Herald "How Reagan got his Gipper nickname".
- David E. Rosenbaum. "Working Mother". The New York Times.
- "American Experience | George H.W. Bush | PBS". PBS. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Neuman, Johanna (January 20, 2009). "Bush to Obama: A private letter". Los Angeles Times.
- Berke, Richard (May 23, 1988). "Million-Dollar Team Keeping Bush Campaign in the Money". The New York Times.
- Brown, Patricia (December 11, 1988). "The First Lady-Elect: What She Is and Isn't". The New York Times.
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